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PUBLIC DOCUMENT. A''! / No. 25. 



SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



\Y\0J3J:'; 
'OOMMISSIONEES 



ON 



INLAND FISHERIES, 

CXJV-V.CL 



FOB THE 



Year ending September 30, 1881, 



BOSTON: 

l^anti, ^frerg, $c Co., li^xmizx& to t^e Comtnon&jealtjj, 

117 Franklin Street. 
1882. 



k \ 



7? 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Report 5 

Appendix A. List of Commissioners 27 

B. List of Ponds leased 31 

C. Partial Returns of Ponds 36 

D. Reports of B. P. Chadwick and W. H. Foote . . 40 

E. Legislation 45 

F. Returns of Weirs, Seines, and Gill-Nets . . .49 
Tables 51 



m 



(JTommontDCoUl) of MXa0Bat[)U0tiXs. 



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To his Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries beg leave to pre- 
sent their Sixteenth Annual Report. 

FiSHWAYS. 

Surveys and plans of fishways over the dams on Ipswich 
River were made and forwarded to the owners, Aug. 15, 1881, 
as follows : Ipswich Mills, Ipswich ; Willowdale Manufactur- 
ing Company, C. J. Norwood, Ipswich ; and Ripley Brothers, 
West Danvers. 

Petitions received^ and Dams examined. 

From the selectmen and others of Swansea was sent a 
petition for a fish way over the dam owned by John S. Bray- 
ton. As there had been no migratory fish above this dam 
for many years, the Commissioners declined to order a fish- 
way, unless the town would agree to re-stock the stream. 
This the selectmen would not do ; and further action was 
postponed until their next town-meeting. From the select- 
men of Acushnet a petition was received for fishways over 
dams owned by Herve}^ Wilber and others, and by Samuel B. 
Hamlin, and for one at the New-Bedford water-works. An 
examination of the premises showed that a fishway at the 
water-works would probably not be required, unless the 
water was kept much higher than by the present arrange- 
ment. The two lower dams required fishways. This stream 
is an unusually good one for alewives ; but, like the one in 
Swansea, it should first be re-stocked by the town. 

The fishway at East Dennis passes under the highway 
(county road). By an Act of the Legislature passed 1881 



6 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

(chap. 301), the Sesuet Cranberry Company was obliged to 
construct " such a fishway as the Commissioners on Inland 
Fisheries may direct." It was examined and accepted. 

Two dams on the stream leading from Eel Pond in Mel- 
rose have been surveyed. This pond has been stocked with 
alewives by several citizens of Maiden and Melrose ; but, 
since they commenced this work, Mr. Cockrell has established 
print-works on the stream, which so pollute the water as to 
render it doubtful whether the fish can pass them alive. 
The construction of fishways was delayed until further in- 
vestigation. 

Fishway at South-Hadley Falls, on the Connecticut River. 

In order to protect what little interest Connecticut has 
left us in this river, several persons have been employed at 
different times to look after the Holyoke fishway. Sundry 
complaints have been received, anonymous for the most 
part, stating that the superintendent was taking fish from 
the fishway, and selling them. As the persons employed had 
furnished satisfactory evidence of their honesty, no notice 
was taken of these anonymous letters. Subsequently, a 
communication duly signed was sent to the Governor, mak- 
ing similar charges. This was forwarded to the Commission- 
ers ; and through the kindness of Mr. Wade, chief of the 
detective force, the matter was put in the hands of an offi- 
cer, who failed to get any information. This year, several 
applications were made for the position of superintendent, 
and were so strongly pressed as to lead to the suspicion that 
something more than the small compensation offered by the 
State influenced the applicants. 

While these applications were under consideration, Mr. 
William H. Foote of Westfield, who has taken great interest 
in fish-culture, wrote to the Commissioners that about fifteen 
hundred lamper eels, taken the previous night from *the Hol- 
yoke fishway, had passed through Westfield on their way to 
Connecticut. These depredations he thought he could stop, 
if he had the appointment of deputy-commissioner. The ap- 
pointment was sent ; and Mr. Wade telegraphed to Mr. Kel- 
logg of Pittsfield to report at once to Mr. Foote. The re- 
sults of his service, for which he made no charge, will be 
found in his report in Appendix C. . 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 7 

The Commissioners are under obligations to Mr. Wade for 
his earnest co-operation in their efforts to enforce the laws ; 
and, among the detectives detailed for the work, they heartily 
commend Mr. Kellogg of Pittsfield for his prompt and ener- 
getic assistance to Mr. Foote. One of the persons arrested 
at Holyoke, and convicted, had been employed as superin- 
tendent of the fishway. 

The fishway at Lawrence, under the care of Thomas S. 
Holmes, was closed for about twenty minutes twice a day 
during the run of fish, to ascertain what fish were passing 
over it. In no other way could the desired information be 
obtained ; for, with the full flow of water winding through the 
many turns, it is impossible to see even the largest salmon. 

Report of Thomas S. Holmes, on Fish seen in the Lawrence 
Fishway from April 22 to Nov. 1, 1881. 

April 22. Let water into the fishway; during the rest of April the 
river was very high, and water very turbid; no fish to be 
seen. 

May 3. Saw the first fish of the season, one sucker. 

7. Suckers and alewives, run small. 

8. No fish to be seen. 

9. Suckers and alewives, run small; one lamper eel. 

10. Suckers, alewives, and lamper eels, run small. 

11. Suckers, alewives, and lamper eels, run small. 
12-15. River high and muddy; no fish to be seen. 

16. Suckers and alewives, run small. 

17-23. A freshet in the river; no fish in fishway. 

24. Suckers and alewives, run small. 

25. Suckers and alewives, run small; lamper eels, run moderate. 

26. Suckers and alewives, run moderate; lamper eels, run small. 

27. Alwives and suckers, run moderate; lamper eels, run small. 

28. Suckers, alewives, and lamper eels, run small; one black bass. 

29. Suckers, alewives, and lamper eels, run small; one black bass. 

30. Suckers, alewives, lamper eels, and chubs, run small; one 

large sliad. 

31. Suckers, alewives, and chubs, run moderate; lamper eels, run 

small. 
June 1. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run moderate; alewives, run 
small. 

2. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run moderate; alewives, run 

small. 

3. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run small; one black bass. 

4. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run small. 

5. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run small; one black bass. 

6. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run small. 



8 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

June 7. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run small; one black bass, 
one salmon, 20 pounds. 

8. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run small. 

9. Suckers and chubs, run small. 

10. Suckers and chubs, run small. 

11. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run small. 

12. River has risen considerably ; no fish. 

13. Suckers and lamper eels, run small. 

14. One salmon, 15 pounds. 

15. Lamper eels, run small; three salmon, 15, 20, and 30 pounds. 

16. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run small. 

17. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run large. ' 

18. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run moderate. 

19. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run moderate. 

20. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run moderate; alewives, run 

small. 

21. Suckers, chubs, alewives, and lamper eels, run small; one shad, 

Jive salmon, 12 to 18 pounds. 

22. Four salmon, 10 to 20 pounds. 

23. One shad, four salmon, 10 to 20 pounds. 

24. Suckers and lamper eels, run large; small silver eels, run 

small. 

25. Suckers and lamper eels, run large ; two salmon, 10 to 20 pounds. 

26. Suckers, lamper eels, and small silver eels, run moderate. 

27. Lamper eels, run large; suckers, chubs, and silver eels, run 

small; two salmon, 16 to 20 pounds. 

28. Suckers, chubs, lamper eels, and small silver eels, run small. 

29. Eleven salmon, 10 to 20 pounds. 

30. Nineteen salmon, 8 to 20 pounds. 

July 1. Suckers, chubs, lamper eels, and small silver eels, run small. 

2. Suckers and chubs, run small; one black bass, one salmon. 

3. Suckers and chubs, run small; one shad, two salmon. 

4. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small. 

5. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; three salmon. 

6. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run large; one roach, 

six black bass, one salmon. 

7. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run large; three black 

bass. 

8. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run large; one black 

bass. 
9-14. Nothing but suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run moder- 
ate. 

15. Small silver eels, run moderate; river low; no water running 
• over the dam. 

16. Small silver eels, run moderate. 

17. Suckers and chubs, run small; small silver eels, run moderate. 

18. Shut water out of fishway at 7 a.m. ; a few suckers and small 

silver eels in it. 

19. Let water into fishway at night. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 9 

July 20. Shut water out at 7 a.m. ; a few small silver eels in it. 

23. Let water into fishway in the afternoon. 

24. Suckers and chubs, run small; small silver eels, run moderate; 

two black bass. 

25. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small. 

26-29. Suckers and chubs, run small; small silver eels, run large. 

30. Small silver eels, run moderate; one sabnon, 10 pounds. 

31. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run moderate; one black 



Aug. 1-5. Suckers and chubs, run small; small silver eels, run large. 

6. Suckers and chubs, run small; small silver eels, run moderate; 

two black bass. 

7. Suckers and chubs, run small; small silver eels, run moderate ; 

one black bass. 
8-10. Suckers and chubs, run small; small silver eels, run moderate. 

11. Suckers and chubs, run small; small silver eels, run moderate; 

three black bass. 

12. Suckers and chubs, run small; small silver eels, run moderate. 

13. Suckers and chubs, run small; small silver eels, run moder- 

ate ; six black bass. 

14. Suckers and chubs, run small; small silver eels, run moderate; 

ten black bass. 
15-18. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; water shut 
out 18th, 9 A.M. 

20. Let water into fishway at 7 p.m. 

21. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; thirteen 

black bass. 

22. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; two black 

bass. 

23. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small. 

24. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; shut water 

out this morning. 

27. Let water in in the afternoon. 

28. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; three black 

bass. 

29. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; two black 



30. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; one black 

bass. 

31. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; shut water 

out this morning; river low. 
Sept. 3. Let water into fishway in the afternoon. 

4. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; two black 

bass. 

5. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; two black 

bass. 

6. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small. 

7. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; one black 

bass. 
2 



10 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

Sept. 8. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; two black 
bass. 
9-14. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small. 

15. Suckers, chubs, and small silver eels, run small; two black 
bass. 
During the rest of the month nothing but a few suckers, 
chubs, and small silver eels; water shut out part of the 
time. During October the water was shut out of the fish- 
way more than half of the time, the river being low. 
When water was in, there were a few suckers, chubs, and 
silver eels in it up to the 15th, when the eels stopped 
running. After that, saw now and then a sucker and chub 
up to the 1st of November. 

The number of salmon seen in the daily inspections was 
72, by much the largest number yet recorded : that for 1877 
was 47; for 1878, 17; for 1879, 29; and 1880, 28. What is 
curious is, that they nearly all run up in one school at the end 
of June, when 30 out of the 72 were seen in two days. There 
was no autumn run at all. Four shad were observed in the 
way, a fact that once more proves the adaptation of the struc- 
ture to this species of fish. The number of black bass seen 
was about three times that of any preceding year. It would 
not be surprising were the black bass to increase considerably, 
since the river is full of food suitable for them. The run of 
other fish, such as alewives and lamper eels, was about an 
average one. 

Leased Ponds. 

Up to the present time but few of the annual returns re- 
quired from the lessees of ponds have been received, and 
therefore no accurate statement can be made of the catch 
of the past season. In some instances, where ponds have 
been leased to towns, there appears to be a disappointment in 
the results. The complaint in most cases is, not of scarcity 
of fish, but that the black bass, so generally introduced into 
the leased ponds, cannot be caught. They appear to be 
plenty, but will not take bait. This difficulty may be ac- 
counted for, partly by the abundance of food, and partly by 
the fact that the habits of this fish are not commonly under- 
stood. 

The charge made in some of the returns, that the bass have 
destroyed the pickerel, is hardly probable, though the old 
adage, '' The big fish eat the little fish," holds true in this as 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 11 

in other instances. That the large bass eat the small pickerel, 
and vice versa^ there is no doubt ; but, unless the bass become 
very numerous, there is little danger of their greatly dam- 
aging the pickerel. 

If it be true that the bass clear out the pickerel, they ought 
to be introduced into all ponds containing this voracious fish. 

There is no more destructive fish in our ponds than the red 
perch, and it is well known that the bass feed freely upon 
them. In fact, when fishing in deep water, there is no better 
bait for him than perch. 

It may assist some of the fishermen to know that it is of 
little use to fish for bass in the summer after ten in the 
morning, or before four in the afternoon, and not then, unless 
there is a ripple upon the water. Bass, like many other fish, 
have their haunts, or places where they may be found at cer- 
tain seasons ; and one of the first things for the fisherman, if 
he would be successful, is to know where they are. Many of 
the lessees have been recommended to put white perch with 
the bass into the ponds ; and, where this has been done, it has 
given general satisfaction. 

In the Appendix will be found several returns giving a fair 
idea of what have been received, so far, this year. It will be 
noticed that the returns from Stockbridge and Pittsfield are 
in proper form, and are model reports, which some of the 
lessees of ponds will do well to imitate ; for, notwithstanding 
they have been repeatedly notified of what is required of 
them, many deal only in general statements. Of these, the 
return from Framingham is an example. 

The average returns received during the last three years 
show a constant increase of these fisheries, and fully sustain 
the policy of the State in placing these hitherto waste waters 
under cultivation and intelligent control. 

Trout. 

" As the cultivation and rearing of trout more strictly comes within the 
scope of private enterprise, it has been thought best not to devote any 
more time or expense in that direction than was necessary to furnish the 
desired information in regard to it. At the time the lease was obtained 
of the grounds and ponds for the works at Plymouth, N.H., we were 
obliged to take with them some three hundred trout, with the provision 
that the same number should be returned at the expiration of the lease 
These, with what have since been taken when fishing for salmon, furnish 



12 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

quite a number of breeding-fish, from which we have taken this year 
something over one hundred thousand spawn, one-half of which belongs 
to Massachusetts. The State has been to no additional expense in pro- 
curing these eggs ; and it may be desirable to furnish a part of the young 
fish to persons having control of streams, on condition that they will keep 
a record, and furnish statistics in regard to them. 

" There are other waters still open to the public, to which private 
parties would be willing to bear the expense of transportation for the 
sake of having streams re-stocked." 

The trout hatched this year were distributed to the follow- 
ing applicants : — 

Distribution of Trout-Fry. 

CANS. 

Dr. Samuel Camp, Great Barrington 4 

William F. Freeman, Pepperell 1 

Portia W. Aldrich, Boston 1 

A. J. Forbes, Boston . . . . . . . .1 

John Alden, Stoneham 1 

F. W. Homans, Gloucester 1 

George L. Damon, Boston ....... 1 

E. W. SewaU, Medfield 1 

George H. Weld, Rochester 1 

Thomas H. Lawrence, Falmouth 1 

W. Hapgood, Boston. 2 

John Dyer, Roxbuiy 1 

Thomas Talbot, North Billerica 2 

Head- waters Mystic River 3 

S. W. Lincoln, Adams 1 

Samuel Healey, East Weymouth 1 

There will be about sixty thousand young trout ready for 
applicants the latter part of March or first of April next, 
delivered at the hatching-house at Winchester free of charge. 

Land-Locked Salmon. 

The amount of spawn received from Grand Lake Stream 
was, — 

Jan. 24, 1881 70,000 

March 7, 1881 130,000 

March 21, 1881 110,000 

Total . . 310,000 

The spawn arrived in good condition, and was hatched 
with a loss of less than seven per cent ; but the bulk of it 
came so late that it was the middle of June before the young 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



13 



fry were large enough to distribute, and then they were not as 
strong as those hatched earlier. This, with the warm weather, 
caused, in several cases, considerable loss in transportation, 
and consequently some irregularity in distribution, as well as 
some variation in the number of fish in the cans. It was 
estimated that on an average each can contained thirty-six 
hundred young salmon. 

These fish, to be successfully introduced, should be put in 
in large numbers, to enable them to hold their own against 
other occupants of the pond. That they have been planted 
in too small numbers, aud put into some ponds that are not 
suitable for them, there is no doubt. This could not well 
be avoided, as the demand was greater than the supply : and 
the applicants claimed, that, if their waters were not the best, 
they were entitled to receive their proportion, and to make 
a trial. Some of them now report that nothing has been seen 
or heard of the salmon since the}^ were turned in. It is too 
soon to assert that they are a failure, even in these doubtful 
waters ; and the fact that they have not been seen does not 
prove that they have not survived. 

It takes three years for alewives and shad, and four years 
for salmon, to mature. In fish-culture the work of to-day is 
only crowned in the years to come. 

Of the returns from fifteen ponds, received this fall, eight 
claim that salmon have either been caught or seen in con- 
siderable numbers. The stocking of Half-way Pond, in Plym- 
mouth, under the care of the Commissioners, was perfectly 
successful ; and had not fishermen infested the outlet, and 
destroyed many of them before they had time to grow large 
enough to deposit their spawn, they would, in a few years, 
have been very abundant. The following distribution was 
made of land-locked salmon for 1881 : — 



Joseph D. Gowing, North Heading 
A. L. Hubbell, Great Barrington 
D. J. Wetherbee, Acton 
J. P. He wins, Sharon . 
George H. Weld, Rochester 
Valentine B. Newcomb, West Brewster 
Thomas H. Lawrence, Falmouth 
William A. Smith, East Milton . 
H. Newcomb, Greenwood . 
George Jewett, Fitchburg . 



14 



INLAND. FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



Will Perham, Tyngsborough 
B. P. Chadwick, Bradford . 
H. E. Priest, Walfcham 
W. A. BuUard, Cambridgeport 
H. H. Wymau, WinchendoD 
W. E. Gavit, Stockbridge . 
Henry Hobbs, Wenham 
Reuben Noble, Westfield . 
Ivers Adams, Ashburuham . 
P. P. Akin, South Yarmouth 
Abishai Phinuey, Falmouth 
George G. Lowell, Cotuit Port 
Head-waters Mystic River . 
Half-way Pond, Plymouth . 



CANS. 
1 

2 
2 
2 
2 
7 
4 
6 
3 
1 
4 
2 
7 
11 



All parties ordering land-locked salmon must make appli- 
cation in writing, giving a careful description of the pond in 
which they desire to place them. The plan is to furnish 
them at the State hatching-house in Winchester, free of 
charge, to all applicants having under their control any of 
the great ponds of the State. Persons who transport them 
must have a thermometer, and a dipper for aerating the 
water. The introduction of salmon into ponds having no 
inlet or outlet will, for the present, be discontinued. As these 
fish are distributed under the care of one of the Commission- 
ers, at a time when his services are needed elsewhere, appli- 
cants are requested to come without delay when notified. 
No orders will be received after April 20. 



The Merrimack River. 

By an Act of the Legislature passed May, 1867, all fishing 
with seines was prohibited in the Merrimack for a period of 
four years. No objection was made to this Act by the fisher- 
men, for the simple reason that the salmon formerly frequent- 
ing the river had all been destroyed, and the shad so reduced 
in number that more than two-thirds of the seining-grounds 
had been abandoned as worthless. This condition of the 
fisheries was caused mainly by the erection of the Lawrence 
dam, which cut the salmon off from all their spawning- 
grounds, and so reduced the spawning-grounds of the shad, 
that it became a question of only a few years when the Mer- 
rimack shad would cease to be of any interest. 



188L] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

The remedy for this depletion lay in extending their breed- 
ing-grounds above the dam, or in artificial hatching, or, 
what would perhaps be better, in both combined. To some 
extent, both remedies were applied, but not with that intelli- 
gence which marks the present condition of fisli-culture. In 
1869, hatching of shad, in a small way, was commenced at 
North Andover, and continued till 1876, with decided results. 
Whatever advantages have accrued to those who have been 
engaged in the shad fisheries on the Merrimack, since 1874, 
is largely due to artificial hatching. In consequence of the 
opposition of the fishermen, and the difficulty of making sat- 
isfactory arrangements at North Andover, the only breeding- 
ground of shad in this river, it was decided to suspend this 
work for a time. In the report for 1876 it was stated that 
it was thought best to abandon, for a while, artificial hatching 
of shad, and that it required no great foresight to predict a 
considerable falling-off of the shad fisheries of this river dur- 
ing the next three or four years. 

While the results of artificial hatching were encouraging, 
it fell short of what was anticipated, and of what there was a 
right to expect from experiments made elsewhere. The pre- 
dictions in regard to the decrease of the shad have been fully 
verified, the catch the past season having been much less than 
any year since the river was re-opened : so great was the fall- 
ing-off, that it was deemed necessary to look to some other 
cause than lawful fishing in the river. This, with the destruc- 
tion of salmon by poachers last year below Lawrence, led to 
the detailing of detectives to see that the laws were observed. 
They were also instructed to investigate all matters pertain- 
ing to the fisheries of the Merrimack. The work was faith- 
fully done, and the investigation thorough, leaving no doubt 
that the present condition of the fisheries is due largely to 
acts of fishermen at Newburyport. Under the pretence of 
fishing for menhaden, these men have yearly destroyed hun- 
dreds of thousands of young migratory fish that play back 
and forth in the brackish water of the lower river, and have 
sold them at an insignificant price to fishermen for bait. 

Four years ago some of these men were arrested for illegal 
fishing; and the case was dismissed on the ground that the 
mouth of the river had never been defined, as provided for in 
chapter 384 of the Acts of 1869. While an application made 



16 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



to the Governor for a definition of the river's mouth was 
under consideration, the Newburyport fishermen came for- 
ward, and entered into an agreement, a record of which is 
here copied from the report of 1877 : — 

** Fishing with seines in the Merrimack at the season when the men- 
haden stand in is forbidden by law. The mouth of the river has, how- 
ever, never been defined by the Governor as permitted by statute, and it 
was represented to the Commissioners that valuable menhaden fisheries 
existed in this neutral ground of brackish water. Therefore, under the 
personal promise of the fishermen to capture no shad or salmon, and with 
the guaranty of responsible persons in Newburyport, the Commissioners 
agreed to defer the definition of the river-mouth, and to assume that 
these menhaden were not positively included in the river proper. ' ' 

This agreement shows the disposition of the Commissioners 
to give to the fishermen the largest liberty consistent with 
the interests of fish-culture. During the last season the 
agreement was renewed, both verbally and in writing, and 
signed by the leading fishermen on that part of the river. 

How well it was kept will be readily understood when it 
is stated, that no less than eleven large seines, of small mesh, 
manned by thirty or forty men, have constantly swept the 
river from the chain bridge above Newburyport to Plum- 
Island Lighthouse, during the months of May, June, and 
July ; and that the pay for boats, seines, and men has been 
derived entirely from the catch of salmon, shad (both large 
and small), and a few ale wives, called bluebacks. Not a 
single menhaden has been seen in the river this year. 

The following statements, made and sworn to by the fisher- 
men of Newburyport in their annual returns, show the catch 
of menhaden during the last five years : — 

Catch of Menhaden at Newburyport. 



1877 


. 2,013,675 


1878 


. 473,088 


1879 . . . . . . 


24,075 


1880 


. . . 9,500 


1881 . . . . 


. None. 



To make up for the loss of menhaden, the fishermen are 
ruining the river by the wholesale destruction of migratory 
fish. In view of these facts, the supposed partial failure of 
artificial hatching at North Andover, the non-appearance of 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 17 

shad in any considerable numbers at the Lawrence dam from 
the planting in the waters above, and the rapid decline of the 
shad fisheries below, are no longer a matter of mystery. 

On the petition of the mayors of Lawrence and Haverhill, 
and of most of the fishermen above chain bridge, the Commis- 
sioners requested his Excellency the Governor to define the 
mouth of the river ; and the following order was accordingly 
issued : — 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

Council Chamber, Boston, Nov. 9, 1881. 

Ordered^ Upon recommendation of the Commissioners on Inland Fish- 
eries, in accordance with section 17 of chapter 384 of the Acts of the year 
1869, that the mouth of the Merrimack River be fixed and defined at a 
line drawn between the North and South Breakers, so called; so that all 
water lying west of said line, and included between the jetties now con- 
structing, shall be within the mouth of said river. 

Adopted, 

HENRY B. PEIRCE, 

Secretary. 

By hatching shad at North Andover, and carrying the 
young fish well up the river, the breeding-grounds might be 
extended, giving a large increase in addition to the artificial 
propagation. The statement in regard to the increase of the 
breeding-grounds is based upon the fact, that, of the few shad 
known to have reached the Lawrence dam since the new fish- 
way was constructed, many, and perhaps all, have gone freely 
over it. That there is no impediment to the easy passage of 
all kinds of fish over this dam is well known to all who have 
paid the subject any attention. 

Salmon. 

Massachusetts' share of spawn from the Bucksport estab- 
lishment was 220,000. Of this number, 50,000 were received 
at the State hatching-house, Winchester, from which about 
47,000 young fish were hatched, and deposited in the head- 
waters of the Nashua River. The balance, 170,000, were for- 
warded to Plymouth, N.'H. This, with the portion due that 
State, together with spawn taken at the Plymouth works, 
swelled the amount to 419,500 eggs, from which 411,000 fish 
were obtained, and deposited in the head-waters of the Merri- 

3 



18 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

mack. Notwithstanding the depredations committed on the 
river h\st year, and the autumn drought of this year, the run 
of sahiion has been much larger than in any previous season 
since the river was re-opened. 

Mr. A. H. Powers, Commissioner for New Hampshire, and 
superintendent of the works at Plymouth, under the joint 
action of the two States, makes the following report: — 

Plymouth, N.H., Nov. 15, 1881, 

To E. A. Brackett, Commissioner on Inland Fisheries for the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts. 

The sixty thousand eggs mentioned in my last report, obtained from the 
salmon taken at the hatching-house on the Pemigewasset River, were 
hatched with a loss of eight per cent. 

In December, 1880, and January, 1881, I received 419,500 Atlantic 
salmon-eggs from Backsport, Me. These were hatched with a loss of 
7,533. Daring the month of May, 30,000 young salmon were put into 
the Contoocook River at Hillsborough. The remainder of both lots, 
something over 420,000, were put into the Pemigewasset River, from one 
to three miles above Livermore Falls. 

This year twenty-five salmon have been caught at the hatchery, vary- 
ing in weight from eight to twenty-two pounds. The nets were set June 
2: the first salmon was caught June 20; the last, Sept. 26. Twelve were 
females, and from them we have secured a hundred and twenty-five thou- 
sand eggs, as follows: — 

Oct. 18, from 2 fish 24,000 

Oct. 25, from G fish 53,000 

Oct. 30, from 4 fish . 48,000 

125,000 

The past summer, like that of 1880, has been a very dry season, and 
the river has been low the greater part of the time, which, in part, accounts 
for my not taking more salmon, as [ have no doubt that large numbers 
came up the Merrimack this season. 

Last winter, when the trout-pond was frozen over, the mink tunnelled 
under the snow and ice, and caught over half the breeding-trout before I 
knew it; but we soon put a stop to that business by catching three of the 
thieves, and have built two plank tanks twenty-five by six feet, that I 
think will keep out all of that kind of poachers. 

This season we have taken, to date, a hundred and ten thousand trout- 
eggs; the first spawn taken Sept. 23. 

I have bought and caught something over four hundred trout ; so that 

next year we shall have a good number of breeders. 

Yours truly, 

A. H. POWERS. 

During the low stages of water, the salmon have been more 
or less stopped at Manchester, N.H. After the urgent ap- 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

peal in 1864, from New Hampshire, charging Massachusetts 
with depriving her of migratory fish by impassable dams at 
Lawrence and Lowell, it was hardly to be expected that any 
obstacle would be allowed in that State to retard the work 
now being so successfully carried out. The difficulty is not 
in the fishway proper, which was intentionally designed to 
save to the mill-owners all the water possible. So long as 
the water is confined to the walls of the fishway, it is ample 
for the passage of all kinds of fish ; but at the foot of the pass 
there is a heavy fall, over ledge and bowlders, where the water 
is so scattered, that, without an additional supply, the fish 
cannot reach the dam. This is, to some extent, the case at 
Lawrence and Lowell. At Lowell something has been done 
to obviate the difficulty by blasting out a channel, which 
takes a large portion of the waste water. A still further im- 
provement at this place is desirable. The action of the Essex 
Company has been quite satisfactory. One of its employees 
has had charge of the fishway, receiving a small sum from 
the State for extra services in examining it during the run of 
fish, and for making a detailed report of what is found in 
it. There has been no complaint of any impediment to the 
passage of fish at this dam. 

It appears that the owners at Manchester have been con- 
structing new mills, and disposing of additional water-power, 
which accounts for the water being below the crest of the 
dam at a time when most needed for the passage of salmon. 

There is an impression among some of the mill-owners, that, 
when they have built their fishway in accordance with the 
plans furnished them, their duties cease. This is an error. 
They are legally bound to remove all obstacles to the passage 
of fish, which may have been created by the erection of these 
dams ; for it has been decided by the Supreme Court of the 
United States that the fish have the right of way, and it is a 
mistake to suppose that enforcing this right is an interference 
with the rights of mill- owners or of corporations. 

If such mill-owners or corporations use or sell more water 
than belongs to them, they interfere with public rights. In 
no sense is the demand for sufficient water for the fish an 
interference with the rights of manufacturers. It is simply 
a question of a certain addition of steam-power to fill the gap 
which they themselves have made. On the other side are 
the public rights, and the value of the fisheries. 



20 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

Salmon are re-established in the Merrimack River ; and, if 
they have a fair chance, it is only a question of time when 
they will be plenty. Their worth may be estimated by the 
record of many rivers in Scotland and Ireland, very much 
smaller than the Merrimack, which bring from eighty to a 
hundred thousand dollars, annual rental. 

The following statement is valuable, not only as showing 
the vast quantity of salmon on the Pacific coast, but as illus- 
trating the private enterprise which is carrying out the work 
suggested by the Commissioners on fish-culture, by keeping 
up the supply through artificial hatching : — 

'* The figures of the salmon-catching industry on the Pacific coast are 
extraordinary. On the Columbia River alone, the catch this season 
amounted to 550,000 cases, or some 27,500,000 pounds, and from all the 
other salmon-bearing rivers of the coast, nearly as much more. The ques- 
tion is, Will this abundance of salmon continue? It is natural to suppose 
that in time, when the rivers are more disturbed, fish will diminish; but 
in the Columbia River, although the quantity of salmon taken has been 
immense, the decrease of fish has not been perceptible. But the salmon- 
canners of the Columbia are by no means without fears that the salmon 
may lessen in quantity, and, being wise men, have listened to fish-culture. 
Among themselves they have for the last three years been putting in young 
salmon at the head-waters of the river, in order to make up for the taking 
of the adult fish at the mouth." 

Reckoning this at the average price of salmon in the Bos- 
ton and New- York markets, twenty-five cents a pound, 
would give 16,875,000 as the annual product of one river. 

Proposed Station of the United-States Fish Com- 
mission AT Wood's Holl. 

The following letter from Professor Baird, the United- 
States Commissioner of fish and fisheries, will explain this 
important proposal : — 

Wood's Holl, Mass., Sept. 5, 1881. 

Dear Col. Lyman, — The construction of a new sea-going vessel for 
the prosecution of fishery investigations increases the fleet of the com- 
mission to three steamers, besides the incidental launches, sail-boats, etc. ; 
and I find it necessary, in a measure, to pull off my wings, and become 
established at someone station, the choice lying, perhaps, between Wood's 
Holl and Newport. Wherever I settle, I expect to put up the necessary 
piers, wharves, and all the machinery for hatching out sea-fish on a very 
large scale. The apparatus required for this is precisely that which is 
most needed in biological research, as also for the exhibition of marine 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 21 

animals, etc. The principal difficulty now is the acquisition of a proper 
site, — one that can be controlled by the Government, and on which con- 
dition alone, expenditures necessary, amounting probably to many thou- 
sands of dollars, can be made. I am oifered accommodations at Coaster's 
Harbor in Narragansett Bay, lately presented to the Government by the 
State of Rhode Island, and at Rose Island, near Newport ; but person- 
ally I prefer, as more convenient and eligible in every way, the Great 
Harbor at Wood's Holl. There is a site which I can have for two thou- 
sand or twenty-five hundred dollars ; but, until this is the property of the 
Government, nothing in the way of improving it can be done, and I can- 
not use any of my present appropriation for the purchase. Congress is 
as inflexible in requiring legislation by specific exactment for the acquisi- 
tion of ground, as for the building of a vessel; and to begin the series 
of operations by asking for an appropriation for the purpose of buying a 
patch of ground would involve a certain lapse of two years, and possibly 
of four, for the ultimate success, which even then would not be an abso- 
lute certainty. It is easier to get from Congress fifty thousand dollars to 
improve a property than to get five hundred dollars for purchasing it, in- 
volving, as the latter would, the passage of a special law to that effect. 
I am myself, unfortunately, unable to buy this property, and present it to 
the Government; but it has occurred to me that possibly I can secure 
enough subscriptions at five hundred dollars each to enable me to buy 
the land. My plan would be to give to each subscriber, as has been 
done at the Naples Aquarium, the right to all the privileges of the estab- 
lishment, including a table, possibly a room, use of boats, attendance, 
etc. I have already one subsription of five hundred dollars, and think I 
can get one from the American Museum of Natural History, New York. 
I have written to Alexander Agassiz, asking him if he would like to take 
a share for the museum at Cambridge. Of course, all subscriptions are 
made with the understanding, that, if Congress does not make the neces- 
sary appropriation to utilize the ground, the money is to be refunded 
to the contributors. The property could be held in trust by Mr. Fay, 
Mr. Forbes, or some other prominent gentleman, for the purpose in 
question. 

The point which will interest you the most is the proposition to use it 
as an establishment for the propagation, on a very large scale, of sea- 
fishes. The chances, with the numerous pounds in the vicinity of Wood's 
Holl, of getting an ample quantity of all the parent-fish needed, are 
excellent; and as the water in the Great Harbor never freezes, and is 
of the very best quality besides, I think we may fairly look forward to an 
enormous production of winter codfish. 

It will be necessary, of course, before the Government will accept the 
ground as a donation, for the State of Massachusetts to release jurisdic- 
tion over it; and I should like to know from you what are the chances of 
getting such a law through the General Court during the coming winter. 
Would you be willing to use your efforts towards this end ? 

I wish you would run down to Wood's Holl, and let me show you the 
site, and the excellent advantages it furnishes for the matter in question. 
The whole business is so closely connected with the scientific and material 



22 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

welfare of New England, and of Massachusetts especially, — to say noth- 
ing of your own functions as fish commissioner, — that I think you would 
be very much concerned to see it satisfactorily accomplished. 
Very truly yours, 

SPENCER F. BAIRD. 
Col. Theo. Lyman, Brookline, Mass. 

P.S. — I have now a second subscription of five hundred dollars. 

Since the above letter was written, the subscription for the 
purchase of the water-lot has been finished, so that nothing 
now remains to carry out this enterprise so beneficial to the 
State but a legislative Act ceding the land to the United 
States ; and this the Commissioners beg leave to urge on the 
General Court. 

THEODORE LYMAN, 

E. A. BRACKETT, 

ASA FRENCH, 

Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



23 



EXPENSES OF COMMISSION. 



Salary .... 
Travel and other expenses 



General Expenses. 

Subscription to fund of Penobscot breeding establishment 
Subscription to fund of Schoodic breeding establishment 

A. H. Powers, services and expenses at Plymouth 

B. P. Chadwick, services and expenses . 
W. H. Foote, services and expenses 
F. D. Brackett, services and expenses . 
R. R. Holmes, services and expenses 
W. H. Day, services and expenses . 
E. C. Young, services and expenses at Livermore Falls 
Thomas S. Holmes, services and expenses at Lawrence 
W. F. Bracket, for plans at Ipswich 
George E. Atchinson, services at Holyoke 
Rent of land for hatching-house 
Printing ....... 

Expressage 



$1,500 00 


170 00 


500 00 


500 00 


455 79 


285 33 


56 45 


168 35 


57 00 


34 90 


47 06 


77 00 


20 00 


75 00 


50 00 


57 55 


55 05 


14,109 48 



^ 



APPENDIX. 



[A.] 
COMMISSIONERS ON FISHERIES. 



UNITED STATES. 

Professor Spencer F. Baird .... Washington, D.C. 

ALABAMA. 

Charles S. G. Doster Prattville. 

D. B. HuNTLlsY . Courtlaud. 

ARIZONA. 

John J. Gosper Prescott. 

Richard Rule Tombstone. 

Dr. J. H. Taggart Yuma. 

ARKANSAS. 

N. B. Pearce Osage Mills. 

James Home rook Little Rock. 

John E. Reardon ...... Little Rock. 

CALIFORNIA. 

S. R. Throckmorton San Francisco. 

B. B, Redding . . . . . . . San Francisco. 

J. D. Farwell Alameda. 

COLORADO. 

W. E. Sistey Brookvale. 

CONNECTICUT, 

W. M. Hudson . Hartford. 

Robert G. Pike Middletown. 

James A. Bill . Lyme. 

GEORGIA. 

J. T. Henderson, commissioner of agriculture 

and ex-officio commissioner of fisheries . . Atlanta. 

Dr. H. H. Carey, superintendent of fisheries . La Grange. 



28 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



ILLINOIS. 

N. K. Fairbank Chicago. 

S. P. Bartlett Quincy. 

S. P. McDoLL Aurora. 

IOWA. 

B. F. Shaw ........ Anamosa. 

A. A. MosHER, assistant for north-western por- 
tion Spirit Lake. 

KANSAS. 

D. B. Long Ellsworth. 



KENTUCKY. 

William Griffith, pres., 166 West Main Street . Louisville. 

John B. Walker Madisonville. 

Hon. C. J. Walton Munf or ds villa. 

Hon. John A. Steele Versailles. 

W. C. Price Danville. 

P. H. Darby Princeton. 

Dr. S. W. Coombs . . . . . . . Bowling Green. 

Dr. W. Van Antwerpt ' . . . . . Mt. Sterling. 

Hon. J. M. Chambers Independence. 

A. H. Goble Catlettsburg. 



MAINE. 

Henry O. Stanley .... 
E. M. Stilwell, assistant commissioner 



MARYLAND. 



T. B. Ferguson . 
Thomas Hughlett 



Dixfield. 
Bangor. 



Baltimore. 
Easton. 



MASSACHUSETTS. 

Theodore Lyman Brookline. 

E. A. Brackett Winchester. 

Asa French Boston. 

MICHIGAN, 

Eli R. Miller Richland. 

A. J. Kellogg Detroit. 

Dr. J. C. Parker Grand Rapids. 

MINNESOTA. 

First District, Daniel Cameron . . . .La Crescent. 

Second District, William W. Sweney, M.D. . Red Wing. 

Third District, R. Omsby Sweney, chairman . St. Paul. 



MISSOURI. 

L G. W. Steedman, chairman. No. 2803 Pine St. St. Louis. 

John Reid Lexington. 

Silas Woodson St. Joseph. 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



29 



NEVADA. 



H. G. Parker 



Carson City. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Dr. Edward Spaulding 
Luther Hayes 
Albina H. Powers 



Nashua. 

South Milton. 
Plymouth. 



NEW JERSEY. 



Dr. B. P. Howell . 
Col. E. J. Anderson 
Theodore Morford 



Woodbury. 

Trenton. 

Newton. 



NEW YORK. 

R. Barnwell Roosevelt, 76 Chambers Street 

Edward M. Smith 

Richard U. Sherman 

Eugene G. Blackford, 809 Bedford Avenue 



New York. 
Rochester. 
New Hartford. 
Brooklyn. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



Plon. MoNTFORD McGehee, commissioner of ag- 
riculture ........ 

S. G. Worth, superintendent of fisheries 



NEBRASKA. 



Robert R. Livingston 

H. S. Kaley. 

W. L. May . . . 



Raleigh. 
Morgantown. 



Plattsmouth. 
Red Cloud. 
Fremont. 



OHIO. 



C. W. Bond, president . 
H. C. Post, treasurer . 
L. A Harris, secretary 

H. J. Reeder 
Benjamin L. He wit 
James Duffy 
John Hummel 
Robert Dalzel . 
G. M. Miller 



Alfred A. Reed 
John H. Bakden 
Newton Dexter 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



RHODE ISLAND. 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



A. P. Butler 



Toledo. 

Sandusky. 

Cincinnati. 



Easton. 

Hollidaysburg. 

Marietta. 

Selinsgrove. 

Pittsburg. 

Wilkesbarre. 



Providence. 

Rockland. 

Providence. 



Hamburg. 



30 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

TENNESSEE. 

W. W. McDowell Memphis- 

George F. Akers Nashville. 

H. H. Sxeed Chattanooga. 

TEXAS. 

J. H. DiNKiNS Austin. 

UTAH. 

Professor J. L Barfoot, curator Desert Museum. Salt-Lake City. 

VERMONT. 

Herbert Brainerd St. Albans. 

H. A. Cutting Lunenburg. 

VIRGINIA. 

Col. Marshall McDonald Lexington. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

Henry B. Miller Wheeling. 

Christian S. White Romney. 

N. M. LowRY Hinton. 

WISCONSIN. 

The Governor, ex officio Madison. 

Philo Dunning, president Madison. 

J. V. Jones " . . . Oshkosh. 

C. Valentine, secretary and treasurer . . . Janesville. 

Mark Douglas Melrose. 

John F. Antisdel Milwaukee. 

Christopher Hutchison Beetown. 

H W. Welsher, superintendent .... Madison. 

VnrOMING TERRITORY. 

Henry B. Rumsey . . . . . . Red Buttes. 

Deputies. 

Dr. M. C. Barckwell Cheyenne. 

Otto Gramm Laramie. 

CANADA. 

W. F. Whitcher Ottowa, Ontario. 

new BRUNSWICK. 

W. H. Venning, inspector of fisheries . . .St. John. 

NOVA SCOTIA. 

W. H. Rogers, inspector of fisheries . . . Amherst. 

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 

J. H. Duvar, inspector of fisheries . . . Alberton. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Alex. C. Anderson, inspector of fisheries . . Victoria. 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



31 



[B.] 

LIST OF PONDS LEASED 

By the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries^ under Authority given 
by Chap. 384, Sect. 9, of the Acts of 1869.^ 



1870. 

Feb. 1. 



April 1 . 
Sept. 12. 
Oct. 15. 

1871. 

Jan. 10. 

30. 
April -. 

17. 

May 15. 
18. 

Nov. 1. 



1873. 

Jan. 1. 



July 20. 

1873. 

May 1. 



VVaushakum Pond, in Framingham, to Sturtevant and others, 

20 years. 
Mendon Pond, in Mendon, to Leonard T, Wilson and another, 

20 years. 
Baptist Lake, in Newton, to J. F. C. Hyde and others, 20 

years. 
Archer's Pond, in Wrentham, to William E. George, 15 years. 

Nine-Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to B. F. Bowles, 10 years. 
Little Pond, in Falmouth, to F. H. Dimmick, 10 years. 
Spectacle, Triangle, and Peters Ponds, in Sandwich, to G. L. 

Fessenden and another, 5 years. 
Long Pond, in Falmouth, to Joshua S. Bowerman and three 

others, 20 years. 
Pratt's Pond, in Upton, to D. W. Batcheller, 20 years. 
Little Sandy Pond, in Plymouth, to William E. Perkins, 15 

years. 
Punkapoag Pond, in Randolph and Canton, to Henry L. 

Pierce, 20 years. 

Sandy Pond, Forest Lake, or Flint's Pond, in Lincoln, to 

James L. Chapin and others, 20 years. 
Little Pond, in Braintree, to Eben Denton and others, 20 

years. 

Meeting-house Pond, in Westminster, to inhabitants of West- 
minster, 15 years. 



1 We would remind lessees of ponds that they are required, by their leases, to use all 
reasonable efforts to stock their ponds, and keep accurate records of the same, and make 
returns of their doings to the Commissioners on the 1st of October, each year, of the num- 
ber and species of fish which they have put in or removed from their ponds. Any failure 
to comply with these conditions is a breach of contract invalidating their lease. It is impor- 
tant that the State should know just what is being done; and, where there appears to be 
mismanagement or apparent failure, the Commissioners will visit the ponds, and ascertain, if 
possible, the cause. 



32 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

1873. 

May 1. Great Pond, in Weymouth, to James L. Bates and others, 15 
years. 

July 1. Little Sandy Pond, in Pembroke, to A. C. Brigham and others, 
16 years. 

Sept. 1. Pontoosuc Lake, in Pittsfield and Lanesborough, to E. H. Kel- 
logg and others, 15 years. 

Oct. 1. Farm Pond, in Sherborn, to inhabitants of Sherborn, 15 
years. 

1. Spot Pond, in Stoneham, to inhabitants of Stoneham, 15 

years. 

Xov. 1. Lake Chaubunagungamong, or Big Pond, in Webster, to in- 
habitants of Webster, 5 years. 

Dec. 1. Lake Wauban, in Needham, to Hollis Hunnewell, 20 years. 

1874. 

Mar. 1. Walden and White Ponds, in Concord, to inhabitants of Con- 
cord, 15 years. 

2. Upper Naumkeag, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants of Ashburn- 

ham, 20 years. 
April 1. Elder's Pond, in Lakeville, to inhabitants of Lakeville, 15 
years.. 
20. North and South Podunk Ponds, in Brookfield, to inhabitants 
of Brookfield, 15 years. 
May 1. Maquan Pond, in Hanson, to the inhabitants of Hanson, 15 
years. 
2. Brown's Pond, in Peabody, to John L. Shorey, 15 years. 
16. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to Lemuel Fullam, 15 

years. 
20. Unchechewalom and Massapog Ponds, to the inhabitants of 
Lunenburg, 20 years. 
July 1. Hardy's Pond, in Waltham, to H. E. Priest and others, 15 
years. 
1. Hockomocko Pond, in Westborough, to L. N. Fairbanks and 
others, 15 years. 
11. Mitchell's Pond, in Boxford, to R. M. Cross and others, 15 
years. 
' 11. Hazzard's Pond, in Russell, to N. D. Parks and others, 20 

years. 
Oct. 1. East Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of Sterling, 
20 years. 
20. Middleton Pond, in Middleton, to inhabitants of Middleton, 
15 years 

1875. 

Jan. 1. White and Goose Ponds, in Chatham, to George W. Davis, 

15 years. 
Mar. 1. Lake Pleasant, in Montague, to inhabitants of Montague, 10 

years. 
1. Hood's Pond, in Ipswich and Topsfield, to inhabitants of 

Topsfield, 15 years. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 33 

1875. 

April 1. Chauncey Pond, in Westborough, to inhabitants of West- 
borough, 15 years. 
3. West's Pond, in Bolton, to J. D. Hurlburt and others, 15 

years. 
15. Gates Pond, in Berlin, to E. H. Hartshorn and others, 15 

years. 
24. Pleasant Pond, in Wenham, to inhabitants of Wenham, 15 
years. 
May 1. Morse's Pond, in Needham, to Edmund M. Wood, 15 years. 

1. Great Pond, in North Andover, to Eben Sutton and others, 

20 years. 
1. Chilmark Pond, in Chilmark, to J. Nickerson and others, 
agents, 20 years. 
July 1. Winter Pond and Wedge Pond, in Winchester, to inhabitants 
of Winchester, 15 years. 
1. Raggett's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 20 
years. 
Aug. 1. Oyster Pond, in Edgartown, to J. H. Smith and others, 20 
years. 
7. West Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of Ster- 
ling, 20 years. 
9. Mystic (Upper) Pond, in Winchester, Medford, and Arling- 
ton, to inhabitants of Winchester and Medford, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Little Chauncey and Solomon Ponds, in Northborough, to in- 
habitants of Northborough, 15 years. 
1876. 
Feb. 1. Great Sandy Bottom Pond, in Pembroke, to Israel Thrasher 

and others, 15 years. 
Mar. 1. Dennis Pond, in Yarmouth, to inhabitants of Yarmouth, 15 
years. 
1. Crystal Lake, in Wakefield, to Lyman H. Tasker and others, 
15 years. 
20. Lower Naumkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants of 

Ashburnham, 18 years. 
28. Dennison Lake, in Winchendon, to inhabitants of Winchen- 

don, 15 years. 
28. Phillipston Pond, in Phillipston, to inhabitants of Phillipston, 
20 years. 
May 8. South-west Pond, in Athol, to Adin H. Smith and others, 15 

years. 
June 1. Norwich Pond, in Huntington, to inhabitants of Huntington, 
20 years. 
10. Dug Pond, in Natick, to W. P. Bigelow and others, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Farm and Learned's Pond, in Framingham, to inhabitants of 
Framingham, 15 years. 
1. Whitney's Pond, Wrentham, to inhabitants of Wrentham, 15 

years. 
1. Little Pond, in Barnstable, to George H. Davis, 15 years. 



34 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

1877. 

Mar. 1. Nine-Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to inhabitants of Wilbraham, 
15 years. 
15. Pentucket and Rock Ponds, in Georgetown, to inhabitants of 
Georgetown, 15 years. 
Aug. 10. Onota Lake, in Pittsfield, to William H. Murray and others, 

15 years. 
Oct. 1. Fort, Great Spectacle, and Little Spectacle Ponds, in Lancas- 
ter, to inhabitants of Lancaster, 20 years. 
1. Battacook Pond, in Groton, to George S. Graves and others, 
15 years. 
Nov. 1. Tispaquin Pond, in Middleborough, to Abishai Miller, 15 
years. 
1. Asnebumskitt Pond, in Paxton, to Ledyard Bill and others, 15 
years. 

1878. 

Jan. 1. Sniptuit, Long, Snow, and Mary's Ponds, in Rochester, to 

inhabitants of Rochester, 15 years. 
Mar. 16. Asnaconcomic Pond, in Hubbardston, to Amory Jewett, jun., 

15 years. 
April 1. Dorrity Pond, in Millbury, to inhabitants of Millbury, 10 years. 
May 1. Spectacle, Peters, and Triangle Ponds, in Sandwich, to George 
L. Fessenden, 10 years. 
1. Bear Hill Pond and Hall Pond, in Harvard, to inhabitants of 
Harvard, 15 years. 
July 1. Lake Buell, in Monterey and New Marlborough, to Andrew L. 

Hubbell and others, 5 years. 
Oct. 1. Eel Pond, in Melrose, to J. A. Barrett and others, 15 years. 

1. Accord Pond, in Hingham, South Scituate, and Rockland, to 

inhabitants of those towns, 10 years. 
1. Wright's and Ashley's Ponds, in Holyoke, to Henry C. Ewing 

and others, 10 years. 
1. Magog Pond, in Acton and Middleton, to inhabitants of 
Acton, 15 years. 
Half-way Pond, in Plymouth, taken by Commissioners for 5 
years from March 1, 1878, in accordance with provisions of 
Chap. 62 of the Acts of 1876. 

1879. 

Feb. 1. Lake Mahkunac and Lake Overic, in Stockbridge, to inhabit- 
ants of Stockbridge, 10 years. 

June 1. "Bald Pate," "Four Mile," and "Stiles" Ponds, in Box- 
ford, to inhabitants of Boxford, 10 years. 

July 1. Silver Lake, in Wilmington, to inhabitants of Wilmington, 10 
years. 
1. Fresh Pond, in Falmouth, to Thomas H. Lawrence, 20 years, 

Oct. 1. Pomp's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 15 
years. 

Nov. 1. Lake Quinapowitt, in Wakefield, to inhabitants of Wake- 
field, 14 years. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 86 

1880. 

Jan. 1. Granite-Cove Pond, in Gloucester, to David Babson, 10 

years. 
Mar. 1. Lake Winthrop, in HoUiston, to inhabitants of HoUiston, 15 

years. 
15. Massapoag Pond, in Sharon, to inhabitants of Sharon, 10 

years. 
May 1. Tisbury Great Pond, in Tisbury, to Allen Look and others, 10 

years. 
June 1. Indian Pond, in Kingston, to inhabitants of Kingston, 10 

years. 
1. Jordan Pond, in Shrewsbury, to inhabitants of Shrewsbury, 

15 years. 
July 1. Swan and Martin's Ponds, in North Eeading, to inhabitants 

of North Reading, 15 years. 
Sept. 1. Herring Pond, in Eastham, to William H. Nickerson, 10 

years. 

1881. 

Jan. 1. Great and Job's Neck Ponds, in Edgartown, to Amos Smith 

and others, 15 years. 
Mar. 1. The Mill Ponds (three), in Brewster, to Valentine B. Newcomb 

and another, 15 years. 
May 2. Nonesuch Pond, in Weston and Natick, to W. A. Bullard and 

others, 15 years. 
April 1. Long Pond, in Blandford, to Samuel A. Bartholomew and 

another, 15 years. 



36 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 



[C] 
EXTRACTS FROM REPORTS ON LEASED PONDS. 

To the Honorable Board of Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen, — The town of Stockbridge, through its regular commit- 
tee, beg leave to present its Third Annual Report. 

We would report for the catch of fish from Lakes Mahkunac and 
Overic this season, ending Oct. 1, as follows : — 

Fish. Pounds. 

Black bass, 1,510, weighing 1,831| 

Pickerel, 796, " . . . . . . . 832 

Perch, 1,749, " 505Jt 

Bull-heads, 311, " . . . . . . .253 

Pondfish, 507, " 159^ 

Eels, 37, " 38| 

Suckers, 35, " 58| 

Making a total of 4,965, " a,678| 

One land-locked salmon was reported as caught in Smith Pond, a 
feeder to Lake Mahkunac, weighing two pounds and a half. All of 
which is respectfully submitted. 

W. E. GAVIT, 
JOS. PINNEY, 
Town Committee on Lakes and Fishing. 



Westfield, Mass., Oct. 1, 1881. 
E. A. Brackett, Esq., Commissioner on Inland Fisheries. 

Dear Sir, — On behalf of the lessees of Hazzard Pond in the town of 
Russell, and the Forest and Stream Club of Westfield, I desire to report, 
that, in accordance with the terms of the lease of said pond, there were 
placed in the pond, May 27, 1876, fifty-three black bass, weighing from 
one and a half to two and a half pounds each. On the 13th of June of 
the same year, five thousand land-locked salmon were also placed in the 
pond: these were young fish. After the pond was stocked as above, it 
was closed, and no fishing done for over three years, or until May 29, 
1879, at which time the jDond was thrown open to those who had a right 
to fish therein ; and in one day over six hundred pounds of pickerel were 
taken, but no black bass or salmon. Since that date but few pickerel 
have been taken; but large numbers of bass have been taken, and are 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. B7 

taken each season. The bass are rapidly increasing; and from those 
placed in the pond have gone out young fish which have effectually 
stocked the Westfield rivers. No salmon have yet been taken; but one 
of the keepers informs me that he saw three in the pond at one time 
this season, which he should judge would weigh five pounds each, but 
was unable to catch one of them, he not being an adept in salmon- 
fishing. 

The bass caught vary in size from three-fourths of a pound to four 
pounds and a half each, showing that there are bass one, two, three, 
four, and more years old in the pond. 

The stocking of the pond I regard as a perfect success, as do others 
who are familiar with the facts. 

I am, sir, yours with respect, 

W. H. FOOTE, 

Secretary. 



PiTTSFIELD, Nov. 9, 1881. 

E. A. Brackett, Esq. 

Dear Sir, — Yours of the 31st ult. was duly received, and in reply will 
say that I supposed that we were not obliged to make report until the 1st 
of December; and it seems to me that the time for making this report 
should be extended to that time, as most of the lessees issue permits to 
fish to Nov. 15 in this section. I have been unable to get all of ours in 
until to-day; and below you will find statement of fish taken from Onota 
Lake this season. None have been put in. 





ESTIMATED WEIGHT. 


1,350 black bass . 


1,687 


pounds, largest 3^ to 4 pounds 


2,223 rock bass . 


1,305 




1,576 pickerel 


. 2,463 


" largest 4| to 5| pounds 


2,532 perch . 


820 




1 land-locked salmon 


IS 




1 English carp 


li 




L5,904 bull-heads . 


6,015 





The taking of land-locked salmon and lake trout was prohibited; but 
this salmon was taken before we issued our permits. We are assured 
that the salmon are in our lake. 

With much respect, I am yours truly, 

WM. H. MURRAY. 



WiNCHENDON, MASS., Octobcr, 1881. 
E. A. Brackett, Esq., of the Board of Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Sir, — By permission of the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, and 
in accordance with a vote of the town, fishing was allowed in Dennison 
Lake from July 1 to Nov. 1, 1881. 

We have not many returns in yet of the number of fish taken; but, 
from verbal reports and rumors, we are of the opinion that but few fish 
were taken. A few black bass were taken, of from one to three pounds, 
and some small Uqd- locked salmon were taken, showing that the stock- 



38 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

ing of the waters was a success; but the fruits of it will appear more 
abundantly two or three years hence. 

We think the waters well adapted for the salmon, and wish we had 
stocked more liberally with them and less with black bass. 

E. S. MERRILL, 
Chairman for tlie Commissioners of Winchendon, Mass. 



ToPSFiELD, Nov, 2, 1881. 
Dear Sir, • — I have just received your note to the selectmen, remind- 
ing them that no return had been received at your office from this town. 
I very much regret that it is so much behind time. I did not know that 
it was required. Business of all kinds has been good the past season, 
and so there has been less fishing at the pond than there would otherwise 
have been. I live on the road from the village to the pond, and conse- 
quently see most of the fishermen as they pass. I have frequently con- 
versed with them. They think the black bass are not plenty. I have 
seen but very few of them among the fish brought home. Very fine 
specimens of pickerel and perch are taken, and in large quantities. I 
think the law has been favorable to the increase of the last-named kinds 
of fish. No fish have been put into the pond, so far as is known, the 
past year. Very truly yours, 

SAMUEL TODD, 

One of the Fish Committee. 
E. A. Brackett, 

Commissioner on Inland Fisheries. 



South Framingham, Mass., Nov. 9, 1881. 
E. A. Brackett, Commissioner on Fishenes. 

Dear Sir, — In accordance with the provisions of our lease of Farm 
and Learned's Ponds, the Fish Committee make the following report: — 
• By a vote of the town, the ponds were opened for fishing from July 1 
to Dec. 1. Of the number of bass taken from Learned's Pond it would 
be impossible to state with any accuracy; but a very large number of 
excellent bass have been taken during the season, many of over four 
pounds' weight. The stocking of this pond has been proved a perfect 
success. This pond has no inlet or outlet. We put a large number of 
land-locked salmon in both ponds, — I think it was the first year of the 
lease, — but have had no satisfactory results. Some few have been re- 
ported seen and taken from Farm Pond. The stocking of Farm Pond 
with white perch has also proved perfectly satisfactory. They are taken 
in good numbers, and are increasing fast, and make good fishing. Farm 
Pond is the receiving-basin of the Sudbury-river water-supply for Boston, 
and is constantly-running water. 

The stocking of both ponds with black bass in Learned's, and whit© 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT - No. 25. 39 

perch in Farm, is a success, and is appi^ciated by the citizens of Fram- 
ingham. 

If you think it advisable to try land-locked salmon again in Farm 
Pond, we will do so in the spring. 

I remain very truly yours, 

CHAS. W. COOLIDGE, 

Chairman of Fish Committee ^or Framingham. 



40 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 



[D.] 

REPORTS OF B. P. CHADWICK AND W. H. FOOTE, ON 
FISHERIES IN THE MERRIMACK AND CONNECTICUT 
RIVERS. 

To the Massachusetts Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen, — Having been appointed to investigate the fisheries on 
the Merrimack River, and enforce the laws respecting the same, I submit 
the following report : — 

The waters of the Merrimack River, notwithstanding its being the 
reservoir for the drainage of seven cities and twenty-five towns, embracing 
a population of nearly three hmidred thousand inhabitants, besides serving 
as a direct receptacle for nearly all the poisonous filth that runs from the 
many industrial enterprises in which this population is engaged, continue 
to run remarkably pure. Salmon have been seen in the Merrimack the 
present season in larger numbers than ever before for a period of twenty- 
five years. The fish way at Lawrence has proved itself well adapted to the 
wants of the Commissioners, in the propagation of fish, so far as the 
breeding of salmon is concerned. 

The breeding-habits of salmon are not very generally understood; and 
especially is this so as regards the ]Merrimack-river fishermen. When 
they are better informed respecting the same, they will more readily com- 
ply with the laws protecting the breeding-grounds and the fish during 
the breeding-seasons. 

The breeding of fish in the ponds and streams of the Commonwealth 
is yet in its infancy. It has, however, thus far proved itself a success 
much beyond what its most sanguine friends could reasonably expect. 
The theories and experiences of men of thought are being more generally 
adopted all over the State as respects the cultivation of fish. The old- 
fashioned, one-sided idea, that nothing can be done to permanently assist 
nature in the propagation of fish, is a thing of the past; and, if the pres- 
ent interest that has been manifested by the cities and towns through- 
out the State in the cultivation of fish as an article of food be sustained by 
liberal legislation on the part of the Commonwealth, the time is not far 
distant when the waters of the State may furnish an amount of food, 
equal, acre for acre, with that of many of the farms throughout the 
State. 

The fishermen above Deer-Island Bridge, with a few exceptions, have 
shown a manifest willingness to comply with the laws in reference to 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 41 

fishing. At the grounds of the Essex Company, in South Lawi'ence, one 
violation has occured, viz., that of taking a salmon ; yet, for want of suffi- 
cient proof to convict, the parties were not apprehended. At North 
Andover, where so many depredations were committed last season, we 
have every reason to believe the laws have been fully complied with. 
Near Mitchell's Falls, at West Haverhill, early in the season, some un- 
known parties commenced the using of a drift-seine; but, owing to the bed 
of the I'iver being composed of sharp stones, the seine could not be drifted, 
and the enterprise was abandoned. On the south shore of the river, at 
Bradford, several attempts were made to fish in the month of June: the 
parties M^ere caught in the acfc, and brought before the court; but, owing 
to the interpretation of the law by the court, the parties were discharged. 
On the north shore, at Haverhill, no fishing has been done, the owner of 
the seines being too aged and infirm to further pursue the business. At 
Groveland and Rock Village eight persons were arrested, charged with 
using illegal seines. The parties were brought before the court, judged 
to be guilty of the offence, and ordered to pay a fine of twenty-five dollars 
each, and costs; from which decision the parties appealed. 

At Merrimacport, for the past three seasons, parties from New York 
have been somewhat extensively engaged in catching sturgeon, and can- 
ning, labelling, and selling the same as salmon. This season the parties 
were on the river early in July, and captured some thirty sturgeon, varying 
in weight from fifty to two hundred and fifty pounds. The process this sea- 
son has been to dress the fish, pack in ice, and ship directly to New York. 
The parties were arrested under the act approved March 17, 1881 (chap. 
104, sect. 2), and taken before the court at Newburyport, where they 
plead guilty to the charge, and paid a fine of twenty-five dollars and costs. 
Their boats and seines were not confiscated, the parties being allowed to 
retain the same upon condition that they immediately quit the business, 
which was quickly complied with. 

At Amesbury, where the fishing business is conducted by Jonathan 
Morrill, a better observance of the law has been manifested this season 
than in any previous year. The seines were promptly removed from the 
river the first of June ; and we hear of but one instance where a seine has 
been returned to the waters. 

From Deer-Island Bridge to Plumb-Island Lighthouse eleven seines 
have been in use the present season, all of which are of illegal construc- 
tion as regards the size of the mesh; the same, when being fully stretched, 
measuring from one to two and three-fourths inches. These seines were 
run, in open violation of all law, to the 17th of June, and at times since 
then to the 1st of August too numerous to mention. The evil effects 
of using seines of this description, as regards the destruction of the 
young fish, is a matter well known to your honorable Board. 

The parties offending in this instance have not been brought before 
the court for several reasons, prominent among which is the fact that the 
line defining the mouth of the river has not been drawn by the Governor 
of the State, as provided for in sect. 17, chap. 384, Acts of 1869. It 
is hoped the Commissioners will see the immediate necessity of having 

6 



42 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

this line established, so that the fishermen may fully know their rights, 
and all interested parties be brought to a proper observance of the same, 
besides permanently settling this long-vexed question. 

From personal observation, and information furnished me by the most 
reliable fishermen of Newburyport, I am led to believe that fully thirteen 
thousand grown shad have been taken, since the first of June, within a 
distance of five miles inside of Plumb-Island Lighthouse, besides thou- 
sands of young shad and ale wives caught and sold as bait to the several 
fishing- vessels engaged in ocean-fishing. This business has been pursued 
to such an extent as to render it proper to visit the vessels, and forbid 
the masters of the same from taking on board young shad and alewives 
as bait. This request, in many instances, has been complied with, and 
several vessels have thus been obliged to go elsewhere for bait, obtaining 
the same from the fishermen who are using ocean-seines for mackerel. 

In previous seasons menhaden have been numerous in the river, the 
catching of which has been quite a source of income to the Newburyport 
fisherman. This season, for some unknown cause, none have been taken 
or seen up to this time, Aug. 20. The absence of menhaden has made it 
seemingly necessary for the fishermen to substitute the young shad and 
alewives in their place, the fishermen not fully realizing the great injury 
they were doing, not only to themselves, but to the fisheries on the river 
above, by the destruction of so many young fish. 

The catch of bait the present season, from reliable information fur- 
nished by the fishermen, and personal observation, is estimated to be not 
less than twenty barrels per day for ninety days, — from the 1st of May 
to the 1st of August. This amount, at one dollar per barrel, the price 
at which bait is sold, would amount to eighteen hundred dollars. The 
estimated amount of young shad taken during this period is based upon 
information furnished me by the fishermen, and personal observation, and 
is supposed to be not far from one barrel in every ten. Allowing three 
hundred of these fish to constitute a barrel (and this is a low estimate) 
gives the large number of fifty-four thousand young shad taken during 
this period for bait. Could this number of fish live to attain the usual size 
to which this species of fish grow, and then be sold at the moderate sum 
of ten dollars per hundred, which is less than two-thirds of the actual 
price paid for the same the present season, the amount would be fifty- 
four hundred dollars. If this estimate is correct, and I think it is, you 
will readily see that the fishermen, by pursuing their present course, are 
actually robbing themselves; and, further, I am credibly informed that 
during the long period in which the Commissioners were engaged in the 
artificial propagation of shad at North Andover, the fishermen on the 
lower part of the river were frequently engaged in catching and dispos- 
ing of the young fish for bait. Should this pernicious system of fishing 
be longer continued, there is good reason to fear that it may eventually 
result in the total annihilation of the shad from the waters of the Merri- 
mack. 

It is evident that the present low condition of the fisheries of the river 
is mainly due to the destruction of the young fish at Newburyport. 

I trust your honorable Board will give this subject due consideration, 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 43 

and take such action in the premises as in your judgment may be con- 
ducive to the greatest amount of good to all parties interested. 

Respectfully yours, 

B. P. CHADWICK, 

Deputy-Commissioner Merrimack River. 
Bradford, Aug. 20, 1881. 



To the Massachusetts Com,missioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen, — At your request I spent two weeks investigating the 
fisheries at Newburyport. From personal observation, and from state- 
ments made to me by the fishermen, I fully concur in the above report. 

Respectfully, 

WM. H. H. DAY. 



Westfield, Oct. 18, 1881 
E. A. Brackett, Esq., Commissioner on Inland Fisheries. 

Dear Sir, — In compliance with your request, I submit the following 
report of* my action in connection with fishway over the dam between 
Holyokeand South-Hadley Falls, in the Connecticut River: — 

Having received many complaints from parties living in Holyoke, 
South Hadley, and the surrounding towns, even as far up the river as 
Northampton, of the depredations that were being constantly committed 
on this fishway, I determined to go over there, and in a private manner 
investigate the matter. This I did, and appeared there a stranger. I 
made quite a thorough investigation, and found that the most serious 
complaints were true, — that fish, especially lamprey eels, were taken 
not only from the river near the fishway, but from the fishway itself, by 
the thousands, and sold to parties coming long distances, even from towns 
in Connecticut. I determined to make a raid upon these violators of law, 
and called in the assistance of district police officer Kellogg of Pittsfield, 
together with two police officers of Westfield, Zwiner and Hedges, and 
two officers of Holyoke, Duhanne and Atchison, making six in our party. 
We laid our plans to make the raid on Monday night, June 6. We 
arrived on the ground about eleven o'clock, and, after watching operations 
for something over an hour, made a descent upon the fishway between 
twelve and one o'clock, and arrested ten men with several hundred lam- 
prey eels, all of which we took across the river to the city-hall in Holyoke, 
and placed them in the lock-up until the next mornig, when they were 
arraigned before Trial- Justice Pearsons : he fixed a later day for trial, 
the result of which was the conviction of Frank C. Bugbee and Walter S. 
Sackett of South Hadley, and Michael Hogan and William Doyle of Hamp- 
den County, for taking and catching of fish in the fishway, all of whom 
were fined fifty dollars each, and costs. Bugbee, Sackett, and Hogan each 
paid their fine and costs, Doyle taking an appeal for the purpose of gain- 
ing time to raise the funds to pay his fine and costs also. A. J. Smith of 
Blandford was convicted of trespass on the fishway, and also fined the 



44 INLAND FISHERIES. ' [Oct. 

sum of fifty dollars and costs, from which he also appealed; and trial will 
be had at the December terra of court. Three men, arrested, — to wit, 
William M. HoM'es, Joel Smith, and Augustine Wilcox, — were discharged 
for lack of evidence to convict them. The last man, one Jerry Pelland, 
admitted his gtiilt; but by advice and consent of the court his case was 
continued, it appearing that he had a large family to support, consisting 
of a wife and several small children, and he too poor to pay a fine. He 
would be obliged to go to the house of correction, and his family be 
thrown on the town of South Hadley for support. It seemed to be a 
case that called for mercy; and upon his promise of good behavior I did 
not press his case to trial. I called in the aid of J. R. Dunbar, attorney- 
at-law of Westfieid, as counsel to prosecute these cases, and he rendered 
valuable aid. 

Since these arrests were made, I have received no complaints in rela- 
tion to that fishway. I asked for the appointment of George E. Atchi- 
son of Holyoke as officer- in-charge of this fishway, which was granted ; 
and Mr. Atchison has rendered efficient service in protecting the fishway 
from depredations. Allow me to say, in closing this report, that I have 
no doubt of the passage of all kinds of migratory fish up and down this 
fishway, unless, possibly, an exception may be made in the case of shad. 



I am, sir, yours with great respect, 



W. H. FOOTE, 

Deputy- Commissioner. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 45 



[E.] 
LEGISLATION. 

[Chap. 28.] 

An Act to amend Section One of Chapter One Hundred and 
Four of the Acts of the Year Eighteen Hundred and Sev- 
enty-six, relating to Certain Returns to the Commissioners 
On Inland Fisheries. 

Be it enacted^ etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Section one of chapter one hundred and four of the acts 
of the year eighteen hundred and seventy-six is hereby amended by strik- 
ing out the word " first," before the word " day," in the sixth line in 
said section, and inserting the word " twentieth." 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
February 23, 1881. 



[Chap. 44.] 

An Act to regulate the Taking of Fish in North River in 
the County of Plymouth. 

Be it enacted, etc. , as follows : 

Section 1. The inhabitants of the town of Pembroke are hereby 
permitted to take fish at the weir where they have usually caught them, 
on the i^orth River, so called, or stream leading to the Indian Ponds, so 
called, in said town, on any secular day of the week, and at any hour of 
the day, and at no other time. 

Sect. 2. No person or persons shall take fish from the stream lead- 
ing from said North River to the said Indian Ponds, or streams tributary 
to the North River, excepting at the weir above mentioned, at any time 
between the tenth day of April and the fifteenth day of May inclusive, of 
each year. 

Sect. 3. The selectmen or committee for the time being, of the town 
of Pembroke, shall, from the first running of alewives, after the tenth 
day of April in each year, take and deposit alive, in good condition, in 
Indian Ponds in said Pembroke, not less than ten thousand alewives, so 
they may cast their spawn in said ponds; and the expense of the same 
shall be borne in equal shares by the towns of Pembroke, JMarshfield, 
Scituate and South Scituate, and said towns are hereby permitted to 
raise money for the same. 

Sect. 4. It shall be lawful for the inhabitants of the several towns 
on North River to take fish on IMondays, Wednesdays and Fridays of each 



46 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

week, from April first to June first inclusive, of each year, with ten 
seines only in the manner following, to wit: The towns of South Scit- 
uate, Scituate and Pembroke shall each have the right of disposing at 
public auction for their own benefit, of the privilege of catching fish with 
two seines only, and the town of Marshfield the right of disposing at pub- 
lic auction for their own benefit, of the privilege of catching fish with 
four seines only, in the river aforesaid. 

Sect. 5. It shall be lawful for the inhabitants of the town of Hanson 
to take fish from Indian Head River on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fri- 
days of each week, from April first to June first inclusive, of each year: 
provided, said inhabitants shall not be allowed to take fish at anytime 
from said Indian Head River within eighty rods of the mouth of said 
river. 

Sect. 6. Any person or persons who may by seine or mesh net take 
fish from the said North River, except such persons as have authority 
under this act, shall be punished for each offence by a fine not less than 
twenty-five nor more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in 
the house of correction not less than one nor more than three months. 

Sect. 7. Chapter two hundred and twenty-nine of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and seventy-two, and all other acts and parts of 
acts inconsistent with this act, are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 8. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
March 2, 1881. 



[Chap. 47.] 

An Act to amend the Law regulating Fishing in Connecticut 
River and its Tributaries. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Any person who shall take or aid or assist in taking from 
the Connecticut River or any of its tributaries, within the limits of this 
Commonwealth, any shad or alewives at any other time than between the 
fifteenth day of March and the first day of July in each year, shall forfeit 
and pay for each offence the sum of one hundred dollars. 

Sect. 2. Section three of chapter seventy-six of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and sixty-nine is hereby amended by striking out the 
words " fifteenth day of June in each year, the meshes whereof are less 
than five," in the eighteenth and nineteenth lines, and inserting the 
words " first day of July in each year, the meshes whereof are less than 
two," in place thereof. 

Sect. 3. Chapter three hundred and sixty-nine of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and seventy, and all acts and parts of acts incon- 
sistent with this act, are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. {Approved 
March 2, 1881. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 47 

[Chap. 103.] 

An Act relative to the Taking of Fish from the Merrimack 
AND Connecticut Rivers and their Tributaries. 

Be it enacted, etc., as folloios : 

Section 1. Nothing iu the provisions of chapter two hundred of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and eighty shall be construed as giving 
authority to take or catch fish of any kind within four hundred yards of 
any fishway on the Merrimack River or its tributaries, or within two 
hundred yards of any fishway on the Connecticut River or its tributaries, 
lying within this Commonwealth. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Approved 
March 17, 1881. 



[Chap. 104.] 
An Act to regulate Fishing in the Merrimack River. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Whoever takes or catches any shad or alewives in any 
part of the Merrimack River, or its tributaries, lying within this Com- 
monwealth, except between sunrise on Monday morning and sunrise on 
Friday morning, of each week, from the first day of March to the last 
day of May, inclusive, in each year, shall forfeit for each alewife so taken 
a sum not less than one dollar nor more than five dollars, and for each 
shad so taken a sum not less than five nor more than twenty dollars. 

Sect. 2. Whoever uses a net of any kind or description in the waters 
of the Merrimack River, or its tributaries, lying within this Common- 
wealth, from the first day of June in each year to the last day of Febru- 
ary in the year next succeeding, inclusive, shall forfeit for each offence 
the sum of twenty-five dollars. 

Sect. 3. Section one of chapter one hundred and forty-four of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and seventy-four is hereby repealed. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. \_Approved 
March 17, 1881. 



[Chap. 270.] 
An Act to provide for the Preservation of Lobsters. 
Beit enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Whoever, from the twentieth day of June to the twenti- 
eth day of September, takes a lobster, shall be punished for each offence 
by a fine of not less than ten nor more than one hundred dollars, or by 
imprisonment in the house of correction for not less than one nor more 
than three months; but a person catching a lobster when lawfully fishing, 
and immediately returning it alive to the waters from which it was taken, 
shall not be subject to such penalty. 

Sect. 2. AVhoever from th,e twentieth o£ June to the twentieth of 
September buys, sells, or has in his possession a lobster taken in this 



48 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

Commonwealth, shall forfeit for each offence a sum not less than ten nor 
more than fifty dollars. 

Sect. 3. The mayor and aldermen of every city, the selectmen of 
every town and all police officers and constables shall cause the provis- 
ions of this act to be enforced in their respective cities and towns; and 
all penalties for violations thereof shall be paid one-half to the person 
making the complaint, and one-half to the city or town in which the 
offence was committed. 

Sect. 4. Thio act shall take effect upon the first day of January, 
eighteen hundred and eighty-two. lApproved Mmj 12, 1881. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 49 



[F.] 

RETURNS OF WEIRS, SEINES, AND GILL-NETS. 

Returns from sixty-four weirs, seventeen sea-seines, and sixty-one 
gill-nets have been received, as against sixty-six, twenty-six, and seventy- 
one, respectively, for the year 1880. The decrease may, in part, be owing 
to the fact that a certain number of men annually go out of the business, 
and their successors fail to make application for blanks. On the whole, 
the number of nets was probably about the same for the two years. By 
chap. 28, Acts 1881, the season during which returns are to be made 
was extended to Oct. 20, which would make an increase of the gross 
catch, because a few of the weirs are kept down until that date. Taking 
the combined catch of those three sorts of nets, there was this year, as 
compared with the last, 2^, decrease for sea-herring (to one-half), flounders 
(small), menhaden (almost a disappearance), bluefish (small), and eels 
(slight). And there was an increase for shad (double), mackerel (three 
times), and scup (nearly three times). On the whole, it may be said that 
the severe winter and succeeding cool summer were unfavorable for the 
sea fisheries. When to the number of ale wives there are added the re- 
turns of fresh-water fisheries, the total catch shows, not a slight decrease, 
but a large increase. The shad fishery of the Taunton River more than 
held its own, while that of the Connecticut jumped from 7,727 in 
1880 to 38,382 in 1881 ; and the latter number would have been much 
greater had it not been for the floating logs which impeded the nets. 
This fine run was due, in part, to the high water, which excited the fish to 
push up stream, and made the passage of obstacles, like the dam at Wind- 
sor Locks, an easy one. The shad fishery of the Merrimack is, on the 
contrary, almost at an end, from causes which are explained in the pre- 
ceding pages. 



TABLES. 



52 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



o 



6 



1^ 

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1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



53 



1 


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54 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



•siaa 



•qegania 



•U9pBqU8J^ 



•dnog 



« (M O) Ttt 0> ■* «5 
Tt* (N ■<!j< 0> iO -* 



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rH O rH O 



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s-iapunoj^ 



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rH " O 



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05 (N 



o 



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padij^g 



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o o ?-i 

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. . . . . . . , ^ 

O 

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f ^ : 5 = = -3 i = = = 5 5 S 5 a 

^ <A ^ O 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



55 



(O 


>c 


1 


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1 


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, 


fN 


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, 


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56 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 





1 ' 


1 


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1 


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1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 26. 



57 





qsiuBdg 


1 


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1 


1 1 


1 


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1 


' 


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I 


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1 


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1 


. !! 




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58 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



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1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 59 



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60 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



qsiuBdg 


rill 


o 1 


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1 1 1 1 


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1,606 

3,533 

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H. B. Cash . 
J. 0. Freeman 
W. F. Ramsdell . 
J. Small & Son 
Total . 


Town or Place. 


Nantucket .... 





1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



61 



Table No. IV. — Connecticut-River Seines. 



Town. 


Namb. 


1 

CD 


Pike. 
Alewives. 


1 
1 

5 


Agawam 

South Hadley .... 
Chicopee 


A. Converse 

A. J. Hills 

C. C. Smith 

J. and H. N. Chapin .... 
Total 


2,152 

1,309 

18,196 

16,725 


" 


125 


4 




38,382 I 11 

! 


125 


' 



Table No. V. — Merrimack-River Seines. 



lOWN. 


INAMB. 


1 


< 


o 

s 


Lawrence 


H. S. Neal 


107 


~ 


- 


North Andover .... 


E. Sutton 


289 




2 


Bradford 


W. H.H.Day .... 


92 


_ 




Newbury 


A.E. Larkin 


- 


500 




« 


J. P. Newton 


- 


7,500 


- 


Amesbury 


J.Morrill 

Total 


704 


- 






1,192 


8,000 


2 



Table No. VI. — Taunton-River Seines. 




Taunton 
Somerset 



62 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. '81. 



Table No. VII. — Other Fresh- Water Seines, or Dip-Net 

Fisheries. 





1 1 
1 -c 


4= 






Towx OR Place. 


Name. 

1 '6 

1^ 


1 

< 


S 


1 


1 


Weymouth 


Weymouth Iron Company . ! - 


132,100 


- 


- 


- 


Kingston .... 


Cobb & Drew .... 


1 


26,161 


- 


- 


- 


Plymouth . . . 


William S. Hadaway 




- 


- 


86,000 


- 


- 


Sandwich .... 


H. G. 0. Ellis . 




2 


126,700 


- 


- 


- 


Barnstable 


Clark Lincoln . 






- 


662,040 


- 


- 


- 


... 


Russell Marston 






- 


23,440 


- 


- 


- 


Brewster .... 


Wixon & Newcomb 






- 


836,586 


- 


- 


- 


Wellfleet .... 


N. C. Nicholson 






- 


28,073 


- 


-" 


- 


Dennis .... 


W. Crowell 






- 


4,859 


~ 


- 


Yarmouth .... 


D. S. Baker 






- 


9,200 


- 


- 


.... 


Nathan W. Grush 






1 _ 


196,313 52 


1,152 


3,829 


Mashpee .... 


David Lovell . 






- 


5,600 1 


- 


- 


.... 


W.R. Mingo . 






- 


42,400 1 


- 


- 


" 


George T. Oakley* 






- 


8,750 1 


- 


- 


.... 


W. H. Simons . 






- 


3,670 i 


- 


- 


Wareham .... 


George Sanford 






- 


288,800 i 


- 


- 


Mattapoisett and Roches- 
ter . . . . . 


A. H. Shurtleff . 






- 


245,671 1 


- 




Rochester .... 


A. Rounsville . 






- 


30,024 


- 


- 


- 


Westport .... 


L. W. AVhite . 






- 


583 


- 


- 


366 


Chihnark .... 


Estate of H. M. Smith 




- 


52,277 


- 


- 


- 




Total . 






^ 


2,723,247 


86,052 


1,152 


4,195 



* Also 1 striped bass. 

Table No. VIII. — Seine-Fishery at the Mouth of the 
Merrimack. 



N. Lattime 



■^ 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 25 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL KBPORT 



COMMISSIONEES 



ON 



INLAND FISHERIES, 



Year ending December 31, 1882. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1883. 



\ 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Report, . 5 

Appendix A. List of Commissioners on Fisheries, . . .25 

B. List of Ponds leased, . . . . . . .31 

C. Legislation, 36 

D. Returns of Weirs, Seines, and Gill-nets, . . .40 



<Jtommcinu)caltl) of itlassacljusette. 



To His Excellency the Oovernor and the Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries beg leave to pre- 
sent their Seventeenth Annual Report. 

FlSHWAYS. 

Fishways have been completed this season at Ipswich 
Mills, at Willowdale, and at the dam of C. J. Xorwood. 
Ripley Bros, failed to comply with the requirements. Some 
arrangement will be made for putting in a fish way over this 
dam early in the spring, and this will open the Ipswich 
River its whole length. 

The mill and dam at Middleborough having passed into 
the hands of Mr. Sherman, a fishway will be constructed at 
that place next year. Negotiations are pending for the con- 
struction of one at Swansea. The fishways throughout the 
State are generally in good working order, and answer the 
purpose for which they were constructed. 

The following is the report of Mr. Holmes, Superintend- 
ent of Lawrence Fishway : 

Report of Fish seen in the Lawrence Fishway in the year 

1882. 
April 22. Let water into fishway. 
May 5. Saw the first fish ; a few alewives, suckers and chubs, 

6. Alewives and suckers, run small. 

7. Alewives, run small ; suckers and chubs, run large. 

8. Alewives, suckers and chubs, run small. 

9. Alewives, suckers and chubs, run small. 

10. Alewives and lampers (" lamper eels "), run small ; suckers, 

run large. 

11. Alewives, suckers and lampers, run small. 

12. Alewives, suckers, chubs and lampers, run small. 

13. Alewives, suckers and chubs, run small. 



6 INLAND FISPIEEIES. [Dec. 

May 14. Alewives, suckers and lampers, run small. 

15-27. The river high, muddy, and a very cold rain ; very few fish 
running. 
29. Alewives, run moderate ; lampers, run small. 
30 to ? A big freshet in the river ; water very muddy ; very few fish 
June 7. S running. 

8. Alewives, suckers and lampers, run moderate. 

9. Alewives, suckers and lampers, run moderate. 

10. Alewives, run large ; lampers, run small. 

11. Alewives, suckers and lampers, run moderate; one silver 

eel ; a few red-fin shiners. 

12. One shad; alewives and suckers, run large; lampers, run 

small. 

13. Alewives and suckers, run large ; lampers, run moderate ; one 

silver eel ; two black bass. 

14. Alewives, suckers and lampers, run large ; one silver eel ; 

one black bass ; a few red-fin shiners. 

15. Alewives and suckers, run large ; lampers, run small. 

16. Alewives, run large ; lampers, run small ; one black bass ; 

one salmon, 15 pounds. 

17. Alewives and suckers, run moderate ; lampers, run small ; a 

few small silver eels. 

18. Alewives and suckers, run moderate ; lampers, run small. 

19. Alewives and suckers, run small. 

20. Alewives and suckers, run small ; one black bass ; one salmon, 

10 pounds. 

21. Suckers, run small ; one salmon, 10 pounds ; river high, 

22. Alewives and suckers, run moderate ; lampers, run small ; 

one silver eel. 

23. Alewives and suckers, run moderate ; one black bass. 

24. Alewives and suckers, run small ; one shad. 

25. Suckers, lampers and silver eels, run small. 

26. Suckers and silver eels, run small; four salmon, 10 to 15 

pounds. 

27. Fotcr salmon, 10 to 15 pounds. 

28. Suckers and silver eels, run very small ; one black bass. 

29. Suckers and silver eels, run small. 

30. One black bass ; two salmon, 8 to 12 pounds ; suckers and sil- 

ver eels, run small. 

July 1. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

2. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small ; one black bass. 

3. Suckers, chubs and lampers, run small. 

4. Suckers, chubs and small silver eels, run small. 

5. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

6. Suckers and chubs, run small ; one black bass. 

7. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

8. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

9. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small ; a few small roach ; 

one black bass; one salmon, 12 pounds. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 7 

July 10. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small ; two salmon. 

11. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small; three salmon. 

12. Suckers, chubs and roach, run small ; four black bass. 

13. Suckers, chubs silver eels, and roach, run small. 

14. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small ; two black bass. 

15. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

15. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small ; three black bass. 

17. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

18. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

19. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small ; two black bass. 

20. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

21. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

22. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small ; three black bass. 

23. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small ; four black bass. 

24. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

25. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

26. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small ; two black bass. 

27. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. Shut water out of 

fishway ; river very low. 
Water shut out of the fishway the rest of July and August, 
excepting Sundays, on account of low water. When water 
was shut out of fishway only a few suckers, chubs and sil- 
ver eels in it. Water shut out in September, excepting 
Sundays, until the 16th, when it was let in in the afternoon. 
Sept. 17. Suckers and chubs, run small ; one salmon^ 8 pounds. 

18. Three salmon, 8 to 15 pounds, 

19. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

20. Suckers and silver eels, run small. Shut water out of fish- 

way ; river low. 

23. Let water into fishway at night. 

24. Suckers and chubs, run small ; one salmon, 10 pounds. 
From September 25 to September 28 a freshet in the river ; 

water very turbid ; did not draw the fishway off, 

29. A few suckers and chubs ; one salmon^ 10 pounds. 

30. A few suckers and silver eels. 

From October 1 to November 1 saw nothing but suckers, 
chubs and silver eels in fishway. The run of suckers and 
chubs was quite large for about two weeks, then it was 
less and less, until I shut the water out (November 1), when 
there was no fish. 

THOS. S. HOLMES, 
Superintendent Lawrence Fishway. 



INLAND FISHEEIES. [Dec. 



Land-locked Salmox. 

Massachusetts' share of laud-locked salmou spawn for 
1882 was 107,500; to this were added 5,000 given by the 
U. S. Commission. They were hatched with a loss of 4,300 
eggs, giving something over 108,000 healthy young fish, 
which were distributed as follows : — 

CANS. 

E. B. Owen, for ponds in Stockbridge, 4 

E. B. Stoddard, for ponds in Worcester, 4 

Thos. Lawrence, for ponds in Falmouth, 2 

A. Phinney, for ponds in Falmouth, 4 

A. J. Hubbell, for ponds in Gt. Barrington, .... 4 

Sydney Strong, for ponds in ^Northampton, 4 

W. A. Bullard, for ponds in Wayland, 2 

J. H. Curtis, for ponds in Scituate, 2 

W. H. Savage, for ponds in Harvard, 3 

J. F. Wight, for ponds in , 1 

There was scarcely any loss in transportation. Some 
complaints have been expressed in regard to the distribu- 
tion of land-locked salmon and trout from the fact that the 
demand was greater than the supply. This will probably be, 
at least in part, obviated by an increased supply of these 
fish for distribution for the spring of 1883. 

Parties desiring young fish will lessen the labors of the 
Commissioners by sending early applications. 



Trout. (Sahno fontinalis). 

There were hatched from last year's spawn about 47,000 
brook trout, which were distributed as follows ; — 

CANS. 

C. W. Forbes, Sheffield, 1 

W. H. Foote, Westfield, >^ 

Gordon C.Kowley,Blandford,/ 

E. M. Sewell, Medfield, 1 

J. F. Wight, Boston, 1 

Henry Goulding, Natick, 1 

W. Hapgood, Boston, 2 

O. C. White, Hopkinton, 1 

John Cummings, Woburn, 2 

Thos. Talbot, North Billerica, . 2 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 9 

It will be seen by Superintendent Hodge's report that 
there will probably be an increase of brook trout for next 
spring, and that extensive preparations have been made for 
a large supply in the future, not only of these fish, but also 
of the California or rainbow trout, a remarkably hardy fish, 
suited to warmer water than the common brook trout, and 
growing much more rapidly. It is said that the introduc- 
tion of the California trout has succeeded well in New York 
State. 

In addition to these there w^ill be, for distribution next 
April or May, from eighty to ninety thousand Lake Supe- 
rior or salmon trout. These should be placed in the largest 
and deepest ponds in the State. They are not suited for 
streams and shallow water. 

Hatching Shad on the Merrimack. 

In the report of last year it was stated that by hatching 
shad at North Andover, and carrying the young fish well up 
the river, the breeding-grounds might be extended, giving a 
large increase in addition to the artificial propagation. 
The statement in regard to the increase of the breeding- 
grounds is based upon the fiict, that, of the few shad known 
to have reached the Lawrence dam since the new fish way 
was constructed, some, and probably all, have gone freely 
over it. That there is no impediment to the easy passage 
of all kinds of fish over this dam, is well known to all who 
have paid the subject any attention. 

In accordance with this statement, arrangements were made 
for restocking the river; but, owing to unexpected delays, 
the work was not commenced till the spawning season was 
partially over. This greatly lessened the amount of spawn 
which otherwise might have been secured. The taking and 
hatching of spawn was carried on at North Andover, 
the only place on the river where ripe shad can be obtained. 
The work was done by Holmes and Chadwick, under 
the immediate inspection of the Commission. Owing to the 
unavoidable delay, the scarcity of fish, and a sudden rise of 
temperature of the river, the number of young shad ob- 
tained fell short of what was expected. 



10 INLAND FISHEEIES. [Dec. 



Detailed Keport of Holmes and Chadwick. 

To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — We herewith submit the following report, giving the 
full details of this year's experience in hatching shad at North Andover. 
The hatL'hery was opened June 12th, and closed July 20th. 

Number of shad taken, 654 

" shad sold, . 55 

*' shad returned to river alive, . . . ... 268 

" shad given away, 331 

" males, .334 

*• females, 320 

*' striped bass taken, 2 

'* salmon taken, . . 29 

" " returned to river alive, 26 

" " taken dead, 3 

The estimated amount of shad spawn taken was 1,227,000. From this 
amount about 1,000,000 fish were hatched. Of this number, 150,000 
were delivered to the Fish Commissioners of New Hampshire, to be 
turned into the river above Concord, N. H. ; 40,000 were turned into 
the river four miles above the Lawrence dam. The balance, nearly 
800,000, were turned into the river at the hatching station at North 
Andover. A large portion of the 381 shad given away were distributed 
to laboring men with families, mostly mill operatives. 

It is evident that the largest percentage of the spawn may be ex- 
pected to hatch when the temperature of the water is from 70° to 74°. 
When the temperature of the water rose to 76°, it was found necessary 
to cover the hatching-boxes with cloth to protect the spawn from the 
direct rays of the sun. Thus protected there is but little difiiculty in 
hatching the spawn until the temperature of the water rises above 80°. 
The following table will show the number of shad taken each day, the 
proportion of males to females, the temperature of the water and air, 
also the time of drawing the seine, the number of fish taken at each 
sweep, and the estimated amount of spawn taken. 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



11 



H ^ 



£ a 



fi = " 

!« q ? 



June 12, 

" 13, 

" 14, 

« 15, 

" 16, 

" 17, 

" 19, 

" 20, 

« 21, 

" 22, 

" 23, 

♦♦ 24, 

«' 26, 

" 27, 

" 28, 

<' 29, 

" 30, 

July 1, 
3, 

" 5, 

«« 6, 

" 7, 

" 8, 

<' 10, 

'• 11, 

" 12, 

♦' 13, 

'« 14, 

" 15, 

" 17, 

'« 18, 

" 19, 



28 
15 
36 
11 
37 
25 
26 
36 
23 
24 
10 
15 
44 
35 
26 
28 
32 
20 
21 
9 
17 
32 
21 
19 
14 
13 
15 
12 
6 
7 
4 
3 



8 


65° 


62° 


5 


66 


60 


14 


68 


65 


4 


70 


64 


13 


71 


67 


10 


69 


65 


12 


71 


65 


14 


72 


61 


11 


70 


62 


11 


70 


66 


5 


70 


68 


9 


73 


76 


25 


74 


'68 


21 


74 


63 


16 


77 


68 


16 


76 


63 


13 


75 


62 


11 


72 


69 


7 


70 


62 


4 


68 


59 


7 


68 


62 


15 


69 


63 


11 


72 


68 


13 


76 


74 


9 


79 


76 


8 


79 


74 


9 


79 


74 


8 


79 


73 


4 


80 


72 


4 


80 


71 


1 


80 


70 


2 


80 


73 



7, 


8, 


p.m. 


Ih 


9, 




u 


8, 


9, " 


7, 


8, 


9, *' 


7, 


U 


9^, " 


H.U 


8i> ** 


H 


7^ 


9, " 


2, 




3, 


6, 7, 8, 


7, 


8, 


9, " 


7, 


8, 


9,11," 


7, 


8, 


10, " 


7^ 


,9, 




7, 


8, 


9*^, " 


7, 


8, 


9, '« 


n 


,8. 


9*, " 


7, 


8, 


9, p.m 


6^,7i 


,9, " 


7, 


8, 


9i, - 


7, 


8, 


9, " 


n 


,8, 


9, " 


8, 


9, 


10, - 


7, 


8, 


9, " 




8, 


9, " 



7i,9, 
9, 10, 
8, 9, 
8,10, 
8, 9, 
8, 9, 



11,17 


8, 7 


9, 13, 14 


3, 4, 4 


21, 9, 7 


11, 3,11 


8,10, 8 


8, 12, 16 


4,10, 9 


2,6,9,4,3 


1, 6, 3 


1, 10, 4 


4, 24, 16 


9, 26 


7,10, 9 


6, 10, 12 


8, 4, 10 


3, 6,11 


6, 8, 7 


0, 3, 6 


6, 4, 7 


4,20, 8 


6, 8, 7 


8, 4, 7 


6, 8 


0, 6, 7 


12, 3 


8, 1, 3 


3, 0, 3 


1, 2, 4 


3, 0, 1 


2, 1 



18,000 

12,000 

10,000 

18,000 

20,000 

30,000 

30,000 

40,000 

55,000 

,000 

4,000 

60,000 

200,000 

200,000 

50,000 

60,000 

30,000 

30,000 

12,000 

12,000 

,000 

80,000 

30,000 

20,000 

50,000 

20,000 

80,000 

30,000 

8,000 

18,000 

,000 

,000 



The results of the artificial hatching of shad this season have been 
very encouraging, but a much greater number of fish should be 
annually hatched at this station in order to increase the run of fish in 
years to come, This station when put in good running order will pro- 
duce 3,000,000 shad in the period of forty days from the first day of 
June. To persons not acquainted with fish-culture this may seem to be 
a large number ; and yet it is small, comparatively, when we consider 
that previous to the obstructions to migratory fish, made by the con- 
struction of numerous dams on the river, the annual deposit of shad 
spawn along the headwaters of the Merrimack was probably more 
than twenty millions. Should the business be continued another season, 
it will be economy for the State to own a new seine made expressly 
for this station. The mesh should be two and a half inches, thus 
avoiding the killing of fish in hauling. A simple log boom is not 
sufficient to properly protect the hatching-boxes from the large amount 
of filth floating in the river. A movable boom, thirty feet long and 
ten inches deep, made of planks at a proper angle, sloping in both 
directions and safely anchored with chains, could be constructed at 
an expense not exceeding ten dollars, and this would greatly lessen 



12 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

the amount of labor in the care of the hatching-boxes. Better accom- 
modations are also needed for the fishermen. 
Yours respectfully, 

B. P. CHADWICK, 
ROBERT R. HOLMES. 

From information obtained from time to time it appeared 
evident that the depletion of the Merrimack River was largely 
due to other causes than the legitimate fishing. It was 
decided that a thorouojh investio^ation should be made. For 
this purpose Mr. B. P. Chadwick was appointed. He was 
indorsed by the Chief of the State Detective Force as a 
suitable man for the purpose. His report was severely 
criticised by the Newburyport fishermen. The Commis- 
sioners, however, believe that Mr. Chadwick was loyal to 
the State, and that he faithfully discharged the duties 
assigned him. Finding that his report had created a strong 
opposition, Mr. Chadwick tendered his resignation. On the 
recommendation of several of the leadino^ citizens of New^- 
buryport, Edwin F. Hunt was selected to make further in- 
vestigations at the mouth of the river. Mr. Hunt is a 
citizen of Newburyport, has been a fisherman, and is 
familiar with the fisheries of the Merrimack. The report of 
Mr. Hunt, which is here appended, is more conservative 
than that of Mr, Chadwick, yet in regard to the important 
question of the destruction of the young fish, it does not 
materially differ, and is corroborated by statements which 
have been received during the past three years. 

Report of the Fisheries on the Lower Merrimack. 

To the Commissioners on Lila?i'l Fisheries. 

Gentlemen, — I beg leave to present the following report for the 
year endmg Nov. 3d, 1882. 

There have been eight (8) seines used more or less on the lower part 
of the Merrimack during the past season, as follows, — five (5) at New- 
buryport, one (1) at Amesbury, one (1) at Groveland, and one (1) at 
Haverhill. Those at Newburyport are owned and run more or less as 
follows : Hiram Janvrin, Benjamin Stevens, Lewis Atwood, Samuel 
Furlong, George Thurlow and Henry Short. The seine of Nicholas 
Lattimer, with Andrew Hall as assistant, has been used occasionally. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 13 

Mr. Lattimer uses his small seine for catching bait for his eel-pot?^, also 
for smelts and yellow eels that will not be induced to enter the black- 
eel pots. Besides the above-named fishermen, the following persons 
usually engaged in clamming, use seines occasionally, — Daniel Nutting, 
John Iloyt, John Bryant, Charles Ryan, Lewis Short, Joseph Furlong, 
John Black, Clinton Lattimer, D. Coullard, Augustus Pike, Eliphalet 
Pike, Henry Sayward. The three seines used by these were owned by 
William Perkins, John Janvrin and Eliphalet Pike. Mr. Pike, the last 
named owner, after being duly warned not to break the law, persisted 
in fishing during the closed season in June, and, in consequence, he was 
proceeded against, fined by the court twenty-five dollars ($25) with 
costs of court, and confiscation of nets and boats. 

For the second season no menhaden have appeared at the mouth of 
the river. As a consequence the fishermen have depended upon ale- 
wives, bluebacks, and such other small fish as could be caught for 
bait. Many vessels in search of bait, which would have entered the 
river had the menhaden been plenty, were obliged to go elsewhere 

The number of shad taken during the allowed time of fishing in May 
was small, the season being unusually late. June 23d a considerable 
number of shad were taken, but mostly returned to the river, according 
to law. July 6th the first outside vessels came for bait. There were 
durino; the season, furnished to vessels eno:ao:ed in fishino; about seven- 
teen hundred barrels of bait at f 1.25 per barrel 

For several seasons past there have been some parties here from New 
York State fishing for stm'geon. They arrived this year July lltb, and 
stopped about four weeks, catching only three sturgeon. So far as I 
have been able to learn no oth r persons have fished for sturgeon on 
the river. Soon after the burning of the Pacific Mills at Lawrence, 
when a large amount of dyestuflfs and other chemicals flowed into the 
river, report came to me that a large number of dead salmon were to be 
found on the shores of the river. I made a careful inspection of both 
banks, and found one dead salmon below Essex Merrimack bridge, and 
six between Lawrence and Haverhill. I am confident that this is the 
extent of the injury done to the fish, although rejDorts multiplied them 
into hundreds. 

There Avas considerable unpleasant feeling manifested toward me in 
discharging my duty, which was entirely unnecessary and uncalled for. 
If the fishermen intended to abide by the law which they themselves 
agreed to, there would have been no occasion for complaint or il -feel- 
ing on their part. On the whole I think they have done better than was 
expected. I have been a fisherman myself and know something of the 
temjjtation that surrounds them. Again, it is not easy to break old 
habits. Many of them do not stop to reflect upon the result of what 
they are doing, and think it hard that they should not be allowed to do 
just what they please without any interference. 

Your attention has been called to the fact that seines with meshes of 
one-quarter to one half-inch are used in the fall when the young shad 
and alewives descend the river. I forward to you a sample of young 



14 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

fish taken from one of these seines, for inspection. It is very evident 
that the use of these seines is a serious injury to the fisheries of the 
Merrimack, and in justice to all should be discontinued. 

Yours truly, 

EDWIN" F. HUNT. 

It is desirable that hatching and planting of shad should 
be prosecuted vigorously, and that every obstacle in the 
way of restocking the river should be removed. The atten- 
tion of the legislature is called to the fact that there are 
several seines used at Newburyport with a mesh of from a 
quarter to half an inch. These nets are run through the 
fall months, at the time the young shad and alewives are 
descending the river, and are used for the purpose of taking 
all kinds of small fish. This is not only unjust to all the 
fishermen, but cannot fail to be a serious drawback in re- 
stocking the river, or even in maintaining it in its present 
condition. We recommend that no seine be allowed on 
the lower part of the Merrimack with a mesh less than two 
and one-half inches, or what is known as the alewife mesh. 
This would in no way interfere with the taking of menhaden 
and alewives, or what the fishermen call bluebacks, for 
bait, while it would prevent the wholesale destruction of 
young fish. 

Salmon (Salmo solar). 

In the spring of 1871 your Commissioners, united with 
several of the New England States for the purpose of 
procuring salmon spawn, under the superintendence of 
Charles G. Atkins, Commissioner of Maine. His plan was 
to buy live salmon from the fishermen at the mouth of the 
Penobscot River, and transport them to a small pond where 
they would be under control until ready to spawn. By this 
arrangement the cost of salmon spawn was reduced from 
forty (40) dollars per thousand, the price charged in 
Canada, to less than three (3) dollars. Soon after the 
commencement of this work Prof. Baird, United States 
Commissioner, joined the association, tendering the aid of 
the National Grovernment. This arrangement continued 
until 1876, when Prof. Baird, under the impression that 
salmon spawn could be obtained from California at much 
less expense, withdrew from the Bucksport establishment. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

As the funds of the New Enorland Commissioners did not 
warrant the continuation of the work alone, it was for a 
time abandoned. Prof. Baird's conclusion as to the cost of 
California spawn was correct ; but unfortunately the Cali- 
fornia salmon (Salmo quinnat)^ after a fair trial, proved to 
be an entire failure in New England waters. This was a 
disappointment, causing a break of four years in the work 
of establishing salmon in the Merrimack, as well as elsewhere. 
The success of the Penobscot salmon in the Merrimack has 
led to the re-opening of the works near Bucksport, with 
the co-operation of the United States Commission. By 
means of the contributions from several of the New Eng- 
land States, together with the assistance of the National 
Government during the past three years, the hatching works 
near Bucksport have been sending out a large supply of 
excellent salmon spawn. As it takes four years from the 
time they are hatched for salmon to return as spawning fish, 
the break above alluded to was more or less felt during the 
past season ; but, notwithstanding this, more salmon have 
been taken this year at the Plymouth Works than at any 
season since they commenced returning to the river. During 
the last two years about eight hundred thousand young fish 
have been turned into the Pem'gewasset River above Liver- 
more Falls. The consequence is that the river has swarmed 
with smolts, or young fish, during the past season. The 
return of these fish in 1885 and 1886 ought to furnish the 
works at Plymouth with a large amount of salmon spawn. 
This would obviate the necessity of going elsewhere for a 
supply. 

Thirty-six thousand young salmon were turned into the 
Nashua River. 

Salmon Spawn hatched^ and Young Fish put into the Headwaters 
of the Merrimack in 1882. 

Spawn from Bucksport, 841,000 

Loss of eggs and fish, . . , 6,698 

Pat into the river, 334,302 

Salmon spawn taken at Plymouth, N.H., 125,000 

Loss of eggs and fish, 4,319 

Total number of young salmon turned into the river for the 

spring of 1882 ... . 454,983 



16 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



Report of E. B. Hodge, Superintendent of the Works at Plym- 
outh, N.II., UNDER the Joint Action of Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire. 

To the Com7nissioners on Inland Fisheries for the CommomueaUh of 
Massachusetts. 

When I assumed charge of the joint hatching-house near Livermore 
Falls, June 1, the work of hatching for the year had been completed, 
and the salmon fry had been placed in the Pemigewasset. I immedi- 
ately had the reservoir put in condition to receive the expected spring 
run of salmon. 

The nets were placed in the river the 20th of June, and the first 
salmon taken the 26th Owing to another unusually dry season fol- 
lowing the severe drought of last year, the water, by the 20th of July> 
became too low for the fish to run. The fall run began about the last of 
September, and the last salmon was taken November 3. Thirty-three 
were taken in all — an increase of about twenty-five per cent. 

The eggs were taken the last week in October, and are remarkably 
healthy, the loss so far being only a fraction of one per cent. ; 150,000 
brook^rout eggs are now in the hatching-house, 75,000 of which I 
shall forward to you as soon as they are sufficiently advanced. 

The unusual low water in the Pemigewasset the last two years is not 
owing, as many suppose, to cutting away of the forests, causing the 
springs to dry up, and thus diminishing the volume of water in the 
river, but to the unusual light rain-fall, — as the area of woodland in 
Grafton County, and I might say in the whole State, is larger than 
twenty-five years ago. As directed, I have added about 500 brook-trout 
this season to the stock already in the ponds, making now about 600 
two years old and upwards, and 500 from one to two years old. 

There are also in the large pond from two to four thousand fry of the 
" California " or rainbow trout. Many of them are four inches and 
over in length, which shows a rapid growth, as they are only six months 
old. It will be necessary to prepare a place for them another season. 

The young salmon in the river this year were unusually plenty, more 
so than any previous year. So numerous were they on the rapids 
below the falls that it was impracticable to fish for trout, as a parr or 
smolt would be hooked at almost every cast. 

Many of the salmon that passed the fishways did not reach here, 
owing to the low water. They were plenty between here and Bristol in 
the pools, and some are reported to have fallen victims to the spear of 
the poacher. 

It is to be hoped that some action will be taken the coming season to 
prevent such violation of the law. 

Over 900 feet of gravelled walk has been made around the ponds 
As the supply of water in the hatching-house was not sufficient for the 
young fish when all the trays were full, I have laid a two-inch pipe 
from the large spring south of the house, which gives an additional 
supply of over 16,000 gallons per day. This water is three degrees 
colder than that from the old spring, and will retard the hatching, which 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 17 

will be an advantage, as the young fish will not be ready to place in the 
streams until they are tVee from ice and have become warm enough to 
furnish food for the young fry. 

The fact that no increase in the run of salmon was expected this 
year, together with the unusually large number of young fish in the 
river, certainly gives great encouragement for the success of the enter- 
prise in the future. 

E. B. HODGE, Superintendent. 

Plymouth, N. H., Dec. 4, 1882. 



Cultivation of Carp. 

In the fall of 1880 the Massachusetts Commissioners sent 
to Washington and procured from Prof. Baird five hundred 
German carp. Soon after eight hundred more were received 
from Prof. Baird, together with a list of about forty appli- 
cants from various parts of New England. These fish were 
distributed as stated in the report of 1880. The carp were 
very small, being only two or three inches long, and the num- 
ber distributed not exceeding a dozen to each person. In 
all cases the applicants- were informed that the carp were 
vegetable feeders, and utterly defenceless against other fish, 
and that frogs and water-snakes were very destructive to 
them. But little attention appears to have been paid to these 
statements. In many cases the young carp were dumped 
into ponds containing perch, pickerel, and other voracious 
fish, or into sloughs among pouts, frogs and mud-turtles, 
where no protection could be given them. Under such cir- 
cumstances it is not to be wondered at that but little has been 
heard from them, and that most of the parties took their last 
look at them when they" turned them into the water, or that 
the impression has gone out that they are not suited to the 
waters of New Englaiid. This impression has been strength- 
ened by statements of the success and wonderful growth of 
the carp in the Southern States. 

Under the treatment they received it was a mistake to 
have distributed them in such small numbers. Had each 
applicant received one or two hundred the result might have 
been more satisfactory. 

The carp is essentially a farmer's fish, easily raised, and 
requiring no great amount of skill to obtain them in 
abundance. In some places in Austria and Bohemia the 



18 INLAND FISHEEIES. [Dec. 

land is alternately used for raising crops and carp ; first 
the land for a few years is used for agricultural purposes, 
then flowed and stocked with carp. 

Four of the five hundred carp received by the Commission- 
ers were placed in the reservoir at the Tewksbury Ahus- 
house. There were several reasons for putting them in 
that place. First, they were received too late in the season 
to prepare a pond for them; secondly, it gave a chance of 
testing them without expense to the State. The water is 
cold spring- water, pumped from what used to be a trout 
stream. They have lived and grown finely, many of them 
weighing from one and a half to two and a half pounds. 
The bottom of the reservoir is paved with stones. This, 
with the low temperature of the water, prevents vegetable 
growth, and consequently renders it an unfavorable place for 
carp. With a grassy bottom and higher temperature they 
would probably have doubled their size. This shows a rapid 
growth under adverse circumstances. They have been under 
the care of Mr. T. J. Marsh, Jr., assistant superintendent, 
who has fed them with stale bread from the almshouse. Many 
of the fish are large enough to spawn next summer. Should 
the appropriation warrant it, breeding ponds will be con- 
structed in the spring, and every efi'ort made to multiply and 
distribute them in large numbers. Applications are on file 
from almost every town in the State, asking for a supply of 
these fish. They are especially valuable to the inland towns 
where fish arc scarce, and where they can be grown for a less 
price than any other food. 

Carp ponds should be flowed loam or grass land, the deep- 
est part running through the centre, sloping to the outlet, 
where it need not be over five or six feet deep. The rest of 
the pond should be shallow. This would enable the culti- 
vator to control the water, and by drawing it oflf slowdy 
bring all his fish into a small compass. Yery little more 
water is needed than will supply the evaporation. When 
streams are dammed for the purpose of making ponds, the 
overflow may be taken around the pond and the supply from 
an inlet at the upper end or side. The fish may be fed on 
all kinds of vegetables. Where the pond is large they will 
obtain a large part of their food from the pond. It is a 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19. 

question of pasturage and feed as to the number kept in a 
pond of a given size. As their food is inexpensive, being 
easily obtained on any farm, the keeping of hirge numbers in 
a small place may be often desirable. Water-snakes, frogs, 
and every kind of fish that preys upon other fish should be 
kept out of the breeding pond, or any other place where the 
young carp are kept. According to the statement of E. O. 
Sweeney, Commissioner of Minnesota, the carp have thriven 
in the ponds connected with the hatchery of that State. 

Mr. Sweeney says that he received 300 carp some time 
ago from Prof. Baird, but upon his advice had kept them in 
the hatchery for breeding purposes. There they had grown 
well and had bred well, but the Commissioners did not know 
to what extent, as they did not wish to disturb them in the 
pond, and to find out just what the result was would neces- 
sitate the drawing off of the pond or the use of nets, as the 
fish would not bite. He believes that within a short time 
there will be plenty of carp at the hatchery to distribute 



throughout the State. 



Conclusion. 



In the economy of living, next to meat comes fish, the- 
importance of which has been recognized through all time,, 
for in addition to its nutritious character it enables us to vary 
our food, an essential to good health, and, until within a few 
years, has had the additional merit of being the cheapest of 
food, coming within the reach of the humblest laborer. 

Had this state of things continued it is possible that but. 
little would have been done in fish-culture. The increase in 
population, together with the facilities for rapid transporta- 
tion, have increased the demand beyond the supply, and 
prices have advanced until fresh fish, before it reaches the 
consumer, costs more than bread. 

The possibility of fiish becoming one of the luxuries in- 
stead of one of the necessaries of life has created a public 
sentiment throughout the civilized world, demanding that 
fish-culture should receive its full share of attention. It was 
tliis that forced the National Government to create a 
Commission to investigate and improve the fisheries, and 
caused tliirty-Jive Statesand Territories to appoint Commis- 



20 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

sioners, backed in many cases by large sums of money, for 
the purpose of devising the best means of restocking our 
rivers and streams to their former abundance. 

Considering the short time which has elapsed since the 
commencement of the work, and that many if not all of the 
Commissioners had, at times, to grope their way in the dark, 
the results obtained are remarkable. 

Massachusetts w^as the first to lead in this work, with, 
probably, more obstacles to overcome than any other State. 
Her migratory fish had all been destroyed or so reduced as 
to be of little value ; a result which many persons supposed 
was not so much due to overfishing as to blocking the rivers 
and streams by insurmountable dams, preventing the return 
of the fish to their spawning grounds. 

The vast wealth invested in the manufactories, the motive 
power of which was derived from these dams, was naturally 
arrayed against any efforts to restock the rivers. It was 
therefore no inconsiderable part of the work of the Com- 
missioners, to harmonize as far as possible the public 
rights in the fisheries and the private interests of the manu- 
facturers. 

The invention of the fish way now in use in this State, as 
well as in some others, taking, as it does, so little water 
and that at a time when there is generally a surplus, did 
much toward removing any misapprehensions of the owners 
or occupants of the dams, and it is due them to say that, 
with very few exceptions, they have willingly complied with 
the demands made upon them. 

Successful as has been the work of the Commissioners 
throughout the several States, little has been done compared 
with w^hat might have been, and doubtless will he, when the 
people more thoroughly see its importance and acquire the 
judgment and skill necessary to complete success. Fish- 
eulturc, like every other industry, is a matter of growth. It 
has taken many years to bring our manufactories up to their 
present standard. No public enterprise can be forced much 
above the general intelligence of the community, and fish- 
culture is no exception to the rule. So long as a State allows 
the destruction of the young fish distril)uted for the purpose 
of restocking its waters, or a few rapacious fishermen are 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 21 

permitted to overrule the public good, so long will the work 
be more or less retarded. 

With our one hundred and ninety-six thousand three hun- 
dred and forty acres of land covered with water, it will be 
seen that few States possess the advantages of Massachusetts 
for fish-culture. 

This large area of water does not include the small streams 
that everywhere thread our meadows and lowlands, which 
might be turned into carp ponds, yielding a far better return 
than any other part of the farm. 

The Hon. Theodore Lyman, who has faithfully served as 
a Commissioner without compensation since the establish- 
ment of the Commission, over seventeen years ago, has 
retired from the board during the present year. His col- 
leagues on the Commission desire to place upon record their 
high appreciation of his labors in the cause of fish-culture, 
and their recognition of the cordial relations which have 
always existed between them. For what has been accom- 
plished in restocking our ponds and rivers, and in arousing 
public interest in the work, the Commonwealth is largely 
indebted to him ; w^hile his influence has always been given 
to secure the rights of the people. 

Eespectfully submitted, 

E. A. BRACKETT, 
ASA FRENCH, 

F. W. PUTNAM, 

Commissio?iers. 



22 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. '82. 



EXPENSES OF COMMISSION. 



Salary, $1,650 00 

Travelling and other expenses, 132 60 

Paid to Priscilla Freeman (Res. 1882, Chap. 55), . . . 600 00 
Subscription to fund of Schoodic Salmon-breeding Estab- 
lishment, 500 00 

Subscription to fund of Penobscot Salmon-breeding Estab- 
lishment, . . , ■ . 500 CO 



General Expenses. 

HaicMng -house at Plymouth : — 
A. H. Powers, services, 
Rent of hatching-house. 
Rent of land and streams, 
Labor, .... 

Expressage, 
Miscellaneous exjoenses, . 



Rent of land for hatching-house at Winchester, 

George E. Atkinson, care of Holyoke Fishway, 

Edwin F. Hunt, services and expenses, . 

E B. Hodge, services and expenses, 

Essex Company, privilege of fishing in Merrimack 

Morris Knowles, labor and materials at Lawrence 

Chase Philbrick, services, Merrimack River, . 

James Smith, services, Merrimack River, 

John A. Loring, use of premises, boats and nets at 

Thos. H. Pinkham, services of assistant, . 

F. D. Brackett, services and expenses, 

W. H. Foote, expenses. 

Printing, ..... 

Postage, telegrams and expressage. 

Cases and boxes. 

Rubber boots, . . . . 

Fish screens, .... 

Gate and lock at Holyoke Fishway, 



fl50 00 
25 00 
25 00 
31 25 
28 36 
24 53 



River, 



Andover 



$284 14 
50 00 
75 00 
624 27 
227 56 
30 00 
82 90 

49 50 
10 00 

50 00 

51 00 
24 10 

3 05 
168 26 

30 68 
10 70 

4 50 
20 10 

4 85 



$i,983 II 



APPENDIX. 



[A.] 
LIST OF FISH COMMISSIONERS. 



I 



Dominion of Canada. 
W. F. Whitcher, Commissioner, .... Ottawa, Ontario. 

Province of New Brunswick. 
W. H. Yenning, Inspector of Fisheries, . . .St. Jolin. 

. Province of Nova Scotia. 
W. H Rogers, Inspector, Amherst. 

Province of Prince Edward Island. 
J. H. Duvar, Inspector, Alberton. 

Province of British Colujibia. 
A. C. Anderson, Victoria. 

The United States. 
Prof. Spencer F. Baird, . . . - . . . Washington, D.C. 

Alabama. 

C. S. G. Doster Prattville. 

D.B.Huntley, Courtland. 

Arizona. 

John J. Gosper, Prescott. 

Eicliard Rule, Tombstone. 

Dr. J. H. Taggart, Business Manager, . . . Yuma, 

Arkansas. 

John E. Reardon, . . . . . . . Little Rock. 

James H. Hornibrook, Little Rock. 

H. H. Rottaken, . . Little Rock. 



26 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



Califokxia. 



S. R. Throckmorton, 
J. D. Far well, 
W. W. Travlor, . 



San Francisco. 
Kiles, AlmcdaCo. 
San Francisco. 



Wilson E. Sisty, 



Dr. Wm. M Hudson, . 
Robert G. Pike, . 
G6oro:o N. Woodruff, . 



COLOKADO. 



Connecticut. 



Idaho Springs. 



Hartford. 

Middletown. 

Sherman. 



Enoch Moore, Jr., 



Delaware. 



Wilmino;ton. 



Georgia. 

J. T. Henderson, Commissioner of Agriculture, and 

ex officio Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, 
Dr. H. H. Gary, Supt. ' . 



Atlanta. 
La Granofe. 



Illinois. 

N". K. Fairbank, President, Chicago. 

S P. Bartlett, . . . ... . . . Quincy. 

S. P. McDoel, Aurora. 

Indiana. 

Calvin Fletcher, Spencer, Owen County. 

Iowa. 
B. F. Shaw, .....'.... Anamosa. 
A. A. Mosher, Assistant, Spirit Lake. 

Kansas. 
Hon. D. B. Loner, Ellsworth. 



Kentucky. 



William Griffith, President, 

Hon. John A Steele, . 

Dr. Wm. Van Antvverp, 

A. H. Goble, 

Hon. C. J.Walton, 

Dr. S. W Coombs, 

John B. Walker, . 

P. H. Darby, 

Hon. J. ]\L Chambers 

W. C. Price, 



Louisville. 
Versailles. 
Mount Sterling. 
Catlettsburg. 
Munfordville. 
Bowling Green. 
Madisonville. 
Princeton. 
Independence, Kenton Co. 
. Danville. 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



27 



Maine. 



E. M. Stilwell, . 
Henry O. Stanley, 



Thomas Hnghlett, 
G. W. Delawder, . 



Maryland. 



Bangor. 
Dixfield. 



Easton. 
Oakland. 



Massachusetts. 

E. A Brackett, Winchester. 

Asa French, South. Braintree. 

F. W. Putnam, Cambridge. 

Michigan. 

Eli R. Miller, Richland. 

A. J. Kellogg, Detroit. 

Dr. J. C. Parker, Grand Rapids, 



Minnesota. 

1st District — Daniel Cameron, 
2dDistrict — Dr. Wm M Sweney, . 
3d District — Dr. Robert Ormsby Sweeny, 
4th District — No appointment until January. 
5th District — No appointment until January. 



La Crescent. 
Red Wing. 
St. Paul 



Missouri. 
Dr. J. G. W. Steedman, Chairman, . . 2803 Pine Street, St. Louis 

John Reid, Lexington, Lafayette County 

Dr. J. S. Logan, St. Joseph. 



W. L. May, . 
R. R. Livingston, 
B. E. B. Kennedy 



Nebraska. 



Fremont. 

Plattsmouth. 

Omaha. 



Nevada. 

Hon. Hubb G. Parker, Carson City. 

New Hampshire. 

George W. Riddle, Manchester. 

Luther Hayes, . . . . . . . . Milton. 

Albina H. Powers, . . . . . . . Grantham. 

Neay Jersey. 

Dr. Benjamin P. Howell, Woodbury. 

♦Major Edward J. Anderson, Trenton. 

Theodore Morford, Newton. 



28. 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



FDec. 



New York. 
Hon R, Barnwell Roosevelt, . . 76 Chambers St., New York. 

Edward ]\I Smith, Rochester. 

Richard U. Sherman, New Hartford, Oneida Co. 

Eugene G. Blackford (Fulton Market, New York 

City), 809 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn. 



North Carolina. 



S. G. Worth, 



Raleiofh. 



Ohio. 



Col. L. A. Harris, President, 
Charles W. Bond, Treasurer, 
Halsey C. Post, Secretary, . 



Cincinnati. 

Toledo. 

Sandusky. 



Pennsylvania. 



Hon. H. J. Reeder, 
Hon. B. L. Hewit 
James Duffy, 
John Hummel, 
Robert Dalzell, 
G. M. Miller, 



Easton. 

Hollidaysburg. 

Marietta. 

Selingsgrove. 

Pittsburgh. 

Wilkesbarre. 



Rhode Island. 

Alfred A. Reed, Providence. 

Newton Dexter, . . Providence. 

John H. Barden, 7 . Rockland. 

South Carolina. 

A. P. Butler, Commissioner of Agriculture, and ex 

officio of Fish and Fisheries, Columbia. 

C. J. Huske, Superintendent, Columbia. 



W. W. McDowell, 
H. H. Sneed, 
Edward D. Hicks, 



Tennessee. 



. Memphis. 
. Chattanooga. 
. Nashville. 



R. R Robertson, . 



Texas. 



Austin. 



Utah. 
No appointment since the death of Prof. J. L. Bar- 
foot in April last. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 29 

Vermont. 

Hiram A. Cutting, Lunenburg, Essex Co. 

Herbert Brainerd, St Albans. 

Virginia. 

Col. M. McDonald, Berry ville. 

West Virginia. 

Henry B. Miller, President, Wheeling. 

C S. White, Secretary, Romney. 

N. M. Lowry, Hinton. 

Wisconsin. 

The Governor, ex officio, Madison. 

Philo Dunning, President, Madison. 

C. L. Valentine, Secretary and Treasurer, . . Janesville. 

J. V. Jones, Oshkosh. 

John F. Antisdel, Milwaukee. 

Mark Douglas, . . . . , . . . Melrose. 

Christopher Hutchinson, . . . . • . . Beetown. 

Wyoming Territory. 

Dr. M. C. Barkwell, Chairman and Suj^erintendent, Cheyenne. 

Otto Gramm, Secretary, Laramie. 

Hon. N. L. Andrews, Johnson County 

Hon. E. W. Bennet, Carbon County. 

Hon P. J. Downs, Uinta County. 

Hon. T. W. Quinn, . . . . . . . Sweetwater Co. 



[B.] 

LIST OF PONDS LEASED. 

By the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries^ binder Aidhorihj given 
by Chap. 3S4, Sect. 9, of the Acts of 1869.* 



1870. 

Feb. 1. Waushaknm Pond, in Framinghpm, to Sturteyant and others, 

2U years 
April 1. Mendon Pond, in Mendon, to Leonard T. Wilson and another, 

20 years, 
Sept. 12. Baptist Lake, in Newton, to J F. C. Ilyde and others, 20 

years. 
Oct 15. Archer's Pond, in Wrentham, to William E. George, 15 years. 

1871. 

Jan 10. Nine-Mile Pond, in Wilbrahani, to B. F. Bowles, 10 years. 

30. Little Pond, in Falmouth, to F. H. Dimmick, 10 years. 
April -. Spectacle, Triangle, and Peters ponds, in Sandwich, to G. L. 
Fessendon and another, 5 years. 

17. Long Pond, in Falmouth, to Joshua S Bowerman and three 

others, 20 years. 
May 15. Pratt's Pond/in Upton, to D. W. Batcheller, 20 years. 

18. Little Sandy Pond, in Plymouth, to William E. Perkins, 15 

years. 
Nov. 1. Punkapoag Pond, in Randolph and Canton, to Henry L. 
Pierce, 20 years. 

1872. 

Jan. 1. Sandy Pond, Forest Lake, or Flint's Pond, in Lincoln, to 

James L. Chapin and others, 20 years 
July 20. Little Pond, in Braintree, to Eben Denton and others, 20 

3'ears. 

1873. 

May 1. Meeting-hoTise Pond, in Westminster, to inhabitants of West- 
minster, 15 years. 

* Wc Avould remind lessees of ponds that they are required, by their leases, to use all 
reasonable efforts to stock their ponds, and keep accurate records of the same, and make 
returns of their doings to the Commissioners on the 1st of October, each year, of the number 
and species of fish which they have put in or removed from their ponds. Any failure to 
compl>-with these conditions is a breach of contract invalidating their lease. It is important 
that the State should know just what is being done; and, where there appears to be mis- 
management or apparent failure, the Commissioners will visit the ponds, and ascertain, if 
possible, the cause. 



32 INLAND FISHEEIES. [Dec. 

1873. 

May 1 Great Pond, in Weymouth, to James L. Bates and others, 15 
years. 

July 1. Little Sandy Pond, in Pembroke, to A. C. Brigham and others, 
10 years. 

Sept. 1. Pontoosuc Lake, in Pittsfield and Lanesborough, to E.H. Kel- 
logg and others, 15 years. 

O^t. 1. Farm Pond, in Sherborn, to inhabitants of Sherborn, 15 
years. 

1. Spot Pond, in Stoneham, to inhabitants of Stoneham, 15 

years. 

Nov. 1. Lake Chaubunagungamong, or Big Pond, in Webster, to in- 
habitants of Webster, 5 years. 

Dec. 1. Lake Wauban, in Needham, to Hollis Hunnewell, 20 years. 

1874. 

Mar. 1 . Walden and White Ponds, in Concord, to inhabitants of Con- 
cord, 15 years. 

2. Upper Naumkeag, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants of Ash- 

burnham, 20 years. 
April 1 Elder's Pond, in Lakeville, to inhabitants of Lakeville, 15 
years. 
20. North and South Podunk Ponds, in Brookfield, to inhabitants 
of Brookfield, 15 years. 
May 1, Maquan Pond, in Hanson, to the inhabitants of Hanson, 15 
years. 
2. Brown's Pond, in Peabody, to John L. Shorey, 15 years. 
16. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to Lemuel Fullam, 15 

years. 
20 Unchechewalom and Massapog ponds, to the inhabitants of 
Lunenburg, 20 years. 
July 1. Hardy's Pond, in Waltham, to H. E. Priest and others, 15 
years. 
1. Hockomocko Pond, in Westborough, to L. N Fairbanks and 

others, 15 years. 
11. Mitchell's Pond, in Boxford, to R. M. Cross and others, 15 

years. 
11. Hazzard's Pond, in Russell, to N. D. Parks and others, 20 
years. 
Oct. 1. East Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of Sterling, 
20 years. 
20. Middleton Pond, in Middleton, to inhabitants of Middleton, 
15 years. 

187.'>. 

Jan. 1. White and Goose Ponds, in Chatham, to George W. Davis, 

15 years. 
Mar. 1. Lake Pleasant, in Montague, to inhabitants of Montague, 10 

years. 
1. Hood's Pond, in Ipswich and Topsfield, to inhabitants of 

Topsfield, 15 years. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 33 

1875. 

April 1. Chauncey Pond, in Westborough, to inhabitants of West- 
borough, 15 years. 
3. West's Pond, in Bolton, to J. D. Hurlburt and others, 15 

years. 
15. Gates Pond, in Berlin, to E. H. Hartshorn and others, 15 

years. 
24. Pleasant Pond, in Wenham, to inhabitants of Wenham, 15 
years. 
May 1. Morse's Pond, in Needham, to Edmund M. Wood, 15 years. 
1. Great Pond, in North Andover, to Eben Sutton and others, 

20 years. 
1. Chilmark Pond, in Chilmark, to J. Nickerson and others, 
agents, 20 years. 
July 1. Winter Pond and Wedge Pond, in Winchester, to inhabitants 
of Winchester, 15 years. 
1. Haggett's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 20 
years. 
Aug. 1. Oyster Pond, in Edgartown, to J. H. Smith and others, 20 
years. 
7. West Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of Ster- 
ling, 20 years. 
9. Mystic (Upper) Pond, in Winchester, Medford, and Arling- 
ton, to inhabitants of Winchester and Medford, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Little Chauncey and Solomon ponds, in Northborough, to in- 
habitants of Northborough, 15 years. 

1876. 

Feb. 1. Great Sandy Bottom Pond, in Pembroke, to Israel Thrasher 

and others, 15 years. 
Mar. 1. Dennis Pond, in Yarmouth, to inhabitants of Yarmouth, 15 
years, 
1. Crystal Lake, in Wakefield, to Lyman H. Tasker and others 
15 years. 
20. Lower Naumkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants of 

Ashburnham, 18 years. 
28. Dennison Lake, in Winchendon, to inhabitants of Winchen- 

don, 15 years. 
28. Phillipston Pondjin Phillipston,to inhabitants of Phillipston, 
20 years. 
May 8. South-west Pond, in Athol, to Adin H. Smith and others, 15 

years. 
June 1. Norwich Pond, in Huntington, to inhabitants of Huntington, 
20 years. 
10. Dug Pond, in Natick, to W. P. Bigelow and others, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Farm and Learned's Pond, in Framingham, to inhabitants of 
Framingham, 15 years. 
1. Whitney's Pond, Wrentham, to inhabitants of Wrentham, 15 

years. 
1. Little Pond, in Barnstable, to George H. Davis, 15 years. 



34 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

1877. 

Mar. 1. Nine-Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to inhabitants of Wilbraham, 
15 years. 
15. Pentucket and Rock ponds, in Georgetown, to inhabitants of 
Georgetown, 15 years. 
Aug. 10. Onota Lake, in Pittsfield, to William H. Murray and others, 

15 years. 
Oct. 1. Fort, Great Spectacle, and Little Spectacle ponds, in Lancas- 
ter, to inhabitants of Lancaster, 20 years. 
1. Battacook Pond, in Groton, to George S Graves and others, 
15 years. 
Nov. 1. Tispaquin Pond, in Middleborough, to Abishai Miller, 15 
years. 
1. Asnebumskitt Pond, in Paxton, to Ledyard Bill and others, 15 
years. 

1878. 

Jan. 1. Sniptuit, Long, Snow, arid Mary's ponds, in Rochester, tc 

inhabitants of Rochester, 15 years. 
Mar. 16. Asnaconcomic Pond, in Hubbardston, to Amory Jewett, jun., 

15 years. 
April 1. Dorrity Pond, in Milbury,to inhabitants of Milbury, 10 years. 
May 1.. Spectacle, Peters, and Triangle ponds, in Sandwich, to George 
L. Fessenden, 10 years. 
1. Bear Hill Pond and Hall Pond, in Harvard, to inhabitants of 
Harvard, 15 3 ears. 
July 1. Lake Buell, in Monterey and New Marlborough, to Andrew 

L. Hubbell and others, 5 years, 
Ock 1. Eel Pond, in Melrose, to J. A. Barrett and others, 15 years. 
1. Accord Pond, in Hingham, South Scituate, and Rockland, to 

inhabitants of those towns, 10 years. 
1. Wright's and Ashley's ponds, in Holyoke, to Henry C. Ewing 

and others, 10 years. 
1. Magog Pond, in Acton and Middleton, to inhabitants of 
Acton, 15 years. 
Half-way Pond, in Plymouth, taken by Commissioners for 5 
years from March 1, 1878, in accordance with provisions of 
Chap. 62 of the Acts of 1876. 

1879. 

Feb. 1. Lake Mahkunac and Lake Overic, in Stockbridge, to inhabit- 
ants of Stockbridge, 10 years. 

June 1. " Bald Pate," " Four Mile," an I " Stiles" ponds, in Boxford, 
to inhabitants of Boxford, 10 years 

July 1. Silver Lake, in Wilmington, to inhabitants of Wilmington, 
10 years. 
1. Fresh Pond, in Falmouth, to Thomas H. Lawrence, 20 years. 

Oct. 1. Pomp's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 15 
years. 

Nov. 1. Lake Quinapowitt, in Wakefield, to inhabitants of Wakefield 
14 years. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 35 

1880. 

Jan. 1. Granite-Cove Pond, in Gloucester, to David Babson, 10 

years. 
Mar. 1. Lake Winthrop, in Holliston, to inhabitants of Holliston, 15 

years. 
15. Massapoag Pond, in Sharon, to inhabitants of Sharon, 10 

years. 
May 1. Tisbury Great Pond, in Tisbury, to .Allen Look and others, 10 

years. 
June 1. Indian Pond, in Kingston, to inhabitants of Kingston, 10 

years. 
1. Jordan Pond, in Shrewsbury, to inhabitants of Shrewsbury, 

15 years- 
July 1. Swan and Martin's ponds, in North Reading, to inhabitants 

of North Reading, 15 years. 
Sept. 1. Herring Pond, in Eastham, to William H. Nickerson, 10 

years. 

1881. 

Jan. 1. Great and Job's Neck ponds, in Edgartown, to Amos Smith 
and others, 15 years. 

Mar. 1. The Mill Ponds (three), in Brewster, to Valentine B. New- 
comb and another, 15 years. 

May 2. Nonesuch Pond, in Weston and Natick, to W. A. Bullard and 
others, 15 years. 

April 1. Long Pond, in Blandford, to Samuel A. Bartholomew and 
another, 13 years. 

1882. 

Mar. 1. Blair's Pond, in Blandford, to Curtis M. Blair and another, 15 
years. 

April 1. Ward Pond, alias Wightman Pond, in Ashburnham, to Her- 
bert F. Rockwood and another, 15 years. 

May 1. Horn Pond, in Woburn, to inhabitants of Woburn, 15 years. 

June 1. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to inhabitants of West 
Brookfield, 15 years. 

Oct. 1. Long and Hummock ponds, in Nantucket, to Charles E. Snow 
and others, 15 years. 



36 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



[C] 



LEGISLATION. 

[Chap. 160.] 

An Act relative to the Fisheries in Granite or Goose Cove Pond in the city of 

Gloucester. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Sect 1. David Babson of Rockport shall have the exclusive right in 
Granite or Goose Cove Pond in the city of Gloucester for the purpose of 
cultivating lobsters and other useful fish until the first day of September 
in the year eighteen hundred and eighty-three. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
April 15, 1882. 



[Chap. 65.] 
An Act for the protection of Striped Bass and Bluefish in the waters of Edgartown. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Sect. 1. Whoever at any season of the year shall set, stretch or draw 
any seine or net of any kind in any of the vraters of the town of Edgar- 
town, excepting the Oyster Pond, the Great Pond, and Job's Neck Pond, 
for the purpose of taking or catching striped bass or bluefish, shall for- 
feit the sum of one hundred dollars for each offence. 

Sect. 2. Whoever shall take or catch at any season of the year in 
any of the waters of the town of Edgartown, excepting the ponds 
named in the preceding section, any striped bass or bluefish, by means 
of any seine or net of any kind, shall forfeit one dollar for each and 
every fish so taken or caught. 

Sect. 3. One-half of the money recovered in any case arising under 
this act shall be paid to the person making the complaint and the re- 
mainder to the Commonwealth. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. lAp2)roved 
March 11, 1882. 



[Chap. 53.] 
An Act for the protection of Traps, Trawls and Seines. 
Be it enacted, etc., as folloios : 

Sect. 1. Any person who shall take any fish or lobster from any 
trap, trawl or seine set for catching fish or lobsters, except by consent of 
the owner thereof, and any person who shall wilfully molest or interfere 
with such trap, trawl or seine, shall for the first offence be punished by 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 37 

a fine of not less than five nor more than twenty-five dollars, or by im- 
prisonment for thirty days, or by both fine and imprisonment; and for 
any subsequent offence by a fine of not less than twenty nor more than 
fifty dollars, or by imprisonment for sixty days, or both fine and impris- 
onment. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect forty days after its passage. [Ap- 
proved March 1 1 , 1882. 



[Chap. 98.] 
An Act to provide for the preservation of Lobsters. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Sect. 1. Section eio^hty-one of chapter ninety-one of the Public Stat- 
utes is hereby amended to read as follows : — 

" Section 81. Whoever during the month of July in any year catches 
or takes from any of the waters of this Commonwealth any female lob- 
ster bearing eggs, shall be punished for each offence by a fine of not 
less than ten nor more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in 
the house of correction for not less than one nor more than three months ; 
but a person catching or taking any such lobster during said month of 
July, and immediately returning it alive to the waters from which it 
was taken, shall not be subject to such penalty." 

Sect. 2. Section eighty-two of chapter ninety-one of the Public Stat- 
utes is hereby amended to read as follows : — 

" Section 82. Whoever during the month of July in any year sells 
or has in his possession with intent to sell, any female lobster bearing 
eggs, taken in this Commonwealth, shall forfeit for each offence a sura 
not less than ten nor more than fifty dollars " 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
March 21, 1882. 



[Chap. 102 ] 

An Act concerning the PMslieries in Great Pond and Job's Neck Pond in the town 

of Edgartown. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Sect. 1. The lessees holding from the commissioners on inland fish- 
eries a lease of Great Pond and Job's Neck Pond, in the town of Edgar- 
town, may take smelts and alewives from said ponds and from the 
ditches connecting them with each other and with the ocean, at all sea- 
sons of the year and without restriction as to days. 

Sect. 2. Whoever other than said lessees takes any fish, except eels, 
from either of said ponds or ditches, without the permission in writing 
of said lessees first obtained, shall forfeit one dollar for each fish so 
taken, and shall also forfeit any boat, net, line, rod or other apparatus 
used in such taking, in accordance with the provisions of chapter ore 
hundred and ninety-four of the Public Statutes. [Approved March i' 1 , 
1882. 



38 INLAND FISHEEIES. [Dec. 

[Chai>. 189.] 

An Act to regulate the Herring and Shad Fishery in Cole's River and itstributaries, 
and in Milford Pond, in the county of Bristol. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Sect. 1. The town of Swanzey is authorized to create herring and 
shad fisheries in Cole's River and its tributaries, and in Milford Pond, 
so called, in the count}' of Bristol ; and the right to take herring or shad 
from said river or its tributaries, or from said pond, is suspended for the 
period of three years next ensuing after the j^assage of this act; and no 
net, seine or weir shall be set therein during said period except as here- 
inafter provided. The fish wardens chosen as provided hj section three 
of this act may, however, take or cause to be taken from said river or 
its tributaries, or from said pond, at any time after the p issage of this 
act, such herring or shad as may be required for the purpose of stocking 
said pond or any of the tributaries of said river. 

Sect. 2. The town of Swanzey may sell at public auction, at a legal 
town meeting to be held in March in the year eighteen hundred and 
eighty-five, two privileges to take herring and shad from Cole's River 
from the first day of April to the first day of July in each 'year, for a 
period not exceeding five years, as hereinafter provided, at such places 
on said river as shall be designated by such fish wardens. The pur- 
chaser or purchasers of such pririlege may take herring and shad with 
one seine, at the places so designated, from sunrise on jSIonday until 
sunset on Wednesday in each week during such period; but no herring 
or shad shall be taken in any manner from said waters after the first 
day of July in each year. 

Sect. 3. The town of Swanzey, at its annual meeting in March in 
each year, may choose two or more suitable persons as fish wardens, 
who shall be sworn to the faithful discharge of their duties, and shall 
cause this act to be enforced and shall prosecute all violations of its 
terms. The fish wardens so chosen shall prevent and remove all un- 
lawful obstructions in the course of said river or its tributaries to the 
passing up and down of the said fish from the first day of April to the 
first day of July in each year ; and ma}', for the purposes of this act, go 
upon and pass over the land of any person through or by which said 
river or any tributary thereof runs, or which borders upon said pond, 
without being considered trespassers : jjrovided, that any person sustain- 
ing damage in his property may have the same assessed in the man- 
ner provided when land is taken for highways. Whoever wilfully 
hinders or molests any such fish warden, or any person authorized by 
such fish wardens, in the necessary clearing of said river or its tribu- 
taries, and in the necessary and proper use of lands on said river or its 
tributaries, or said pond, for creating and protecting the said fishery, 
shall forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding twenty dollars for each 
ofi'ence, to be recovered in the manner provided in section four of this 
act. 

Sect. 4. If any person other than those who have purchased such 
privilege as aforesaid fishes with a seine or net at any time or in any 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 39 

manner, or sets any net, seine, weir, or other obstructions in any part of 
said river or its tributaries, or of said pond, with intent to take or 
destroy any shad or herring, he shall forfeit and pay twenty dollars for 
each oflfence, to be recovered on coniplaint, one-half to the use of said 
town of Swanzey and one-half to the use of the person who shall give 
information leading to the prosecution and conviction of such offender ; 
and all seines, nets or weirs so used or set shall be forfeited to the person 
who shall give such information. 

Sect. 5. All laws relating to fishing in Cole's River are repealed. 
[Approved April 29, 1882. 



[Chap. 166.] 
An Act relative to Fishing in the Merrimack River. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Sect. 1. The penalties provided by chapter ninety-one of the Public 
Statutes relative to fishing in the Merrimuck River shall not apply to 
or be in force against any person drawing a net or seine after the 
twentieth day of June in each year at any point below the Essex Mer- 
rimack Bridge in said river, unless such person shall take salmon or 
shad, nor shall a person taking a salmon or shad while thus lawfully 
fishing and immediately returning it alive to the waters from which it 
was taken be liable to any of the aforesaid penalties. 

Sect. 2. No penalty shall be incurred by any one taking sturgeon 
in the tidal waters of the Merrimack River : provided, that no net or 
seine having a mesh which stretches less than twelve inches shall be 
used in taking the same. 

Sect. 3. This act ^shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
April 19, 1882. 



40 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. '82. 



RETURNS OF WEIRS, SEINES AND GILL-NETS. 

Returns to the close of the season (Oct. 20, 1882), have 
been received from 85 weirs, 33 sea-seines, and 100 gill-nets, 
an increase of 21, 16, and 39 respectively over the previous 
year.* These returns show an increase in the catch of shad 
(50 per cent.), ale wives (44 per cent.), mackerel (93 per 
cent.), Spanish mackerel (281 per cent., but the total catch 
was only 397), striped bass (129 per cent.), tautog (47 per 
cent.), flounders and flat-fish (52 per cent.), white perch 
(162 per cent.). There were also given on the returns, 1,525 
bonito, 4,665 <'sea bass," and 175 rock bass. 

The returns show a decrease in the catch of menhaden (Q^ 
per cent.), sea herring (7 per cent.), bluefish (8 per cent.), 
scup (14 per cent.), squeteague (15 per cent.), frost-fish 
{^^ per cent.), eels (17 per cent.), and smelts (2 percent.). 

There was also a large falling oflf in the catch of shad in the 
Connecticut and Merrimack rivers, while in the Taunton 
River the catch of shad was more than double that of last 
year. There were 292 shad taken at the mouth of the Mer- 
rimack, and 897 are returned from other streams. 

In the river fisheries there is a decided falling off in the 
catch of alewives, and a gain in that of striped bass. The 
two seines at the mouth of the Merrimack return a catch 
of 193,800 bluebacks. 

* Several returns received after the tables were made up are not included in this 
summary. They would not materially change the percentage given. 



TABLES. 



42 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



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1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25 



45 







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CO 


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u 


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2 


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[Dec. 



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3 


r2 
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s 

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1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 2b^ 



47 



, . . s 




t^ 05 »o -^ 
^ ^ ^ CO 


^. 

CO 

CO 


JO CO 1 OO 


co" 


435 

24,915 

101,600 

48,010 


1 


3,531 
1,009 

885 
3,089 


CO 


lO t^ O C<J 

O I— 1 -^ lO 


CM 

o" 

-* 


' ' ' :^ 


o 

CO 


^ 1 ' s 


o 

i 

co" 


1,679 

404 

5,100 

1,756 


& 


8,580 

2,427 

4,400 

903 


1— 1 

!- 


t^ (M 1 (M 


Oi 
(M 


3,907 
24 


1 


1^ 'O 


Oi 

(M 1 


Leonard A. Lnce, 
Charles C. Murphy, . 
W. G. Rathbun, 
L. A. Luce, 


Unknown, 





48 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



•I8ja^ot?w 








1 






















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CO 




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U 






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1 




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CO 


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d 

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d 


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e: 


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o 




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3 


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1 


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1 

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a 

1 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No 25. 



49 



, 


1 


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1 


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1 


. 


1 


. 


. 


. 


. 






1 




« 


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1 


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1 


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o 










o 






















o 




lO 










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oo 




o 










:d; 






















CM 
















' 


' 


1 
















1 


1 


lo 






1 


, 


Ci 


























CM 




































CO 










■— ' 




































CO 


























^. 












.r> 


1 


, 


1 


, 




, 


1 


1 


1 


, 


1 


1 






, 


1 


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lO 


































lo 


(M 




, 


o 


, 




1 


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, 


1 


, 


, 


o 






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, 


o 


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CO 
































'i.^ 

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, 


1 


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CO 


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CO 


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oi 




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CO 












o 












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CO 














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CO 


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50 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



S3 

00 









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1 


1 


' 


' 


1 


1 


' 


' 


1 


1 


1 


1 


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1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 51 



I I I I I <M I I i I I I I I I I I 



I I I I I 






1 ..>...... . 


1 o 


o 


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CO 


CO 


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05 


o 


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CO 


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o 


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CO 


1 Csl 


OS 


a 


o 


GO 


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05 


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lO 


o 


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o 


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CO 


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CO 


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52 



INLAND FISHEKIES. 



[Dec. 





1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


, 


1 


1 


, 


1 


r-( 


, 


, 


, 


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, 






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i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 




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1 


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, 


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o 


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fee 




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o 


s 


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ph 


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t-5 


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73 

pi3 


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1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 2o. 



53 



I I I I I I I I I I 



CO Ci CO C5 OO 



.-H I Ci CO 



I o ^ o 



00 oo 

as Ci 

lO GO 



I I I I I I 



00 


Ci 


CO 


oo 


Oi 


OO 


CO 


^ 


CO 


^ 




00 




c^ 






CO 








-rfl 


Ci 


00 


GO 




o 


CO 




























OO 


CO 


CO 


GO 


t^ 


CO 


^ 


o 


-—1 


Ol 



I QO C<) 



i ' ' ' 



I I I I r 



I I I I 



Ol-^OO |.-I000i0 It^ 

ot--coo oot^c<ic<io <r> 

—^ .-T coio~c<ri>rco i-T 



I I I 



c3 


j^ 


H 






t>^ 


o 


H 


'o 


i 


!S 


cj 


<«i 





^ 

^ ^ 



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^ 










rri 




P 

5 


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o 
o 


03 
Oh 


S 


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;^ 


fi 


Ph 


w 


p^ 

CO 


p^ 


o 


^ 


g 


d 


s 


w 


o 


pq 


o 

i-s 


t-s 


^^ 



54 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



1 

1 -spa 


' 


1 


1 


' 


' 


1 


1 


' 


1 


' 


:^ 


' 


1 


' 


' 


1 




1 


1 


, 


, 


, 


1 


, 


, 


, 


CO 


»o 


, 


^ 


,_l 


, 


, 


•uapequaM 




































1 


CO 


, 


CO 


Ci 


lO 


^ 


-* 


C<1 


o 


00 


o 


CO 


10 


CO 


CO 










Ci 


r^ 




^ 






CO 


o 


h- 




■^ 


CO 


00 


•qspania 












CO 

of 


c^ 


t^ 


- 


'^ 




t^ 


c<r 


- 








, 


1 


, 


<_, 


, 


1 


r 


, 


, 


(N 


fN 


o 


1 


1 


^ 


, 


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§ 


o 






^. 




sj8puno[j: 




































, 


, 


1 


1 


1 


, 


1 


1 


(M 


00 


CO 


, 


CO 


t^ 


„ 


, 


•SojnBi 


















CO 




^ 








!^- 






o 


t~^ 


>r5 


CO 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


CQ 


CO 


, 


1 


CO 


^ 






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- 


























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t 




co_ 




























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, 


, 


, 


, 


, 


1 


1 


, 


, 


1 


00 


, 


<M 


, 


-, 


Usiuuds 




























"* 








, 


, 


1 


r 


?o 


_l 


CO 


1 


1 


Ci 


^ 


CD 





CO 


,_, 


1 


•8nSBa;9nt)g 




















00 


CO 




05 


CO 


^ 






1 


1 


1 


, 


, 


CO 


^ 


-* 


^ 


00 


05 


lO 


ITS 


t^ 


-* 


1 














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00 


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r 


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, 


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, 


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^ 




















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c 




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• 


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o 

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c- 


5 

o 


o 
o 


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a 

CO 

o 


i 

Q 


i 

d 


s 

1 


i 

w 

1 

1 


1 


1 

p^ 
d 


1 

c4 


i 

s 

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5 


c 

OS 


Q 



c 
P^ 

1 


P 

g 
CO 


H 




: 


: 


: 




: 


: 


: 


; 


: 




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1 












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03 


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g 


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1 


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^ 










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£ 




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1882. J 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



55 



1 


1 


, 


1 


, 


, 


1 


, 


, 


1 


, 


, 


1 


1 


r^ 






























Oi 


' 


' 


iri 


1 


' 


' 


^ei 


' 


' 


' 


' 


' 


1 


' 


1 


(M 


o 


CO 


Ci 


CO 


o 


-H 


o 


t^ 


C5 


CO 


o 


t— 


o 


o ! 


5^ 








t^ 


t^ 


CO 






CO 


t^ 














CO 




(M 


c» 




-* 








t^ 




t^ i 










































'"' 






C^l 


S<l 




^ 


CO 




CO 


, 


, 


1 


, 


, 


1 


, 


CP 


, 


, 


, 


, 


1 


, 


CO 






























o 












































































00 












































CO 


' 


1 


-*! 


' 


1 




1 


-* 


• 


' 


1 


1 


I 


1 


s- 1 


, 


, 


, 


, 


, 


1 


, 


, 


1 


1 


, 


1 


, 


, 


o ' 






























t^ 






























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CO 






























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o 1 


1 


(M 


-- 


1^- 


^ 


C<J 


-- 


o 


' 


' 


1 


-- 


' 


' 


00 


<M 


1 


(M 


, 


__, 


-* 


o 


C<I 


, 


1 


1 


CO 


. 


1 


CO 1 














CO 


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co" 


1 


O 


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1 


C5 


^ 


1^ 


l--^ 


, 


1 


1 


^ 


, 


1 


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O 






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CO 


CO 








00 






I^ 














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^ 














o 


1 


, 


, 


, 


, 


1 


I 


.o 


, 


1 


, 


, 


, 


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C5 




























00 






























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^ 












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00 




























































CO 


1 


, 


1 


, 


, 


, 


, 


00 


, 


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, 


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, 


















o 














^ 


, 


1 


, 


1 


1 


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, 


1 


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, 


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1 


, 


, 


o 




























































CO 






























<^ 






























Oi 






























CO 


' 


1 


1 


' 


1 


(M 


' 


^ 


1 


' 


' 


1 


' 


' 




: 










' 


' 




: 












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1 


s 


1 


s 


1 




> 
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73 

> 


cd" 

a 

ci 




g 


a 


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1 


1 




.2 


d 


1 

4 


o 


a 

c 


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< 
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o 
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• 


• 


• 


• 


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• 




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• 


• 


• 


















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> 






























c3 


















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• 


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W 


^ 


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• 


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V 


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3 


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p> 


z, 















56 INLAND FISHERIES, 

Table No. IV. — Connecticut-River Seines. 



[Dec. 



Town or Place. 



Agawam, 
Longmeadow, 
Chicopee, 
Total, . 



Proprietor. 



A. J. Hills, 
A. Converse, 
H. W. Chapin, 



364 

292 

2,114 

2,770 



Table No. Y. — Merrimack-River Seines. 



Tow-N OR Place. 



Proprietor. 



North Andover, . 


Eben Sutton, 


74 


- 


- 


Haverhill, .... 


Chas. E. Ordway, . , . 


31 


- 


- 


Byfield, .... 


Ira P. Newton, .... 


- 


2,800 


- 


Amesbury, .... 


Jonathan Morrill, .... 


282 
387 


- 


1 


Total, .... 


2,800 


1 



Table No. YI. — Taunton-River Seines. 



Town or Place. 



Proprietor. 



Berkley, . . . . 


Isaac N. Babbitt, . 


1,924 


91,361 


- 


<( 




. 


F. P. Case, . . 


687 


108,323 


- 


« 






Nichols & Shove, . 


1,900 


180,000 


- 


Dighton, 






E. & 0. M. Buffington, 


800 


90,000 


- 


« 






E. Hathaway, 


2,865 


150,000 


44 


i( 






Chas. N. Simmons, 


1,800 


160,000 


- 


Middleborough, 






John Garland, 


~ 


47,125 


- 


Raynham, 






J. S. Townsend, . 


690 


71,148 


- 


Taunton, 






John W. Hart, . 


306 


81,900 


- 


Somerset, 






J. B. Hathaway, . 


200 


50,000 


- 


" 






Geo. H. Simmons, 


1 


9,415 


- 


Total, . 


11,173 


1,039,272 


44 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 57 

Table No. VII. — Other Fresh-water Seines, or Dip-net Fisheries. 



V 



Town or Place. 


Name. 


m 


< 


1 


.a 
1 


C3 

CQ 
to 


Weymouth, . 


David Tucker, 


- 


152,400 




- 


- 


Kingston, 


Philander Cobb, . 


- 


42,015 




- 


- 


Plymouth, 


E. & J. C. Barnes, 


- 


28,864 


_ 


- 


- 


(( 


Wm. S. Hadaway, . 


- 


- 


24,000 


- 


- 


<( 


B. F. Hodges, 


8 


20,685 


- 


- 


- 


Barnstable, . 


E,. Marston, . 


- 


11,680 


- 


- 


- 


" 


E. Phinney, . 


- 


137,385 


- 


- 


- 


Brewster, 


Job Wixon, . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Wellfleet, 


George Baker, 


- 


8,631 


- 


- 


- 


Dennis, . 


Jonathan Bangs, . 


- 


280,797 


- 


- 


- 


Yarmouth, 


P. P. Aiken, . 


- 


4,524 


- 


369 


- 




David S. Baker, . 


128 


4,329 


- 


- 


2 


<« 


Benj. Blachford, . 


24 


900 


- 


- 


- 


. . 


M. Amos, 


- 


24,683 


- 


- 


- 


Marshpee, 


W. H. Simon, 


- 


4,775 


" 


- 


- 


. . 


W. R. Mingo, 


- 


16,050 


- 


- 


- 


Wareham, 


Geo. Sanford, . 


- 


432,000 


- 


- 


- 


Taunton, . 


G. B. Williams, . 


563 


164,899 


- 


- 


- 


Mattapoisett, . 


A. H. Shurtleff, . 


- 


152,666 


- 


- 


- 


Westport, 


C. V. S. Remington, . 


- 


10,000 


- 


- 


- 


. . 


Philip S. Tripp, . 


50 


12,476 


- 


- 


236 


a 


Lysander W. White, . 


- 


1,714 




45 




South Dartmouth, . 


John Querpel, 


124 


12,820 




- 


- 


Chilmark, 


Estate H. M. Smith, . 


- 


27,148 




- 


- 


Edgartown, 


A. Huxford, . 


- 


7,318 


- 


- 


- 


Total, 


897 


1,558,659 


24,000 


414 


238 



58 



INLAOT) FISHERIES. 



[Dec. '82. 



Table No. VIII. — Seine Fishery at the Mouth of the Merrimack. 



Name. 




I 
1 




N. Lattimer & A. 
John Jannin 


Hall, 


292 


1,463 
28,150 


193,800 






Total, . 


292 


29,613 


193,800 







PUBLIC DOCUMENT. iSTo. 25. 



EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPOET 



COMMISSIONEES 



INLAND FISHERIES, 



Year ending December 31, 1883. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1884, 



\ 



COi^TENTS. 



Report, 

Appendix A. List of Fish Commissioners, . 

B. Salmon Breeding Establishment in Maine, 

C. Salmo salar, . . . 

D. Fishway in Norway, 

E. Edible qualities of Carp, 
Legislation, 
List of Leased Ponds 
Returns of Leased Ponds, 
Returns of Weirs, Seines, and Gill-nets, 



Page 
5 

33 
39 
43 
47 
56 
88 
90 
96 
104 




FiSHWAY AT PaWTUCKE- 




Dam, Lowell, Mass. 



Commontoealt^ of Passac^setts. 



To His Excellency the Governor and Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries beg leave to pre- 
sent their Eighteenth Annual Keport. 

FiSHWAYS. 

Plans and specifications of fish ways have been furnished 
to two owners of dams on the Acushnet River, and for two 
dams in South Scituate. As in former years depredations 
have been committed at the Holyoke fishway. Early in the 
season a man was recommended by the mayor and prominent 
citizens of Holyoke, as a suitable person to enforce the laws. 
He was appointed deputy, and under pretence of authority 
appointed an assistant, telling him that he had a right to 
give him permission to take fish from the fishway. The as- 
sistant, with others, commenced a thriving business by tak- 
ing fish from the fishway at night, paying the deputy for 
the permission. Deputy and assistant were promptly ar- 
rested and fined fifty dollars and cost of court. 

Pawtucket Dam, Lowell. 

Some misTinderstanding has arisen in regard to the fishway 
at this place, and a petition was forwarded to the Governor, 
stating that '* there is no fishway in this dam," and "the 
Commissioners have refused to order one," both of which 
statements are incorrect. A committee of the Council was 
appointed by the Governor, and the petitioners given a hear- 
ing. 

In 1866 the Commissioners of this State furnished plans 
for a fishway which were approved by the New Hampshire 
Commission, and the Locks and Canal Company were re- 
quested to construct the same over their dam. The order 



6 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

was promptly complied with, the iishway being finished in 
September of the same year, and for a period of nine years 
it remained as the only pass at this dam, but with little or 
no evidence that it was successful. 

In 1875 the Company rebuilt their dam, and in so doing 
sjDCcial reference was had to a new fishway. Fortunately 
the dam terminated on the Dracut side in a fall of about 
two feet, and by blasting a channel in the ledge a natural 
pass for the fish was secured. This has successfully an- 
swered the purpose for eight years, and has proved to be 
far better than any artificial structure which could have been 
erected over any part of the dam. 

When the new dam was built the old fishway was not con- 
nected with it, and the new pass being situated partly under 
the bank, is not likely to be noticed unless specially sought 
for. Many of the petitioners supposed that the old fishway 
was the only provision made for the passage of the fish. 
This was apparent not only at the hearing, where but' three 
or four of the petitioners appeared, but also from a number 
of them having since stated that they signed the petition 
under a misapprehension. 

There are difi&culties connected with the building of all 
fishway s which have not been overcome. 

A fishway which is perfectly successful at a medium stage 
of water, will with very high or very low water be more or 
less defective. 

While the present fishway at Lowell is one of the best on 
the river, it is possible that in its details it may be improved, 
and in this the Locks and Canal Company have always shown 
a commendable spirit, being ever ready to make such minor 
changes as the Commissioners have desired. But on the 
other hand, they have taken the ground that unless good 
and sufficient reasons can be shown for the expenditure, they 
will resist any attempts to compel them to build a new fish- 
way. 

In the early movements of the Commissioners of this State, 
they found the rivers barred with dams, some of them of 
great height, thereby preventing the migratory fish from 
reaching their spawning grounds. The question of providing 
passes was a perplexing one and there was little to be gained 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. t 

from the experience of others. Especially was this true in 
regard to high dams. It was evident that if good fishways 
could not be provided, the cultivation of migratory fish to 
any great extent was impossible. Much perplexity and anxi- 
ety was experienced, with no little expenditure of money, 
on the Lawrence fishway. The difficulty lay largely in the 
accelerated speed of the water as it decended the pass. All 
efforts to check this force resulted in producing currents 
which did not attract the fish upward. 

It was while studying these whirlpools and circling cur- 
rents, produced by efforts to break the force of the water, 
that it was discovered that fish in their progress up stream, 
are guided entirely by the current, which they follow regard- 
less of everything else. It matters not what is the outline 
of the shore or how crooked the stream, so long as there is 
a continuous thread or current to entice them forward. This 
led to the discovery and adoption of two forms of fishways : 
first, the improved Foster, and second, what is now known 
as the Brackett fishway. Both were invented in 1868, but 
the latter was not built to any considerable extent until 
1872. It is claimed that this will take from the top of any 
dam, no matter how high, a column of water and land it at 
the bottom without increase of velocity, — that the current 
is so slow and the water so unbroken that all kinds of fish 
can easily pass through it, and that it takes so little water 
that the manufacturing interest is not seriously injured by 
it. In this alone it has proved of more value to the State 
than the total cost of the Commission. Its complete success 
both here and in Europe has been fully established, marking 
a new era in fish culture, by making available thousands of 
miles of rivers heretofore closed to migratory fish. Good 
fishways lie at the foundation of inland fish culture and 
whatever tends to improve or make them effective is of 
great value. 

In the Appendix will be found a very interesting descrip- 
tion of a fishway spanning a fall of eighty-nine feet, on the 
river Sire, Norway. This pass has not only been thoroughly 
tested, but is, by many feet, the highest pass known. The 
modifications described may be, and doubtless are, desir- 



8 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

able in so long a fishway (nearly half a mile), but over dams 
of twenty or thirty feet they are not required. We regret 
that the plans and drawings intended to accompany the de- 
scription have not been received. The following letter will 
explain the cause of delay : — 

Christiana, Norway, Nov. 8, 1883. 
Mr. E. a. Brackett. 

Sir : — ^ Excuse me that so ver}^ long time has been allowed to 
elapse before answering jonr letter of Februaiy 19, of this year. 
A description of the fishwaj'S on the river Sire was certainly printed 
for the International Fisheries Exhibition in London ; but the 
drawings that accompanied the description, both in the Edin- 
burgh and London exhibitions, have not been printed, and I am not 
in position to get a copy of them now. I have been in hopes, how- 
ever, that at least some of the drawings would be published this 
autumn, here in Christiana, in a periodical paper for engineering, 
and this is the reason why I have delayed so long answering your 
letter. I now understand, however, that the publication most 
likely will not take place till later on in the winter. I therefore 
now send you by book-post, a copy of the description, and as soon 
as the drawings, or an}^ of them, are published, I shall have the 
pleasure to forward to you a copy of these too. 

For the interesting Reports you kindly sent me, please receive 
my best thanks. 

Believe me to be yours very truly, 

A. Landmark, 

Inspector of Fisheries for Norway. 

Report of Fish Seen in the La whence Fishwat in the tear 

1883. 
April 22. Water let into the fishwaj^ 
May 20. Saw the first fish, a lamper eel. 

20 to1 
June 4 



The river was high. There being no flash-boards on the 
south end of the dam, while there were flash-boards 
the rest of the way, caused a very strong current of 
water by the end of the fishway, and although I saw 
a good many alewives and suckers side of the ledge 
below the fishway, I saw yerj few in the fishwa}" un- 
til June 4th, when the river fell some, and the flash- 
boards were repaired. 
June 4. Alewives, suckers and chubs, run large. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 9 

^une 5. Alewives, lampers, suckers and chubs, run very large. 

G. Alewives, lampers, suckers and chubs, run large. 

7. Alewives, lampers, suckers and chubs, run large. 

8. Alewives, lampers, suckers and chubs, run moderate. 

9. Alewives, lampers, suckers and chubs, run small. 

10. Alewives, lampers, suckers and chubs, run small. 

11. Alewives, suckers and chubs, run small. 

12. Lampers, suckers and chubs, run small. 

13. Alewives, lampers, suckers and chubs, run small. 

14. Alewives, suckers and chubs, run small. 

15. Suckers and chubs, run moderate. 

16. Alewives and suckers, run small. 

17. Suckers and chubs, run moderate. 

18. Alewives, suckers and chubs, run small. 

19. Two salmon^ 15 to 20 pounds ; alewives, lampers, suck- 

ers and chubs, run moderate. 

20. Ten salmon^ 10 to 20 pounds ; alewives, lampers, suck- 

ers and chubs, run moderate. 

21. Alewives and suckers, run moderate ; lampers, run 

small. 
22-29. A freshet in the river: never saw the water so muddy 
before. Scarce any fish in the fishway during this 
time. Think this very dirty water had a bad eflfect 
on the fish, as a salmon 3 feet long, and 17 pounds 
weight, was found dead in the south canal, shortly 
after this freshet, without a mark or scar on him. 
30. Suckers and chubs, run small. 
Jul}^ 1. Suckers, chubs and (small) silver eels, run small. 

2. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

3. Suckers and silver eels, run small. 

4. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run moderate. 

5. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

6. Suckers and silver eels, run small. 

7. Suckers and silver eels, run small ; one large silver eel. 

8. Suckers, run small ; silver eels, run large. 

9. Suckers, run small; silver eels, run large. 

10. Suckers, run small; silver eels, run large; one black 

bass. 

11. Suckers, run small ; silver eels, run large. 

12. Suckers and chubs, run small ; silver eels, run large. 

13. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run moderate. 

14. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run moderate ; two black 

bass. 



10 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dee. 

Jul}^ 15-25. When water was shut out, on account of the river be- 
ing low, nothing was seen in the fishway but a few 
suckers and chubs, and hundreds of small silver eels. 
During the rest of July, and the months of August 
and September, the river was remarkably low : water 
was in the fishwjiy only on Sundays, and not always 

then. When water was in there were a few suckers 

r 

chubs and small silver eels in the way. During part 
of August and the month of September, there were 
six salmon lying in the pools at the foot of the dam 
near the bridge. They were often noticed by peo- 
ple on the bridge, swimming lazily about. 
Oct. 7. Let the water into the fishway, the river having risen. 
9. Two salmon in the fishway, 15 to 20 pounds weight. 
Saw no fish, except a few suckers and chubs, in the 
fishway after October 9, to November 1. 
Mr. Knowles, while making some repairs on the fishway in the 
spring, notified me that the planking in the bottom of the way was 
getting rotten. He thought that two-inch planking should be put 
in, all over the bottom, another year. 

I should think if an addition was made to the fishway, down 
side of the ledge (where the fishway was built first), that it would 
be a great advantage to the fish when the river is high, as at such 
a time the water rushes by the end of the fishway, as it is now con- 
structed, with great force. 

When the river fell, the water could be shut out of the addition 
and turned into the present lower end of the way. 

If a channel were cut through the rocks, causing a current 
through the pools below the dam, down to where the river runs 
under the bridge at low water, it would be quite a help to the fish 
in a low state of the river. Should think this might be done at 
small expense. I am informed that there are few ponds above here 
that alewives can get into to spawn. 

Some citizens of Andover undertook to have the town of An- 
dover clean out Fish Brook, so that the alewives could get into 
Raggett's Pond ; but they were defeated at the spring town meet- 
ing. 

It is evident if the alewives cannot get into the ponds they will 
not increase. 

The black bass seem to have gone up the river ; I hear of very 
few being caught in the river here at Lawrence. 
Yours respectfully, 

Thomas S. Holmes. 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25 



11 



Arrangements have been made to re-plank the bottom of 
the fishway as soon as possible, and to make such other im- 
provements as are desirable, one-half of the expense to be 
borne by the Essex Company. 



Shad HATcnrnG at North Andoyer. 

To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — We respectfully submit the following report, con- 
taining a full account of the work of hatching shad at North An- 
dover for the season of 1883. The hatching was opened June 6, 
and closed July 12. 



Number of shad taken, . . . . 


. 




428 


" returned to water alive, . 






106 


" given away, 


. 




322 


" males, 


. 




155 


" females, 






273 


" striped bass taken (weight 43 pounds). 






1 


'* salmon taken, 






11 


*' dead, .... 






1 


" " returned to river alive. 






10 


" alewives taken, ... 






80 


" suckers, chubs and eels, . 






220 



The amount of shad spawn taken w^as estimated to be fully 
1,607,000, and from this about 1,250,000 fish were hatched. Of 
this number 650,000 were shipped by rail to the Fish Commission- 
ers of New Hampshire. They were carried in ice-water in twenty- 
gallon cans, and I am informed by the Commissioners' agent, who 
had charge of their transportation, that the fish were safely carried, 
none dying on the route. They were turned into the Merrimac, at 
Franklin, Fisherville and other points above Concord. 

Eighty thousand were turned into the river above the dam at 
Lawrence, 450,000 at North Andover, and 20,000 sent in charge 
of Mr. Peabody to be put in the Ipswich River. 

Fift}^ thousand died in the hatching boxes while being held over 
the Sabbath for shipment. The rapid rise of water and sudden fall 
of temperature, June 23, caused a loss of 200,000 spawn. 

The amount of spawn taken was 380,000 in excess of last sea- 
son, while the number of shad taken was 226 less. 

The plank boom in the form of a triangle fully met our expecta- 
tions, and very much lessened the labor of attendance upon the 
hatching boxes. 

The following table gives the number of shad taken each day, 
the proportion of ^males to females, the temperature of the water 



12 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



and air, the times of hauling the seine, the number of fish taken at 
each sweep and the estimated amount of spawn secured. 




In order to avoid the killing of salmon while fishing for shad, a 
new seine of two and one-half inch mesh was furnished by the 
State. It fully accomplished its purpose, none being killed while 
using it, although several fine ones were taken, varying in weight 
from fifteen to twenty- five pounds. In using this seine of small 
mesh many young shad were taken, evidently one and two years of 
age, being about from four to ten ounces in weight. 

We carefullj' examined these fish and found them to be the same 
as those taken by fishermen at the mouth of the river and sold 
under the name of sea-shad. The fishermen there claim that this 
species of shad do not ascend the river ; but the taking of them at 
North Andover has full}^ demonstrated the fact that a seine of two 
and one-half inch mesh will take them anywhere on the river for a 
distance of twenty-five miles from its mouth. It is also claimed 
that the young shad taken at the mouth of the river are all male 
fish. Very true ; those taken at North Andover, twentj^-five miles 
from the mouth were all male fish. The male shad one and two 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 13 

years of age follow the mother fish to the spawning grounds in fresh 
water, while the young female fish whose powers of reproduction 
are not matured, remain in salt water, the true feeding ground of 
the shad which ascend our rivers for the purpose of depositing 
their spawn and for no other purpose ; and female shad without 
spawn are seldom if ever taken in fresh water. Sea-shad, if there 
is any such fish, must necessarily derive its name from the fact 
that it is a constant inhabitant of the sea, and, like the codfish finds 
its spawning ground in salt water. 

A careful comparison of the shad taken at the mouth of the river 
with those taken twenty-five miles above, cannot fail to convince 
any unprejudiced mind that the term sea-shad is not to be applied 
to any fish that are caught to any extent in the Merriraac. 

The work of hatching shad to re-stock the river is simple in it- 
self, and the number hatched may be increased threefold at a small 
expense, thereby securing a large return of fish. Notwithstanding 
this fact it seems to me that your Honorable Board must see the 
difficulty in attempting to re-stock the river while five or six seines 
of small mesh are annually destroying thousands of j^oung shad 
inside of the line fixed by the Governor and Council defining the 
mouth of the river. 

The value of a few hundred barrels of bait, that could be caught 
elsewhere, is insignificant compared with this destruction of young 
shad. 

In re-stocking the river every available means should be used to 
protect the young fish, and not one part but the interests of the 
fisheries on the whole river should be considered. To allow a few 
fishermen here and there to control or destroy the entire rights of 
others is a matter that does not admit of any argument. 

The fish-laws of the Merrimac, with the exception of permitting 
the use of seines of less than two and one-half inch mesh, at the 
mouth of the river, are ample for all practical purposes. From a 
careful investigation, extending over a series of years, we are 
forced to the conclusion that the interests of fish culture demand 
that these laws should be more thoroughly enforced. 
Yours respectfully, 

B. P. Chad WICK. 
Edwin F. Hunt» 

September 10, 1883. 



14 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



Brook Trout (Sahno fontinalis) , 
There were received from the Plymouth hatching house, 
N. H., last 3^ear, 75,000 eggs from which were hatched about 
63,000 3^oung fish. This year there is an increase of 50,000, 
making 125,000. The young fish will be delivered free, at 
the hatching-house, Winchester, next spring. Persons de- 
siring them should make early application, first, because the 
cooler the weather the easier to transport them ; and secondly, 
unless all orders are in before any distribution is commenced 
it is difficult to apportion them. The demand is greatly in 
excess of the supply ; but arrangements have been made to 
cover the deficiency as soon as possible. The distribution 
last spring was as follows : — 



Henry Goulding, South Natlck 

Geo. W. Cowdeii, Rutland, 

W. H. Foote, Westfield, . 

A. L. Hubbell, Great Barrington 

John Alden, Stoneham, 

H. H. Wyman, Winchendon, 

Geo. Kellogg, Sheffield, . • 

Ivers Adams, Dorchester, 

Eben Sutton, North Andover, 

S. W. Lincoln, Adams, 

S. L. Lincoln, " 

Geo. H. Weld, Rochester, . 

Geo. T. Newbegin, Salem, 

Alex. McDonald, Jamaica Plain 

Wm. H. Means, Tewksbury, 

D. White, Oxford, . 

M. O. Adams, Ashburnham, 



CANS 
1 
1 

3 
3 
3 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



Lake Superior Salmon Trout. 

One hundred thousand eggs of this trout were received 
last fall from Mr. Welsher, of Milwaukee, Wis., from which 
90,000 young, healthy fish were obtained. 

These fish are for large and deep ponds, and are not suita- 
ble for shallow waters. 

It is probable that about the same number will be for dis- 
tribution next spring. 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



Those of last year were distributed as follows 



Will Perham, Tyngsborough, 
A. L. Hubbell, Great Barrington 
John Cort, Webster, . 
H. H. Wyman, Winchendon, 
D. P. Dean, Oakham, 
S. S. Thompson, Globe Village 
W. S. Holbrook, Sutton, . 
George H. Weld, Rochester, 
Charles Goshlau, Oxford, . 
W. H. Wheeler, Milibmy, 
M. H. A. Evans, Granite ville, 
George H. Poor, Anclover, 
Enos W. Boise, Blandford, 
Nathaniel Wales, Stoughton, 
George M. French, Holliston, 
Daniel Crosb3^ Stoneham, 
Herbert F. Rock wood, Boston, 
Thomas Lawrence, Falmouth, 
C. A. Bronson, Ashfield, . 



15 



CANS. 
1 
1 

2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 



Kainbow or California Mountain Trout 
(jSalmo iridae). 

Through the kindness of Prof. Baird, 3,000 eggs of these 
fish were received last spring, from which about 2,500 fry 
were obtained. 

It was intended to send them to the Plymouth (N. H.) 
hatching-house for breeding fish, but, through mistake, this 
was delayed so long that it was thought best to dispose of 
them in other ways, and they were placed in a stream under 
the care of Hon. John Cummings, where they will be looked 
after, and their adaptation to streams in this climate tested. 

Land-locked Salmon. (Salmo sebago.) 
Last year there was received from the Schoodic establish- 
ment, about 195,000 eggs of this fish. They came in ex- 
cellent condition and hatched well, a^nd were distributed as 
follows : — 



J. S. Howe, Shrewsbury, . 

J. W. Winslow, West Brewster, 

Myron W. Whitney, Boston, 



16 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec, 



H. H. Wyman, Winchendon 
Ivers Adams, Dorchester, 
W. S. Holbrook, Sutton, . 
B. P. Chadwick, Bradford, 
William Lawrence, Worcester, 
Thomas Lawrence, Falmouth, 
Abishar Phinney, Waquoit, 
H. F. Rockwood, Boston, . 
W. A. Bullard, Cambridgeport, 
A. L. Hubbell, Gt. Barrington, 
Erastus Howes, Gloucester, 

Hull, Stockbridge, 

John Loring, Boston, 
Mystic River, . . . 



The number of fish in the cans varied, intentionally, ac- 
cording to temperature and the distance to which they were 
to be transported. The average number to a can was about 
3,500. 

The amount due this State this year is somewhat less, 
being only about 120,000. 



Atlantic Salmon (Salmo solar). 

For the amount of spawn received by the State from the 
Penobscot establishment last season, and for the distribution 
of the young fish, see Report of Commissioner Hodge^ 
Superintendent of the State Hatching-house, at Plymouth, 
N. H. 

As the Penobscot establishment for Atlantic salmon, and 
the Schoodic for land-locked salmon spawn, are the sources 
of supply of spawn of these fish, we append a description 
of them by Chas. G. Atkins, Asst. U. S. Commissioner and 
Superintendent of these works. It was intended for last 
year's report, but came too late. See Appendix, 

The amount of Atlantic salmon spawn due the State this 
year, is about 338,000. 



To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries for the Commomoealth of Massachusetts, 

After my report to you of Dec. 4, 1882, there were received at 
the hatchery from Bucksport, Me., in January, 315,000 Penob- 
scot salmon eggs ; 100,000 of them were given by Prof. Baird to 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 17 

New Hampshire. These, with the eggs taken at the hatchery from 
the salmon that came up the Merrimac, making over 400,000, were 
hatched with a loss of less than two per cent., and were planted in 
the Pemigewasset River in June. Sixt}^ thousand of them were car- 
ried twenty miles up the river and the remainder were planted at 
various points from two to ten miles above the falls. The young 
fry were very strong and healthy and as the water had become 
warm enough to furnish food, good results maybe expected from 
them. 

The severe drought seriously interfered with the run of salmon 
this year, making three years in succession of unusually low water. 

The spring run was late and the low water prevented the fall run 
from reaching here. Many salmon passed the fishway at Manches- 
ter in October and must have spawned in the river below here. 

The salmon taken here this season were much larger than last 
year, showing that we have not yet received any return from the 
plant of 1880. 

From one fish, forty inches in length, 15,000 eggs were taken. 

The young salmon (parr and smolts) were very plenty in the 
river this season, and we must soon have a large increase of adult 
fish from the heavy plant of the last three years, of over 400,000 
each year. 

There are now in the hatchery 230,000 eggs of the brook trout, 
and, when all taken, there will be about 250,000, of which one-half 
will be sent you as soon as sulficientl}' developed. 

I have added over 2,000 trout this summer and shall add 3,000 
next year as there are not enough breeders to supply the demand 
for young trout. 

I have taken a few eggs from the Salbling or German trout, the 
first ever taken in this country, and have also crossed 2,000 trout 
eggs with the Salbling. 

The large trout-pond has been planked around the edge, and two 
tanks, each eight by twenty-five feet, have been built for the ac- 
commodation of the brook trout added this year. It will be neces- 
sary to still further increase the room for trout another season, 
which can be cheaply done by building a new pond above the pres- 
ent one large enough to hold three or four thousand small trout. 

The new supply of water added to the hatchery last year, being 
four degrees colder than that from the old spring, retarded, as was 
anticipated, the hatching of the young fish from fifteen to twenty 
days and the young fry were very strong and healthy. 

E. B. Hodge, Superintendent. 
Plymouth, N.H., Noyember 26, 1883. 



18 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

German Carp ( Cyjprinus carpio) . 
In former reports attention has been called to the impor- 
tance of these fish and the opportunities found on almost 
every farm for cultivating them ; also a description of the 
kind of pond best adapted to their wants, which is here re- 
peated : — 

Carp ponds should be flowed loam or grass land, the deepest 
part running through the centre, sloping to the outlet, where it 
need not be over five or six feet deep. The rest of the pond should 
be shallow. This would enable the cultivator to control the water, 
and by drawing it off slowly bring all his fish into a small compass. 
Very little more water is needed than will supply the evaporation. 
When streams are dammed for the purpose of making ponds, the 
overflow may be taken around the pond and the supply from an in- 
let at the upper end or side. The fish may be fed on all kinds of 
vegetables. Where the pond is large they will obtain a large part 
of their food from the pond. It is a question of pasturage and feed 
as to the number kept in a pond of a given size. As their food is 
inexpensive, being easily obtained on any farm, the keeping of 
large numbers in a small place may be often desirable. Water- 
snakes, frogs, and every kind of fish that prey upon other fish 
should be kept out of the breeding pond, or any other place where 
the young carp are kept. 

Notwithstanding this description and the oft-repeated state- 
ments published elsewhere, constant applications are being 
made for these fish to be placed in large ponds containing all 
kinds of carnivorous fish, where nothing but utter destruc- 
tion awaits them. 

Such applicants have no just cause to complain if their re- 
quests are not complied with. The delivery of the carp is on 
condition that the persons applying have suitable places for 
them. 

No farmer would be so unreasonable as to put his chickens 
among hawks ; neither would any man, if he stops to reflect 
a moment, be so foolish as to turn young carp into water 
swarming with their enemies ready to devour them as soon 
as they strike the water. 

Arrangements have been made to deliver the fish free, at 
the State hatching-house, Winchester, the only charge being 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

twenty-five cents for a pail to transport them in, when parties 
do not provide for that part of the work. A tin pail hold- 
ing about a gallon is all that is necessary to carry from 
twenty-five to fifty fish. When parties cannot come for 
them they can be sent by express. 

On the 9th of November, through the kindness of Prof. 
Baird, U. S. Commissioner, four thousand of these fish were 
received at Winchester, and although they were on the road 
four days they came in excellent condition, with a loss of 
only thirteen fish. Nearly half of these have been distribu- 
ted. Application for carp should be made in the fall, or, in 
other words, this is the best time to deliver them. With 
the present arrangement there appears to be no reason why 
the supply will not be adequate to the demand. 

From their prolific character and rapid growth, it would 
naturally be supposed that the edible qualities of the carp 
were not of the highest grade. It is fortunate that we do 
not all think alike, and that our likes and dislikes are suflS- 
ciently varied to enable us to utilize, in some form, all the 
good things with which nature has so bountifully provided 
us. 

In the Appendix will be found an extract from the U. S. 
Eeport on Fisheries containing the statements of two hun- 
dred and forty-two persons who have eaten carp. To these 
varied opinions those who desire information upon that point 
are respectfully referred. 

Eepoet of the Fisheeies on the Meeroiac below 
Deee Isla]n^d. 

For the season ending Sept. 1, 1883, there have been about three 
thousand two hundred and fifty (3,250) barrels of bait, mostly 
menhaden, taken by the fishermen of Newburvport this season. 
Of this amount about three hundred barrels were what is known 
here as blue-backs. Among these blue-backs taken during the 
months of July and August, I noticed, in looking over the catch, 
quite a number of shad one and two years old. From observa- 
tions made at the shad-hatching establishment at North Andover 
during the past season, I am satisfied that what the fishermen call 
sea-shad, which they claim do not run above brackish water, are no 
other than the white or true shad of the river. 

Shad taken at North Andover in July, and submitted without ex- 



20 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

planation to a number of the fishermen, were decided by them, 
without hesitation, to be sea-shad. It would be easy to settle this 
question with these fishermen by giving them the same opportunity 
that I had last summer. On June 20 and 21, there were excited 
reports of great shoals of sea-shad in the river, and, at the request 
of the fishermen, the mayor telegraphed to your Board for permits 
in accordance with an Act passed by the last legislature. 

That there was no apparent foundation for these reports was 
evident from the investigation made by Mr. Jeffers of Haverhill 
and myself, a statement of which is herewith submitted : — 

June 25, 1883. 
To E. A. Brackett, Chairman of the Board of Commissioners on Inland Fisheries: 

Dear Sir, — Agreeable to your request, we went to Newburyport on 
the 22d inst., and presented your letter to the mayor, Mr. Johnson. 

He received us very agreeably, and seemed much pleased with the 
contents of the letter. He saw some of the fishermen that night. We 
went the next morning (23d) to the fishing grounds quite early and saw 
all the hauls the fishermen made with their nets, with not one shad of 
any kind appearing. There were only two kinds of fish — blue-backs 
and pogies. The fishermen agreed in saying that while there was so 
much ffeshet in the ri^er there would not be shad there. On the 
25th we chartered a sailboat and went to the fishing grounds, but found 
no one fishing. Returned and examined the bait caught Sunday. We 
found several so-called sea-shad among the pogies. The seiners threw 
them into the water with rather unpleasant indifference \o us. 

Very truly yonrs, 

Wm. Jeffers, 
Edwin F. Hunt. 

A reference to the report on shad-hatching at North Andover, 
part of the time under my charge, will show that shad were taken 
freely on the 22d, 23d, and 25th of June, notwithstanding the 
high water. 

In August parties from Rockport came to Newburyport and 
caught two hundred barrels of menhaden, one hundred and fifty of 
which were used for salt bait, and the balance sold fresh. They 
used gill- nets, as to the legality of which I was in doubt, and 
before I had settled the question in my own mind they had taken 
up their nets and were gone. 

In my last report I called attention to the injury being done 
with small mesh seines. I have seen no reason to change my opin- 
ion. On the contrary, I am more than ever convinced that if the 
fisheries of the Merrimac are to be maintained, the use of small 
mesh seines should be discontinued. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 21 

The fishermen of Newburyport have privileges which no others 
on the river have. 

They should then be willing to compromise when the general 
interest is affected, otherwise, as the public becomes enlightened 
upon the importance of fish culture, the}^ may lose the confidence 
of those to whom the}^ now look for support. 

Edwin F. Hunt. 

Ponds and Strea]ms. 

As far as can be judged from the imperfect returns from 
the inland waters, there has been a decided gain over pre- 
vious 3'ears. 

The partial failures can be easily accounted for. It is 
with water as with land, — some ponds, as some farms, are 
naturally better adapted to the production of large crops 
than others. The lack of success in culture is largely due 
to want of skill and intelligent management. Not at our 
bidding, not into our out- stretched hands does nature drop 
her treasures. She yields only to patient, well-directed 
labor. The want of this is felt in almost every department 
of fish culture. It is apparent in the common practice of 
many towns of selling, annually, at auction, their interest in 
the alewife fisheries to parties whose sole object is to take 
all they can, regardless of the future. No one would apply 
this principle to farming. 

Were it not for the wonderfully prolific nature of the ale- 
wife they would all have been destroyed long ago. As it 
takes three years from the time they are hatched to return 
mature fish, the evil of overfishing is not apparent until long 
after the mistake is made. 

It is difficult to understand why intelligent people, who 
know the habits of these fish, should continue this practice. 

There is not a stream in the State where these fish are 
found that could not, with a little care and labor, be made 
to produce tenfold its present yield. It is a question 
whether it would not be a wise policy for the State to compel 
the opening of all rivers and streams to the cultivation of 
alewives and maintain them at a high standard. There is no 
other way in which it is possible to produce so large an amount 
of food at so little expense. They are. also used as bait, and 



22 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

form no small item in the outfit of vessels engaged in the 
sea-fisheries, while the influence they would have in restor- 
ing our inshore fisheries is too important to be overlooked. 
Prof. Baird thus speaks of them : — 

'' The value of the alewife is not fully appreciated in our coun- 
try. It is, in many respects, superior to the sea-herring as an arti- 
cle of food ; is, if anything, more valuable for export, and can be 
captured with vastly less trouble, and under circumstances and at 
a season much more convenient, for most persons engaged in the 
fisheries." 

Of the ponds leased by the towns, up to the present time, 
not more than half the returns have been received. The 
law requires that lessees shall make annual returns of the 
number and estimated weight of fish caught. The leasing 
of ponds is for the purpose of ascertaining, as far as possi- 
ble, their value, and it must be evident that unless returns 
are made no just estimate can be given. 

In France the return is about four dollars per acre, and 
there is no reason why, with a little experience, we should 
not exceed that. 

There are 196,342 acres of land covered with water in 
this State which, at the same rent, would make annual 
returns of over seven hundred thousand dollars. Some of 
our ponds have done even better. 

The difficulty which some of the towns experience in man- 
aging the ponds is largely due to rotation in office. 

To make the matter a success two or three good men who 
feel an interest in such matters, should be appointed to take 
charge of the pond during the term of lease. Several 
towns have adopted this plan with good results. 

Some of the lessees appear to have no idea that they are 
required to do anything beyond the mere fact of obtaining 
the lease. This is shown by the following return made by 
the chairman of selectmen of one of the towns : — 

" I do not know much about it, but I guess it has been pretty 
good fishing. I live on the road to the pond, and have^seen sev- 
eral persons go by with large strings of fish." 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 23 

As most of the permits issued by the lessees, for fishing, 
are returnable on the first of December, it is not easy to 
obtain the results in time for the report for the current 
year. The town of Stockbridge issued three hundred and 
fifty permits last spring, and of this number only sixty have 
been returned up to the present time. These returns indi- 
cate a catch of something over six thousand, of which about 
three thousand were black bass. 

The Pittsfield pond which, two years ago, gave a catch of 
23,579 fish, has not been heard from this year. 

Of the fresh-water fish, such as black bass, white perch, 
pickerel, etc., six leased ponds have returned for this year, 
an aggregate catch of 63,305, the average weight per fish 
being about one pound. 

Eetukts^s of Weirs, Seines and Gill-nets. 

Compared with those of 1882, the returns of the past 
season show a decrease of 22 in the number of fisheries re- 
porting. Eighty-seven pounds and weirs, 24 sea-seines, 88 
gill-nets, and 40 fresh- water seines, are represented in the 
tables ; giving a decrease of sea-seines (9) , gill-nets (12) and 
fresh-water seines (3), and an increase of weirs (2). 

While efibrts have been made by the Commissioners ta 
supply with blanks and send notifications to all fishermen re- 
quired to make returns, yet the tables show an entire ab- 
sence of returns from certain localities where, undoubtedly,, 
fisheries were carried on. 

The law of 1876 requires all owners of pounds, weirs and 
other fixed contrivances, as well as of seines and gill-nets, to 
apply to the Commissioners for suitable blanks on which to 
make out their returns. The failure to comply with this law 
is due in most instances, probably, to ignorance of the law 
and its object. 

Valuable statistics upon this important source of food sup- 
ply are of such vital importance to the State that it is to be 
hoped that in future a more extended interest will be taken^ 
and a more united effort made by the fishermen, upon whom 
the State relies for this information. 

In this connection it is gratifying to acknowledge the re- 
ceipt, during the year, of numerous letters which show that 



24 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

there is a large class of intelligent fishermen who are willing 
to do all in their power to provide the proper statistics, real- 
izing the importance of such statistics to their own interests 
as well as to the business of the State. 

It will be seen by Table VIII., that there has been a large 
falling off in the total catch of shad. The Taunton and Mer- 
rimac river fisheries return less than half the number of shad 
€aught in 1882. The catch of shad in the Connecticut River 
is small, although slightly larger than that of 1882. Com- 
plaints of obstructions in Connecticut waters have been 
received from our Connecticut River fishermen. 

More salmon than usual were seen to pass up the Merri- 
mac River last spring. The returns show a falling off in the 
catch of sea-herring, ale wives, Spanish-mackerel, blue-fish, 
striped-bass, scup and tautog, and a large increase in the 
catch of menhaden, showing that this fish is again becoming 
abundant on our coast. There is also a gain in the catch of 
mackerel, squeteague, flat-fish and eels. 

The following communication was received after the copy 
for this report had been sent to printers, but as the sugges- 
tions made require the most careful consideration it is 
deemed advisable to insert the paper here in order to draw 
attention to the subject. That the laws in relation to weirs 
are defective there seems to be no doubt : — 

Provincetown, Dec. 13, 1883. 
To the Board of Inland Fisheries : 

Gentlemen, — During the last few years the fish weir, or, more 
correctly, the catching of fish by means of fish weirs, has assumed an 
importance which could not and was not foreseen when the present 
law was enacted, and owing to the rapid growth of this industry 
many complications arise every j'ear, which the present law seems 
wholh' inadequate to meet, and some of its provisions are so vague 
that it is causing many altercations and disagreements between the 
landowners and the selectmen. For instance, the clause "pro- 
vided such weirs cause no obstruction to navigation and do not en- 
croach upon the rights of other persons." I can find no law that 
clearly defines what the rights of land owners bordering upon tide 
waters are. The law in regard to riparian ownership does not 
seem to wholly cover the ground, as by that law they would seem 
to have no right below 100 rods, provided the tide ebbed that far, 
whereas section 13, chapter 19 of the Public Statutes would indi- 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 25 

cate that they have rights to the harbor line. Take, for instance, 
the action* of some of the selectmen. The}^ have granted a 
large part of the shore privilege for putting down weirs to 
one man, wholly debarring three-quarters of the land oivners from 
any privilege whatever, claiming they have the right so to do, be- 
cause in constructing these weirs part of the structure was built 
below low-water mark, notwithstanding section 13 sa3^s the owners 
of the land or flats shall have "equal proportional privileges." 
In my opinion the whole matter should be taken from the hands 
of selectmen, and placed under the jurisdiction of the " Commis- 
sioners of Inland Fisheries," where local affairs and influence can- 
not be brought to bear, and where selectmen cannot secure any 
more than their proportional pri\dleges, as was the case in a mat- 
ter brought to the attention of the " Committee on the Fisheries " 
during last session, in which it was proven that the selectmen had 
secured one-half the privileges for themselves. The obstruction to 
navigation clause also needs defining. I think it would be a very 
good plan to have what might be designated a fish-weir line 
described, beyond which no weirs should be constructed, and also 
defining the rights of riparian owners inside of said line, so as to 
obviate all future trouble. This matter has been brought to the 
attention of the Harbor and Land Commissioners, and if your hon- 
orable body should deem it advisable, I respectfull}^ ask that men- 
tion be made in regard to this matter in your forthcoming annual 
report, making such suggestions as you may think proper. 

I have the honor to most respectfuU}^ submit the foregoing to the 
consideration of your honorable board. 

Respectfully, 

E. E. Small. 



Fisheries on the Lower Merrimac. 
No inconsiderable portion of the time of the fish commit- 
tee of the legislature, during the last two sessions, was taken 
up by the claims put forth by the fishermen of Newburyport 
for the privilege of taking sea-shad at the mouth of the Mer- 
rimac. Beyond the assertion that these fish never enter 
fresh water there was no evidence produced at the hearings 
that they difiered materially from the true shad. The exist- 
ence of a new species of shad on our coast was not probable, 
for all authorities now agree in there being only one species, 
the Alosa sapidissima (Syn. Alosa prmstahilis, De Key). 
Jordan refers the shad to the genus Clupea and calls the fish 



26 INLAND FISHEEIES. [Dec. 



Clupea sapidissima. It is thought that the shad from the 
different rivers can be designated ; but only as slight local 
varieties, not as species. 

The following are our Clupeoids as given by Jordan, in his 
synopsis, 1883 : — 

Clupea harengus. Common herring, "whitebait" (young). 
" mediocris. Hickory shad, tailor herring, fall herring, 
" vernalis. Ale wife. 
" aestivalis. Blue-back, glut herrhig. 
* ' sapidissima. Shad. 

The Hickory Shad. 
Clupea mediocris, Mitchell. 
" mattowacca, " 
Alosa lineata, Storer. 
Pomolobus mediocris. Gill. 

" " Goode & Beans' list, 1879. 

This fish extends along the coast from Newfoundland to 
Florida. We can find no statements of its going into fresh 
water. (There is, however, another fish which has the same 
common name — hickory-shad or gizzard-shad — found in the 
Ohio and other western rivers ; but this fish belongs to the 
genus Dorosoma,) 

Capt. Atwood, in answer to an inquiry, says ; — 

"I am not aware that the hickory shad ever go in fresh water, 
— the}' visit us annually in small numbers, and are only taken oc- 
casionally in nets when fishing for other fish." 

This is the only fish that can with any propriety be called 
sea-shad, as, according to the best information we can obtain, 
it lives and spawns in the sea and does not, to any extent, 
run into the rivers of this State. As an edible fish it is not 
desirable and is so distinct from the common shad that no 
one could mistake one for the other. This certainly cannot 
be the shad that the fishermen of Newburyport desire to 
catch, for it is worthless as food, and furthermore, there is 
no evidence that they ever enter the Merrimac. 

What, then, could have been their object in pressing for the 
privilege of taking shad at times prohibited by law through- 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 27 

out the State. There can be no doubt that there has been at 
long intervals a phenomenal movement of shad along our 
coast. Capt. N. E. Atwood, than whom there is no better 
authority, thus speaks of it : — 

About 1840 there appeared on our coast, south of Cape Cod, 
large quantities of shad, which appeared to be the same species 
with those that visit the Connecticut and Merrimac Rivers annually 
(Alosa prmstabilis) . Fishermen from Massachusetts, Connecticut 
and Rhode Island engaged in the fishery and found it profitable. 
In 1842 an Act was passed by the legislature to prohibit fishermen 
from other States, from fishing for shad within a line drawn from 
Monomoy Point to Point Gammon. I myself engaged in this fish- 
ery, but we found there was no need of the passage of such an act. 
The shad appeared in small numbers, so that not enough were 
caught to pay expenses. They were also caught in large quanti- 
ties in the waters north of Cape Cod. They then disappeared, so 
that only a few straggling specimens have since been cau'^ht in 
these localities. Where were they before they appeared in our 
waters ? What was the cause of their coming ? Where are they 
now? All that can be said in answer, I can say in three words, — 
they are gone." 

They came suddenly upon the coast, entering the bays and 
mouths of rivers, remaining but a few days in a place, and 
then disappeared. It is difficult to form a definite idea of 
the extent of this school of fish. They are said to have come 
in vast shoals. It was stated by one man who watched them 
carefully that the shore was lined with them as far as the eye 
could reach, and if fishermen had been prepared for them 
they could have made a fortune. 

Fish stories are luxuriant in their growth, often assuming 
proportions that rival the tales of Arabian Nights. It is, 
however, certain that these shad were caught in some places 
in considerable numbers. So far as we know, this unusual 
movement of shad has occurred but once since 1840. That 
they were fish that had spawned in more southern waters, 
and, from some unknown cause, were moving along our 
coast, is probable. 

For the purpose of enabling the fishermen to take advan- 
tage of such an influx, should it ever occur again, the legisla- 
ture has authorized the Commissioners, at their discretion. 



2S INLAM) FISHERIES. [Dec. 

to grant permits. These permits were not intended to cover 
the ordinary fishing of the rivers. 

Very little is known of the habits of migratory fish after 
they leave fresh water. While we have conceded that it is 
possible that these shad belong to other rivers, there are cer- 
tain facts which make it more than probable that during the 
late summer and autumn migratory fish do not, as a rule, go 
far from the mouths of rivers to which they belong, and that 
they frequently enter them on the incoming tide and return 
with the ebb. As shad run in schools it is not unlikely that 
they remain in the bays and estuaries until the young come 
down in the autumn and both old and young move together 
to their winter grounds. Salmon that spawn at the head- 
waters of our rivers in the fall do not return to the sea until 
the next spring, and the smolts or young salmon go down at 
the same time. 

Previous to the restocking of the Merrimac with salmon 
they were seldom taken by the weirs on either side of the 
Cape, but since then a great many have been caught in 
weirs and gill-nets. In fact it may be said that many weirs 
are deriving considerable benefit from the restocking of the 
river. One weir is reported to have caught, in one season, 
over twenty salmon. The salmon is naturally a very hardy 
fish and quite tenacious of life, yet by some strange fatality 
they always die when they get into the weirs. 

Shad, one, two and three years old can be taken at North 
Andover until the 20th of July, and are found more or less 
abundant on the lower part of the river throughout the whole 
season. The takino^ of these fish and the usino- of small 
mesh seines which destroy the young shad that go down in 
October and November is a serious, if not fatal, injury to 
the fisheries of the river. 

It is entirely in relation to this that conflict has arisen 
between the fishermen of Newburyport and the State. There 
is not and cannot be any disposition to deprive them of 
any reasonable amount of fishing. They should remember 
that their fishing grounds comprise a very small portion 
of a large river, which takes its rise in and runs through a 
large part of another State, and that they have the key to the 
fisheries of the whole river, which for that reason should be 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 29 

properly guarded. The laws regulating fisheries are made 
for the benefit not of the few but of all. 

When the fishermen accept this and live up to it in good 
faith, there cannot be any conflict between them and the in- 
terests that should govern the fisheries of the river in its 
course through both States. 

E. A. BRACKETT. 
ASA FRENCH. 

F. W. PUTNAM. 



30 



INLAND FISHERIES, 



[Dec.'83. 



EXPENSE OF COMMISSION. 



Salary to Dec. 1, 1883, .... 
Travelling and other expenses, . . 

General Expenses. 

Hatching Works near Livermore Falls : — 
E. B. Hodge, services, 
Assistants " 

Repairs, 
Express, 
Rent, . 
Tanks, 
Fish meat, . 



$1,650 00 
126 94 



$375 00 
86 25 
32 82 
15 95 
50 00 
13 00 
13 09 



$1,776 94 



Subscription to fund of Penobscot Salmon Breeding Estab 
lishment, 

Thos. S. Holmes, labor and stock, Lawrence Fishway 

Use of boats, nets and premises at North Andover, 

Robert R. Holmes, services and expenses 

Edwin F. Hunt, 

B. P. Chadwick, 

E. S. Robinson, " " 

Robert Elliot, 

Wm. Jeffers, " " 

W. F. Brackett, plans and specifications, 

Repairing dam at Middleborough, . 

Legal services in the matter of taking Half-way Pond at 
Plymouth, 

Rent of land, hatching-house at Winchester, 

J. C. Walker, services, 

Expressage, 



Printing, . . . . 
Cans for transporting fish, 
Pails for transporting carp. 
Fish net, . 
Rope and twine and salt, . 



586 11 

502 69 
74 16 

50 00 
117 66 
394 85 

96 40 
31 00 
60 00 
83 40 

24 70 

51 80 

17 50 
50 00 

18 00 
44 85 

25 10 
60 00 
20 00 
35 28 

6 86 



$4,127 30 



APPENDIX. 



I 



[A.] 
LIST OF FISH COMMISSIONBES, 



Doi^oNiON OF Canada. 
W. F. Whitcher, Commissioner, . . . Ottawa, Ontario. 

Province of New Brunswick. 
W. H. Venning, Inspector of Fisheries, . St. John. 

Province of Nova Scotia. 
W. H. Rogers, Inspector, .... Amherst. 

Province of Prince Edward Island. 
R. H. Duvar, Inspector, .... Alberton. 

Province of British Columbia. 
A. C. Anderson, ...... Victoria. 

The United States. 
Prof. Spencer F. Baird, .... Washington, D.C. 

Alabama. 
Col. D. R. Hundley, . . . . . Mooresville. 
Hon. C. S. G. Doster, Prattville. 

Arizona. 

Hon. J. J. Gosper, Prescott. 

Hon. Richard Rule, Tombstone. 

J. H. Taggart, Business Manager, . . Yuma. 



34 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



Arkansas. 



John E. Reardon, . 
James H. Hornibrook, . 
H. H. Rottaken, . 



Little Rock. 
Little Rock. 
Little Rock. 



J. D. Redding, 

A. B. Dibble, 

B. H. Buckinq:ham. 



California. 



San Francisco. 
Grass Valley. 
Washington. 



Wilson E. Sisty, 



Colorado. 



Idaho Springs. 



Dr. W. M. Hudson, 
Robert G. Pike, . 
G. N. Woodruff, . 



Connecticut. 



Hartford. 

Middletown. 

Sherman. 



Delaware. 



Enoch Moore, Jr., 



. Wilmington. 



Georgia. 

Hon. J. T. Henderson, Commissioner of 

Agriculture, . . . . . . Atlanta. 

Dr. H. H. Cary, Superintendent of Fisheries. 

Under the laws of the State these two constitute the Board of Fish 
Commissioners. 



Illinois. 



N. K. Fairbank, President, 
S. P. Bartlett, 
S. P. McDole, . 



. Chicago. 
. Quincy. 
. Aurora. 



Calvin Fletcher, 



Indiana. 

Spencer, Owen County. 



Iowa. 



B. F. Shaw, 
A. A. Mosher, 



. Anamosa. 
. Spirit Lake. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25, 



35 



Kansas. 
W. S. Gile, . Venango. 



Wm. Griffith, President, 

P. H. Darby, 

John B. Walker, . 

Hon. C. J. Walton, 

Hon. John A. Steele, . 

W. C. Price, 

Dr. W. Van Antwerp, . 

Hon. J. M. Chambers, 

A. H. Goble, 

J. H. Mallory, . 



Kentucky. 

. Louisville. . 

. Princeton. 

. Madisonville. 

. Munfordville. 

. Versailles. 

. Danville. 

. Mt. Sterling. 
Independence, Kenton County. 

. Catlettsburg. 

. Bowling Green. 



E. M. StUwell, . 
Henry O. Stanley, 



Maine. 



Bangor. 
Dixfield. 



Thomas Hughlett, 
G. W. Delawder, . 



Maryland. 



Easton. 
Oakland. 



E. A. Brackett, 
Asa French, 

F. W. Putnam, 



Massachusetts . 



Winchester. 
South Braintree. 
Cambridge. 



Michigan. 



J. C. Parker, President, 
A. J. Kellogg, 
John H. Bissell, . 



Grand Rapids. 

Detroit. 

Detroit. 



Minnesota. 

1st District — Daniel Cameron, . . .La Crescent. 
2d District— Wm. M. Sweney, M. D., . . Red Wing. 
3d District — Robert Ormsby Sweney, Presi- 
dent, St. Paul. 



36 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

Missouri. 

John Reid, Lexington. 

J. G. W. Steedman, Chairman, \ 2803 Pine Street, St. Louis. 
J. S. Logan, St. Joseph. 

Nebraska. 

R. R. Livingston, ..... Plattsmouth. 

William L. May, Fremont 

B. E. B. Kennedy, Omaha. 

Nevada. 
Hon. Hubb G. Parker, .... Carson City. 

New Hampshire. 

Geo. W. Riddle, Manchester. 

Luther Hayes, ...... South Milton. 

Eliott B. Hodge, Plymouth. 

New Jersey. 

Theodore Morford, President, . . . Newton. 
Richard S. Jenkins, . . . . . Camden. 
William Wright, Newark. 

New York. 

Hon. R. Barnwell Roosevelt, President, 76 

Chambers Street, ..... New York. 
Gen. Richard U. Sherman, Secretary, New 

Hartford, . ..... Oneida County. 

Edward M. Smith, Rochester. 

Eugene G. Blackford, . . 809 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn. 

North Carolina. 
S. G. Worth, . . . . . . Raleigh. 

Ohio. 

Col. L. A. Harris, President, . . . Cincinnati. 

Chas. W. Bond, Treasurer, .... Toledo. 

Halsey C. Post, Secretary, .... Sandusky. 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



37 



Pennsylvania. 



Hon. B. L. Hewit 
James Duffy, 
John Hummel, 
G. M. Miller, 
John Gray, . 
Arthur Maginnis, 



Holidaysburg. 

Marietta. 

Selin's G-rove. 

Wilkesbarre. 

Greensburg. 

Swiftwater. 



John H. Barden, . 
Henry I. Root, 
Col. Amos Sherman, 



Rhode Island. 



Rockland. 

Providence. 

Woonsocket. 



South Cakolina. 

Hon. A. P. Butler, Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture, ....... Columbia. 

C.J. Huske, Superintendent of Fisheries, . .Columbia. 
These two officers constitute the Fishery Commission. 



W. W. McDowell, 
H. H. Sneed, 
Edward D. Hicks, . 



Tennessee. 



Memphis. 

Chattanooga. 

Nashville. 



Texas. 
John B. Lubbock, Austin. 



Vermont. 



Hiram A. Cutting, 
Herbert Brainerd, . 



Lunenburgh. 
St. Albans. 



Virginia. 



CoL Marshall McDonald, 



Berrvville. 



West Virginia. 



H. B. Miller, President, 
C. S. White, Secretary, 
N. M. Lowry, 



Wheeling 

Romney. 

Hinton. 



38 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



Wisconsin. 
The Governor, ex officio. 

Philo Dunning, President, .... Madison. 

C. L. Valentine, Secretary and Treasurer, . Janesville. 

J. V. Jones, ....... Oshkosh. 

J. F. Antisdel, Milwaukee. 

Mark Douglas, . . . . . . Melrose. 

C. Hutchinson, ...... Beetown. 



Wyoming Territory. 



Dr. M. C. Barkwell, Chairman, 
Otto Gramm, Secretarj^, 
N. L. Andrews, 

E. W. Bennett, 

F. J. Downs, 
T. W. Quinn, 



Cheyenne. 

Laramie. 
Johnson County 
Carbon County. 
Uinta County. 
Sweetwater Co. 



Albert B. Stream, 



Washington Territory. 



North Cove. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 39 



[B.] 

SALMON BEBEDIJSTG ESTABLISHMENT 
IN MAINE. 



BrcKSPORT, Maine, December 30, 1882. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, Commonwealth of dfassachicsetts. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for a sketch of the 
condition of the Penobscot and Schoodic salmon-breeding establish- 
ments, and of the work of collecting spawn, I beg leave to submit 
the following : — 

1. The Penobscot Establishment. 

Here we are concerned only with the large migratory salmon, 
the natural inhabitants of all the rivers of eastern North America, 
north of the Hudson. The Penobscot River enjoys the distinction 
of being the only river in the United States whose fisheries of this 
species are sufficiently productive to warrant an attempt to collect 
its spawn on a large scale. For the past twenty years, the yield 
of the river, though far smaller than in early times or even than 
forty years ago, has varied from 5,000 to 15,000 salmon annually, 
the average being much nearer the lower figure. 

The natural breeding ground of these salmon is in the wild coun- 
try at the headwaters in all the gravell}^ tributary streams, where 
they are to be found digging their nests on the shallow rapids in 
October and November. The difficulties attendant on catching the 
salmon and securing their spawn at that inclement season of the 
year, in a wilderness where the fish are scattered far and vride and 
where no established fisheries exist, led to the organization of an 
establishment near the mouth of the river, where the salmon can be 
taken in large numbers as they are passing upward in May and 
June, and impounded until the breeding season arrives. There 
was, in the beginning, some doubt whether in confinement the re- 
productive functions of the fish would act normally ; but the first 
experiment yielded favorable results, and with the proper arrange- 
ment of details the operations are attended with complete success. 



40 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

The siipplj^ of the adult salmon is obtained from a few of the 
numerous fish weirs built everj^ year about the mouth of the Penob- 
scot. The fishermen who own them are furnished proper dipping 
gear and with cars in which to transport the fish to headquarters. 
These cars are made out of common dories, by providing them with 
grated openings, fore and aft, and a cover of netting. About low 
water, when the salmon are mostly taken from the weirs, they are 
brought together at a central point in the fishing district, counted, 
adjudged as to weight, replaced in the cars, ten to fifteen in each, 
and despatched to the enclosures, which are located in a fresh-water 
stream called ''Dead Brook," a tributary of Eastern Eiver, which 
in turn joins the Penobscot at its very mouth. The total distance 
from the collecting station at the south end of Verona to the enclos- 
ure is not far from seven miles, and the transfer is made without 
any other delay than that attendant on the passage through a lock 
at Orland. 

The enclosure is simpl}^ an ample portion of the brook (about 
one hundred rods), fenced off securely, above and below, by grated 
barriers. The width of the brook is two to four rods, the current 
gentle to sluggish, the bottom in part gravelly but in greater part 
muddy, the water clear and never failing, the depth from five to 
ten feet. It appears to be admirably adapted to our purpose. 

At the upper end of the enclosure are located the fixtures for re- 
capturing and manipulating the fish. By the end of October they 
are nearly all ready to yield their spawn and milt. The methods 
employed do not differ much from those generally in use. The 
milt is applied to the eggs before they are put into water and the 
rate of impregnation is high. It rarely happens at this establish- 
ment that a female salmon yields any imperfect eggs, so far as the 
eye can distinguish, — something I should be glad to sa}' also of 
the Schoodic salmon. 

The hatching-house is located on the east shore of Alamoosook 
Lake, two miles from the salmon enclosure, — an inconvenient fea- 
ture, but unavoidable, as no good site could be obtained nearer. 
But the task of transferring the eggs is not very great and in all 
other respects the facilities for developing and hatching the eggs 
are unsurpassed in my observation. A crystal brook supplied by 
one of the purest of lakelets, " Craig's Pond " by name, and rein- 
forced by numerous springs, comes tumbling down over a rocky 
bed to the hatching-house. There is practically no limit to the sup- 
ply of water, and nothing lacking as to aeration. We were trou- 
bled at first by the warmth of the spring-water, which hastened the 
development of the spawn unduly, and compelled us to send part 
of it away early in December ; but an aqueduct 1,500 feet in length, 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 41 

taking its supply from the brook above the springs, now brings us 
a supply of cold brook-water, so that we have a choice between 
cold and warm, and can delay the shipment of spawn to a conven- 
ient date. 

The work of the present season may be summed up in a few 
words. There were purchased 587 salmon. The losses from sun- 
dry causes, known and unknown, foot up 147. The remaining 440 
were recaptured in the fall and found to embrace 184 males, 256 
females. A little more than 2,000,000 of eggs were secured, of 
which the most forward are at this date about ready for shipment. 
The three hundred dollars contributed by Massachusetts will entitle 
her to about 220,000 eggs. 

2. ScHOODic Establishment. 

The Schoodic salmon belong to the group of • ' land-locked sal- 
mon." They pass their whole lives in fresh-water, the lakes being 
their main abode, the streams being resorted to occasionally for 
feeding, but mainly for breeding purposes. There are four river 
systems in the State of Maine that contain these ''land-locked" 
salmon ; namely, the Penobscot, the Piscataquis (a branch of the 
Penobscot), Union River and the St. Croix. They are most abun- 
dant in Grand Lake and its outlet. Grand Lake stream, in the 
Schoodic system, on the west branch of the St. Croix. Grand Lake 
stream is their main breeding ground, and thither they resort in 
thousands every autumn, a little later than the spawning time of 
the Penobscot salmon. 

It being the habit of these salmon to feed during all the sum- 
mer and earl}^ autumn, it would not answer to enclose them in 
June as we do the Penobscot fish. The securing of a stock of 
breeding fish must be therefore deferred until the near approach of 
the spawning season, generally until the most forward of the fish 
have actually begun to spawn, which occurs the last week in Octo- 
ber. By Nov. 20 or 25, the fish are generally all manipulated and 
returned to the lake. The capture is much facilitated by the fact 
that the main bod}^ of the fish are moving down from the lake 
into the stream. A series of enclosures spanning the entire width 
of the stream, constructed of fine-meshed nets, planned on the prin- 
ciple of a river fish-weir, intercepts and secures almost the entire 
school of fish. 

The Schoodic salmon are pigmies compared with the Penobscot 
salmon and inferior to their brethren of Lake Sebago and Union 
River, but yet are quite respectable in size for a fresh-water fish. 
For several years there has been a marked increase in the average 
size of those taken at Grand Lake stream, and it is now not far 



42 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

from two and one-half pounds, specimens weighing between three 
and four pounds being common, and those of five and six pounds 
occur now and then. This year the condition of the fish has been 
the best and thej have yielded the smallest proportion of defective 
eggs that I have ever known at Grand Lake stream. A curious fact 
is that the normal size of these eggs is decidedly greater than that 
of the migrator}", sea-going salmon, though the disparity in size is 
quite the reverse. 

The location of a developing and hatching house at this station 
has given us much trouble, there being no available site that com- 
bined all the desiderata in a fair degree. We have now^three 
houses for the purpose. The principal one is located near the lake 
shore, a few hundred feet above the dam that commands its outlet 
and very near to the fishing ground. The house is supplied with 
spring'Water onl}^, but being located on a hillside the facilities for 
aeration and repeated use of the water are excellent, and there is. 
alwaj^s an abundance of water for hatching out the twenty-five i)er 
cent, reserve which has been established, at first b}" custom and 
later by law, as the proportion to be returned to the lake to avoid 
exhausting^the supply ; and with an additional aqueduct, which 
appears feasible, I think the entire stock of eggs (if not over 
2,000,000) could be carried through the whole winter safely. 
This house covers about 1,500 square feet of ground, is well-built 
and very convenient. Near it are a cottage for the superintendent, 
a lodge for the foreman, an ice-house and woodsheds. The second 
hatching-house is by the side of the stream, about a quarter mile 
distant from the first, supplied with cold lake-water. This is used 
every winter until March. The third house is back in the wood& 
half a mile from the stream and supplied with spring-water onlj^ 
It is used only in emergency. 

The present season we have taken about 1,600,000 eggs. The 
subscription of Massachusetts, five hundred dollars, will entitle her 
to about 175,000 eggs. 

Very respectfully submitted. 

CiiAS. G. Atkins. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 4» 



[0.] 
SALMO SALAE. 



So much has been said and written about salmon and salmon-^ 
fishing that it seems ahnost useless to attempt to say anything 
more on the subject ; but as some of the readers of fishery reports 
may have never had their attention called to the subject, a brief 
mention of some of the characteristics of the fish may not be out 
of place. 

From time immemorial the salmon has been considered the king 
of fishes. His habits, his beauty of form and proportion all indi- 
cate his superior breeding. 

The true Salmo salar, so far as known, is found only in the 
rivers -flowing into the Atlantic Ocean north of forty degrees of 
north latitude, principally those of Norway, Great Britain and the^ 
east coast of North America. 

In former years nearly all the rivers of New England were^ 
abundantly stocked with this valuable fish, and it is to be deplored 
that with the march of civilization, which has been blind to the 
importance and value of fresh-water fish as an article of food, 
they have been almost entirely exterminated. 

Hendrik Hudson, when he discovered the beautiful river which 
bears his name, reported " seeing stores of salmon leaping from it» 
waters." The last fish seen there was killed at Troy in 1840, 
How long since they disappeared from the Connecticut I am unable 
to say ; but it was many 3^ears ago. The Merrimac contained a 
few fish within my own recollection. The building of the dam at 
Lawrence, however, proved their death-knell for a number of years ; 
but thanks to the perseverance and energy of our Fish Commis- 
sioners it is again well stocked with salmon. There are none in 
the Saco or Androscoggin, and onlj^ a few in the Kennebec, which 
in former years furnished a large proportion of the salmon sold in 
our markets. 

The Penobscot is the only river of importance which has not 
long ago been closed to their passage. Formerly it was one of the 



44 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

most prolific rivers of which we have an^^ knowledge, and under 
proper restrictions could no doubt be restored to its former condi- 
tion. Until last year net-fishing was not prohibited in any of the 
rivers in the State of Maine ; and it is a well-known fact that there 
were taken, a few seasons ago, from one pool, near what is known 
as Hunt's farm, on the east branch of the Penobscot, 684 full-grown 
salmon. The effect of such wholesale slaughter of parent fish is 
sad to contemplate. The law recentlj^ enacted provides that no 
salmon shall be taken above tide-water in any manner except with 
single baited hook and line, or artificial fly. 

Salmon, together with all other migrator}^ fish, always return to 
the river in which they are bred, and to no other. As it requires 
a dam of only about ten feet in height to effectually bar them out, 
the importance of erecting proper fishways over all dams can 
scarcely be over-estimated. 

The}' enter the fresh- water streams at times varj^ing somewhat 
according to locality. In many of the rivers of Great Britain, fly- 
fishing begins as earlj^ as the middle of March ; in the Provinces 
of Quebec and New Brunswick, not till the middle or last of June ; 
at which time the heaviest run of fish takes place, lasting usually 
till the middle or last of July, after which time only a few strag- 
glers are seen entering the fresh water. 

A large proportion cast their spawn during the month of October 
and a few as late as the middle or even the last of November. It 
is a well-known fact that they take no food of any kind whilst in 
the fresh water, and, as a natural consequence, the longer they 
remain the poorer they become. Their silvery coat-of-mail is 
gradually changed to one of a dull blackish copper color, and the 
beautiful fish which left the sea in June or July, becomes in Sep- 
tember an object of disgust, neither pleasing to the eye or fit for 
food. 

All authorities admit that salmon cast nearh^ a thousand ova 
for every pound of their weight. Such being the case, one would 
very naturally infer that anj' fish furnishing so large a number of 
eggs would ver}' soon over-stock an ordinarj^ river. So they would 
had thej^ not so many enemies. The sea-trout, which abounds in 
all Canadian salmon rivers, devours not on\j thousands of ova, 
but depends mostly upon the small fry of salmon for their daily 
food. Next comes the sheldrake and king-fisher, who can each 
stomach at least twenty small fish per day ; and last, not least, 
comes man, who resorts to every possible artifice to destroy them ; 
but of all weapons used, the Indian spear is the most deadly. 
Fortunately there is a heavj' penalty of both fine and imprison- 
ment for using it in Canada, and also, I believe, in Maine and the 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 45 

other New England States. If there is not there ought to be. In 
the Dominion of Canada the fishery laws are obeyed and have 
rarely to be enforced. Public sentiment is in favor of protectiug- 
the fisheries, and there is not annually reported more than a dozen 
cases of infringement. 

It is to be hoped that our own people will soon realize the im- 
portance of increasing the fish supply of our inland waters, and 
lend a helping hand to the efforts of the Commissioners, and there- 
by enable them, by hearty co-operation, to realize the possibilities 
of fish culture and do their share towards re-stocking our streams 
and ponds with valuable food-fishes. 

. The fish of each separate river have a distinctive individuality, 
so marked that an expert can always determine by their external 
appearance what stream they were taken from. The difference is 
no doubt principally owing to local peculiarities of both food and 
water. The}' are keen of sight, detecting the slightest movements, 
but they are oblivious to sound. They possess to a wonderful 
degree the sense of smell. This last statement can be easily 
proved by placing a small quantity of ova in the current of a stream 
(fastened, of course, so that it will not drift away). In a very 
short time it will be surrounded with large numbers of small fish, 
which have come invariably from below, whence the odor of the 
spawn has been carried by the current. 

The instinct of salmon to reach their spawning grounds is one- 
of their strongest characteristics. Heedless of danger, they will 
press forward, overcoming obstacle after obstacle with an energy 
and determination which ought to always command success : such, 
however, is not the case. At one of the falls on the Columbia 
River, Oregon, many thousands of the Pacific salmon are annually 
killed in their frantic attempts to leap the fall, b}^ being thrown 
back upon the jagged rocks at the foot of the rapids. Those that 
succeed have to travel many hundred miles inland, and reach their 
destination so weak and emaciated that it is doubtful if, after cast- 
ing their spawn, they have strength enough left to enable them to 
reach the sea again. 

Of their haunts and habits whilst in the salt water nothing is 
positively known. Their movements still remain a mystery. The 
closest observation has thus far failed to determine with any cer- 
tainty, whether they remain near the shores and around the mouths 
of rivers, or whether they go far out to sea. The fact that they are 
never taken on trawls or hand-lines whilst fishing for deep-sea fish, 
but on the contrary are often taken in stake-nets and weirs, 
long distances from the mouth of any salmon stream, would cer- 
tainly tend to prove that they do not venture far from shore^ 



46 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

Localities which the}^ frequent are doubtless determined by the 

question of food, which consists of all manner of small fish, 

-capelin and sand-eels being a favorite diet. 

The}^ are often taken in the estuary of the Penobscot as early as 

the month of February, by smelt fishermen when drawing their nets 

under the ice. There are also taken every year in the St. John, 

near the mouth of Indian River, from fifty to one hundred salmon 

between the 15th and 30th of November, in first rate condition for 

the table ; plump and fat, the milt and ova in an undeveloped state. 

These and a few other facts furnish sufficient data upon which to 

build a theory, and it is to be hoped that more extended research 

and closer observation may yet solve the mystery, or at least 

throw more light on the subject. 

Walter M. Brackett. 
^Boston, December 10. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 47 



[D.] 
DBSCEIPTION OF SALMON PASSES, 

On the river Sire, Norway, by A. Landmark, Government Inspector 

of Fisheries. 



The river Sire (pronounced See-ra) , which falls into the North 
Sea about midway between Christiansand and Stavanger, has a 
total length of about 146 kilometres (90 English miles), and drains 
a,bout 1,870 square kilometres (722 English square miles) . During 
the greatest floods — that occur, however, only at intervals of many 
years — the river discharges close upon 41,000 cubic metres of water 
a minute. The volume when the river is dryest (as a rule in or 
about the month of March) has not been accurately determined ; 
but to judge from an approximate computation, it can hardly ex- 
ceed 300 cubic metres a minute. Having for a considerable dis- 
tance an elevated bed (from 500 to upwards of 1,000 metres above 
the level of the sea), and flowing, on well-nigh the whole of its 
course, between lofty and precipitous mountains, the river passes 
through a number of lakes, the two largest of which are the Lunde- 
vand (length 14 English miles, area 10 English square miles) and 
the Sirdalsvand (length 17 English miles, area 7 English square 
miles) , both situate in comparative proximity to the mouth of the 
river. Owing to the great length of the catchment-basin, all the 
tributary streams are comparatively small ; the largest of these, the 
Moi, flows — not to mention several smaller sheets of water — 
through the Hovevand, a lake of some extent, and, after a course 
of about 18 English miles, falls into the upper end of the Lunde- 
vand. Nearl}' all the other affluents have an exceedingly rapid 
fall. 

Originally, the Sire was not accessible to salmon for more than 
a few hundred yards above the estuary, the river at that short dis- 
tance from its embouchure pouring down in a fall, the Logsfos, 8.5 
metres (28 English feet) high,- which presents an insurmountable 
obstacle to the further ascent of salmon. About 1,200 metres 



48 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

above the Logsfos, there is another and far more obstructive fall, 
the Rukanfos, with a total perpendicular height of 27.2 metres (8^ 
English feet). From the trifling extent of water previously open, 
salmon were never particular^ abundant in the river, and the yield 
of the salmon fisheries has alwaj^s been ver3Mnconsiderable com- 
pared to the size of the river. 

Nolv, however, the salmon-j^asses at the Logsfos and the liukan- 
fos enable the fish to surmount those falls ; and thus about 50 
miles of lake and river are rendered easily accessible to salmon, 
the river being now open up to the falls of Lindland, on the maia 
river, and to a short distance above Rusdal, on the Moi. In the 
above-mentioned lakes, which, throughout the greater part of their 
extent are remarkabl}^ deep, with rock}^ and precipitous shores, sal- 
mon find a safe retreat, where, with comparative facilit}^, they can 
avoid capture, while the reaches of river above the lakes afibrd 
plenty of excellent spawning-beds. Hence, it is quite certain that, 
the Logsfos and the Rukanfos being now passable, the salmon pro- 
ducing capacities of the river are enormously increased, and, more 
especial^, from the Sire flowing through a tract distinguished, it 
should seem, by the most favorable conditions for a productive sal- 
mon-fisherj^, the deleterious effects of extremely cold in winter be- 
ing less severely felt in that region than is the case throughout the 
greater part of Norwa}^ 

The entire extent of the water-course is shown in Plate I * (scale 
A-ojjuu-u) 5 the catchment-basin of the Sire being colored red, with 
black transverse lines indicating the extreme limits of the reaches 
of the rivers rendered accessible to salmon hj the passes. 

That part of the river that extends from the Lundevand to the 
estuary, and between which, as stated above, both the Rukanfos 
and the Logsfos are situate, is shown on a larger scale (20^0 a) ^^ 
Plate 11. , which also contains a plan of the salmon-passes at the 
said falls, together with a longitudinal section of the river (the ele- 
vations on 10 times as large a scale). 

The pass at the Logsfos is comparatively simple, consisting as it 
does in greater part of a channel dug through a natural depression 
on the left bank of the river, in the layer of stones and gravel, and 
for which there has been but little need of blasting and masonry. 
This channel, into which the water flows a couple of hundred yards 
above the falls, pouring out some few 3'ards below them, in the 
exact spot where the salmon principally congregate, has a total 
length of 320 metres (1,050 English feet). Its breadth varies, but 
is nowhere less than 2.2 metres at the bottom, whence the sides 

* The drawings referred to have not yet been received. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 49 

slope upwards, with an incline of 1 in IJ. The actual outlet con- 
sists of a short conduit, blasted in the solid rock, only 1 metre wide 
and about 2 metres deep, with well-nigh perpendicular walls ; and 
in order that the whole body of water shall force its way through 
this narrow passage, a stonewall, 16 metres long and 2^ metres 
high, has been erected immediately above the outlet. By this 
means, the volume of water is discharged from the channel as a 
rapid and slightly foaming stream, that cannot fail to attract the 
attention of salmon, though never attaining suflScient force to im- 
pede in the slightest degree the passage of the fish. The upper 
part of the pass has for a considerable distance a gradient of only 
1 in 200, which gradually increases, the 70 lowest metres inclining 
1 in 15. With so gentle a slope, there is no need of stops, or any 
other additional appliances, to facilitate the ascent on the greater 
part of the pass ; but where the gradient is 1 in 15, and the chan- 
nel extends between perpendicular rocks, a series of transverse 
wooden barriers, placed at a relative distance of 5 metres, serve to 
break the fall, the top of each barrier lying one-third of a metre 
lower than that preceding it. 

With a view to diminish the excavation in the upper part of the 
channel, a dam is building across the river, close to the edge of the 
Logsfos, to secure, when the water is lowest, a depth of water of 
0.7 metre, in the upper part of the pass.* During ordinary sum- 
mer floods, the water in that part of the pass rises even now to the 
height of 1 to 1^ metre, and in heavy floods higher still. Hence 
the average volume of water at present even is very considerable, 
viz., with a depth of 1-| metre, circa 460 cubic metres (about 15,000 
English cubic feet) a minute, or more than the whole body of water 
discharged b}^ the river when lowest. With a view to protect the 
pass, and preserve it from damage during heavy floods, the pro- 
prietors think of erecting at the inlet a flood-proof dam, provided 
with sluices and with an apparatus for the capture of salmon, prin- 
cipall}^ parent fish, from which to procure spawn for artificial hatch- 
ing.t 

A longitudinal section of the pass is given in Plate IV. As will 
be seen from the figure, the bottom of the pass at the outlet is very 
nearly on a level with the surface of the river when lowest, where- 
as the bottom at the inlet is 0.64 metre below the top of the Logs- 
fos dam. 

The figure in Plate VIII shows the outlet of the pass in perspec- 
tive. 

* Part of this dam being still in course of construction, no water flows at present 
into the pass when the river is vet-y low. 

t The dam here alluded to, was built during the spring of 1883. I 



50 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

Far more complex and imposing is the pass at the Bukanfos, 
which, indeed, up to the present time, so far as I am aware, has no 
rival in point of extent and difficulty of construction. The total 
height of the fall that had here to be overcome, amounts, as pre- 
viouslj^ stated, to not less than 27.2 metres (89 English feet) ; and 
the rugged and precipitous rocks on all sides encompassing the 
cataract leave but very little space for the construction of a salmon- 
pass. Moreover, the periodical floods are of the heaviest, and the 
depth of the water both at the head and at the foot of the falls 
varies exceedingly, the greatest diflerence being as much as 6.6 
metres (21.6 English feet). Hence special provision has been 
needed, not only to obtain space sufficient for the channel, but also 
to insure the pass against damage during the floods, and to render 
it effective whatever may be the height of the water. 

Referring to the annexed illustrations (Plates III., IV., V., VI. 
and VII.), a detailed description is here given of this interesting 
salmon-pass. 

By reason of the limited space, it was necessary to make choice 
of a system that would admit of a comparatively steep incline. 
Hence, the pass has been constructed chiefly on Mr. E. A. Brackett's 
system,* with only a few minor modifications, that were found ad- 
vantageous. The pass, which has a total length of 285 metres 
(935 English feet) is principally of wood (2J- inch planks) ; the 
first 73 metres only have had to be blasted in the solid rock. The 
wooden part (saving a few metres at the commencement of the 
pass) inclines 1 in 8 on its upper half, and on the remainder 1 in 7, 
whereas the slope of the channel blasted in the mountain- wall does 
not exceed 1 in 180. 

The wooden part of the pass has a breadth of 2.82 metres, and 
— excepting the part nearest the outlet — a depth of 1.18 metres. 
The stops, with a height a trifle less than have the outer walls of 
the channel, viz., 0.94 metre, is, as previously stated, on Mr. E. 
A. Brackett's system, but difl"ers from the drawings annexed to the 
description given in the above-mentioned Report from United 
States Commission of Fish and Fisheries in the following details : — 

1. The opening B (see plan in Plate V) is 4 inches wider than 
are the openings A, C and D, whereas, in Mr. Brackett's figures* 
these openings have all the same width. 

2. At A and E, a stop 8 inches high, wanting in Brackett's 
illustrations, is placed across the bottom ofthe channel. 

These modifications serve to give the water a more uniform 
velocity at every point of the pass. 

* Described in Report from United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Part 
II, (for 1872 and 1873), p. 612. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 51 

The complex structure required for the wooden part of the chan- 
nel, must obviously to a ver}^ considerable extent increase the 
length of the passage. The entire distance which salmon have to 
traverse in ascending from the outlet to the inlet of the pass 
amounts to about 785 metres, or very nearly half an English mile. 

As will be seen from the elevation (Plate IV.), the outer walls of 
the pass are highest at the outlet, their surface being horizontal 
on the 23 lowest metres, whereas the bottom of the pass retains 
throughout this part the same incline that it has for some distance 
;above it, viz., 1 in 7. Such being the case, the walls attain at the 
outlet a height of not less than 4.2 metres. The stops reach on 
this part, too, almost up to the top of the walls. 

The object sought to be attained by this peculiar construction, 
which has never previously, I believe, been tested, is to increase, in 
a twofold manner the attractiveness of the pass. From the very 
great difference in the depth of the water at the outlet — varying 
as it does with the height of the river not less than 6.Q metres — 
the water in the channel, were the walls at the outlet of the same 
height as the}^ are above it, would, during floods, inevitablj" over- 
flow throughout a considerable part of the pass and thus seriously 
diminish the force of the current at the outlet, which, in that case, 
might easily fail to attract the attention of salmon. By reason of 
the increase in height given to the walls of the channel, the whole 
body of water, even in flood-time, is now made to pour through 
the narrow opening, and the force of the current must in that case 
be very considerable. 

Moreover, the said construction of the terminal part of the pass 
admits of greatl}^ augmenting the volume of water at the outlet. 
To this end has been constructed, from a point above the lowest of 
the falls (in Plate III., marked A), a subsidiar}^ channel, provided 
with a sluice, through which a stream from the river may at any 
time be poured into the lower part of the pass, whereby its body of 
water can be increased to double the volume required to fill the 
upper part of the pass. The water from the subsidiary channel is 
gradually conveyed into the pass, the lower part of the former, 
which, throughout its entire extent, has the bottom pierced with 
parallel longitudinal openings, being given a position above the 
middle of the pass, into which therefore the water from the sub- 
sidiary channel successively streams. By means of this arrange- 
ment, both bodies of water are mingled without producing the 
slightest disturbance in the motion of the water in the pass, while 
giving to the lower part of the latter more of the character of rapids 
than would otherwise be the case. 

It is obvious, that this peculiar construction of the lower part of 



5^ INLAND FISHERIES. [Ded. 

the pass must greatly enhance its attractiveness, and at the same- 
time essentially contribute to provide an ample flow of water, be- 
the height of the river what it may. 

Also for the upper part of the pass, the remarkable difference oc- 
curring in the depth of the water has called for^special contriv- 
ances. 

About 27 metres below the upper extremity of the pass, where^ 
both walls of the channel consist of solid rock, has been erected a 
strong wooden dam, the upper surface of which lies higher than the 
highest flood Water-line, which, at this point, extends 5 metres 
above the bottom of the pass.* The dam being provided with a 
gate, the required bod}^ of water can at any time be poured into 
the pass. Meanwhile, it is manifest that, without special contriv- 
ances, the pressure of the water during floods would render it im- 
possible for salmon to pass through the gate, since the difference in 
the height of the water immediately above and immediately below 
the dam might be upwards of 3 metres. To equalize this pressure, 
a number of regulating barriers (5), each with the upper surface 
0.4 metre lower than that preceding it,t have been erected across 
the channel blasted in the rock, the bottom of which, as previously^ 
stated, is nearly horizontal. Each of these regulating barriers ha& 
at the bottom an opening 0.63 square metre. The distance from 
barrier to barrier varies between 4.5 and 13 metres. B}^ means of 
this arrangement, the surface of the water in each successive com- 
partment formed by the said barriers lies a trifle lower than it does 
in the preceding one, and the difference in height can never ex- 
ceed 0.4 metre. Hence, the pressure will not at any point — ex- 
cept at the gate of the main dam during the heaviest floods — be 
such as to impede in the slightest degree the passage of salmon 
through the openings in the various barriers or in the said dam. 

Unless the river be exceptionally low, more water will pass 
through the openings in the regulating barriers than is required to 
fill the part of the pass constructed on Brackett's system. That 
the proper volume of water ma}^ at any time be conducted into this- 
part of the pass, a strong wooden dam, provided with a gate, has 
been erected just below the last of the regulating barriers, or immedi- 
ately above the point at which the wooden channel commences. 

* Owing to the configuration of the ground, the water in flood-time does not rise 
so high at this point as it does at the upper extreniety of the pass. 

t The difference in height, however, between the upper surface of the main dam 
and that of the nearest regulating barrier is considerably greater; for, the heaviest 
floods being of rare occurrence, it is quite immaterial whether salmon at such times 
can pass through the inlet-gate. Besides, the force of the water at the foot of the 
falls is there so prodigious, that salmon probably do not venture so far up as the out- 
let of the pass. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 53 

The upper surface of the dam lies about 0.8 metre higher than does 
that of the outer wall of the pass, which here, immediately above 
the dam, is horizontal for about 5 metres. Thus is formed a by- 
wash, or overfall, which carries off the surplus water. Another by- 
wash, immediately below the dam, gives additional security. By 
this means, the proper body of water will flow through the pass 
whatever may be the height of the river, and without as a rule in- 
Tolving any adjustment whatever of the gates or sluices. 

Plate VII. shows the upper part of the pass in perspective. 

To insure the pass against damage during the heavy floods, two 
massive flood-proof walls have been erected, one of which closes the 
<}reek into which the pass disembogues, while the other extends from 
the bank of the river to a large rock just above the outlet. The 
latter wall also serves to bear part of the pass, whereby space is 
economized. 

At the inlet, the bottom of the pass lies about 0.8 metre beneath 
the lowest water-line, so that even when the river is dryest a con- 
siderable body of water pours into the pass. True, this is of no 
-account whatever as regards the ascent of the fish, which never, pro- 
bably, will move when the river is so very low, but, for the con- 
servation of the woodwork, a most important fact, the pass being 
thus prevented from ever becoming dry. Moreover, the depth at 
which the inlet has been placed admits of conducting a stream of 
water from the pass to the hatching-apparatus, which, with its pre- 
■ sent arrangement, aflbrds space for about half a million of salmon 
fry.* 

The volume of water in the pass is so regulated that a small 
quantity dashes over the stops, or transverse barriers. One ad- 
vantage of this, is to agitate the surface of the water in the basins, 
which prevents the fish from being seen on its ascent of the pass, 
and therefore scared by people looking into the channel or hy other 
surrounding objects. 

As determined by measurement, the volume of water flowing 
through the pass amounts to 39 cubic metres a minute. This, how- 
ever, does not include the volume — quite as large when wanted — 
that is poured through the subsidiary channel into the lower part 
of the pass. At the points in the pass where the velocity of the 
water is greatest (E and C, Plate V.) , it reaches about 1.2 metres a 
second. 

At the respective distances of 51, 111, and 172 metres from the 
outlet, resting-basins have been constructed for the salmon when 
ascending the pass. These basins vary somewhat in extent, the 

* Another hatching-house, affording space for at least double the number of ova, 
is now (1883) in course of construction. 



54 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

lowest being a trifle smaller and the uppermost basin a trifle larger 
than the middle one, which has a length and breadth of 4 metres- 
and a depth of 1.75 metres. Their object is not precisely to afford 
the salmon an opportunity of resting, since at no point probably 
will the ascent of the pass be attended with any considerable ex- 
ertion to the fish, and even if it were, they could rest in several of 
the compartments of the pass. The idea with these spacious rest- 
ing-places is rather to induce in the salmon a sense of their moving 
through a large body of water, and thus preclude the impression 
which the pass might otherwise convey of being a small brook or 
rivulet. Moreover, these resting-basins afford a means of comput- 
ing the number of fish that ascend the pass. 

In Plate VI. is given a general view of the pass, with the grand 
scenery surrounding it, from which some notion may be formed of 
the great difficulties that have had to be overcome. It should be 
mentioned, however, that the lowest part of the pass cannot actu- 
ally be seen from the point of view selected by the artist, shut out 
as it is by the beetling rocks through which the channel in part has 
had to be blasted. In order to give a general view of the entire 
pass, these rocks, therefore, are not shown by the artist. 

The effectiveness of both salmon-passes has already stood the 
test of experience. Thus, on filling, for the first time, the pass at 
the Logsfos (summer of 1880) a considerable number of salmon 
were found to have made their ascent after the lapse of a few hours ; 
and, since then, it has been, repeatedly ascertained that 
well-nigh all of the fish that find their way to the foot of the falls, 
very shortly after ascend the pass. A more successful result can 
hardl}^ be imagined. The pass at the Rukanfos was not finished 
till the winter of 1880-1881 ; accordingly, after the end of the 
period, during which salmon are affected by their migratory in» 
stinct, and the fish that had ascended the Logsfos pass were of 
course stopped by the Rukanfos, at the foot of which a consider- 
able number could be frequently observed, in a spot where the cur- 
rent and the nature of the bottom would admit of catching sight of 
them. Moreover, salmon were on several occasions seen to leap 
at the fall. The following season (summer of 1881) however, the 
pass at the Rukanfos was also found to answer its purpose, salmon 
having repeatedl}^ been observed in the uppermost resting-basin of 
the pass, from which exit was for a short time cut off by means of 
an iron grating. On removing the grating, it was no longer pos- 
sible to compute even approximately the number of fish that ascend- 
ed the pass ; but that by far the greater part of the salmon which as- 
cended the Logsfos pass also made their way up the pass at the 
Rukanfos, may be safely concluded from the fact that but very few 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 55 

salmon, and those solitary fish, could be discovered under the latter 
falls, while, as previously stated, salmon had abounded in that spot 
the autumn before, when the Rukanfos pass was still in course of 
construction. Besides, salmon have been observed and occasionally 
taken, by people fishing for trout in the reaches of the river above 
the Rukan Falls. Altogether, the project has turned out a great 
success. 

The undertaking has been planned by the author of this paper, 
Mr. A. Landmark, Inspector of Fisheries, and Mr. G. Ssetren, civil 
engineer, the former having pronounced on all points touching 
what may be termed its " piscitechnical " features, or whatever 
will presumably aflTect the ability and inclination of salmon to 
ascend the passes, while all technical questions of a general char- 
acter, relating to solidity of structure, price of labor and materials, 
and so forth, have been decided by Mr. Ssetren. 

The cost of construction has been defraj'ed b}" a body of share- 
holders (The River Sire Salmon Fishery Company, Limited) who 
have bought up the fishing rights on the part of the river extending 
from the Lundevand to the sea, and those attached to the coast for a 
distance of 4 or 5 miles on either side of the mouth of the river. 

The formation of the company is principally due to the exertions 
of Mr. B. Soyland, steamboat agent, who takes the greatest inter- 
est in everything connected with Norwegian salmon fisheries. 

The money as yet expended, exclusive of the sum paid down for 
the purchase of fishing rights, &c., amounts to close upon £1,300. 
That the cost of constructing the passes has not been heavier must 
be ascribed partly to the favorable conditions under which the work 
was carried on — more particularly as regards the height of the 
water — but chiefly to the low rate of wages and cheapness of timber 
in that comparatively remote part of Norway. 

A. Landmark. 

Christiania, April, 1882. 



56 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



[E.] 

NOTES ON THE EDIBLE QUALITIES OF GERMAN 
CARP AND HINTS ABOUT COOKING THEM. 

By Chas. W. Smiley. 



The introduction of carp into the United States is of so recent 
date that there has been, as jet, but little opportunit}^ to grow 
them of suflScient size to eat, or to get a full expression from our 
people of their opinions of carp as food. The first distributions 
by the United States Fish Commission were in 1879 and 1880. 
Many of these fish were put into unsuitable places and perished. 
Many persons whose carp have survived have prized them so highly 
thstt they have persistently refused to allow any to be eaten. As, 
however, an occasional newspaper muttering has come to hand, it 
has been thought best to get together at once what information 
might be available. 

About the first of July, 1883, a circular was prepared containing 
fifteen questions, covering the whole field of carp-culture. One of 
these questions was as follows: "Have you eaten carp? How 
were they cooked, and what was the opinion of their edible quali- 
ties?" This circular was sent out, July 20, 1883, by direction of 
Professor Baird, to all persons who appeared from the records 
of the United States Fish Commission to have received young carp 
in 1879 and in 1880. 

There have been received thus far over 600 replies, and from 
these have been copied verbatim everything which correspondents 
have said with reference to this subject. Over 350 had not yet 
tasted carp. 

Finding that there was an occasional remark of an uncompli- 
mentar}^ character, I inquired of Professor Baird with reference to 
publishing any adverse statements. In reply, he said : " Certainly 
it is not our policy to suppress honest criticism of the carp, and 
you are authorized to collate the testimony and publish both sides. 

No FISH IS FIT TO BE EATEN DURING AND IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE 

SPAWNING SEASON. Uulcss criticisms have been made of the fish 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 57 

during the late fall or early spring thej do not affect the question." 
I have according^ classified and will present herewith every scrap 
of testimony — good, bad and indifferent — which has been received 
in reply to these circulars, together with such incidental remarks 
as had previously reached the United States Fish Commission. Of 
these latter, there are not over half a dozen, and they are mostly 
indicated by an earlier date attached. 

I have spoken thus definitely concerning this material because 
when treated with exact impartiality the opposition to the food 
qualities of carp dwindles down into such utter insignificance that 
some one might easily suspect me of culling the material. This 
point is especially to be guarded, because it is so often considered 
praiseworthy to suppress criticism which is prompted b}^ ignorance 
of facts and which might unjustly injure a good cause. And I am 
very sure that every unfavorable opinion of carp herewith pre- 
sented, except perhaps that of Mr. Epes, is based upon ignorance 
or forgetfulness of one of three facts : 

I. No fish should be eaten during or immediately after the 
spawning time. 

II. The muddy taste of any fish can be largely removed by 
keeping the fish alive in a tub of pure water, changing it daily for 
a week. 

III. Bad cooking will spoil the best of food. 

Reports upon the edible qualities of carp have been received 
from twenty- three States and Territories, as follows : 



58 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



Table Showing the Number of each kind of Reports received from the 
various States and Territories. 



STATE. 


r 

SI 


El 






i 

> 


i 

> 


1 

> 


i 


Alabama, . 






1 


3 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 

6 


Colorado, . 






- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


-^ 


1 


Connecticut, 






- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


2 


Georgia, . 






1 


11 


4 


1 


1 


1 


3 


22 


Illinois, . 






- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


Indiana, . 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


2 


Kansas, 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


2 


Kentucky, 






- 


6 


- 


- 


3 


1 


3 


13 


Maryland, . 






6 


21 


16 


4 


2 


- 


7 


56 


Mississippi, 






- 


5 


3 


- 


1 


- 


- 


9 


Missouri, . . 






- 


1 


2 


- 


1 


1 


- 


6 


New Jersey, 






1 


- 


- 


1 


1 


1 


- 


4 


New York, 






2 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


2 


6 


North Carolina, 






3 


6 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


12 


Ohio, . . . 






4 


4 


2 


1 


1 


- 


4 


16 


Pennsylvania, . 






2 


2 


1 


2 


- 


- 


2 


9 


Rhode Island, . 






- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


South Carolina, 






1 


1 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


Tennessee, 






4 


5 


3 


2 


- 


1 


1 


16 


Texas, 






3 


12 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


16 


Utah,. . . 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




1 


Virginia, . 






7 


14 


1 


4 


- 


1 




28 


West Virginia, . 






4 


- 


- 


1 


~ 


- 




6 


Canada, etc., . 






1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




2 


Total, . 


40 


96 


39 


19 


10 


7 


31 


242 



For convenience of reference the testimonies are classified as 
follows : 

Numbers. 
I. Moderate praise, from fair to very good, 1-40, ... 40 
II. Unqualified praise and very emphatic expressions of ap- 
proval, 41-136, • .... 96 

III. Comparisons with other fish, very generally complimentary, 

137-175, 30 

IV. Criticisms as to softness or muddy taste, 176-194, . . 19 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 59 

Numbers. 

V. Indifferent and uncomplimentary reports aside from muddy 

taste and softness, 195-204, 10 

VI. A few opinions in regard to bones, 205-211, ... 11 
VII. Favorable reports, containing hints upon various ways of 

cooking carp, 212-242, 31 

Total 242 



Of these 242 reports, 38 only contain the slightest reflection 
epon carp (Nos. 141, 144, 149, 151, 159, 166, 176-194, 195-204, 
208, 209, 210). Many of these objections are declaredly slight. 
All but one (No. 194) of the criticisms have already been explained 
away, and I believe we possess the clew to that one. 

1. Moderate praise — very fair to very good. — In this list 
are included 10 testimonies, entirely satisfactory in character; 21 
of which, in speaking of the edible qualities of carp, pronounce 
them "good," 14 " very good," and 5 " fair," " very palatable,'* 
etc. These statements come from thirteen different States of the 
Union ; but rather largely from Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, 
Tennessee, and Ohio. Messrs. Wilmot (5), White (21), Peirce 
(22), and Duke (39) are men of very large experience with fish, 
and weight should attach to their testimonies. The method of 
cooking most frequently named is frying, though all methods are 
inculded in this group of statements. 

2. Unequivocal praise and very emphatic expressions of 
approval. — Under this head are grouped 96 different testi- 
monies. Of these, 15 speak of carp as " very fine," and 21 as 
" excellent" ; and others ring the changes on such expressions 
as "very good indeed" "first rate," "first class," "extra," 
" splendid," " very superior," " superb," delicious," " the best of 
fish " ; while quite a good many go on to say that carp are equal or 
superior to any other fish, or that they never ate anything more 
delicious. Such testimonies in so large number are, of course, 
very gratifying, although the Fish Commission has never pre- 
tended that carp would take as high a rank as many of these 
people have given it. These assurances come largely from Mary- 
land, Virginia, Texas, Kentucky, and Mississippi — sixteen States 
in all. Among the writers are several men of distinction, such 
as State fish commissioners, editors, physicians, and farmers and 
planters of wide experience. In many cases the single testimony 
represents the opinions of whole families or neighborhoods. 

3. Comparisons with other fish. — Some 39 correspondents 
have chosen to express their opinions by comparisons rather than 
in absolute terms ; and here we have carp successively declared 



60 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

equal to buffalo, mullet, suckers, mud-fish, croakers, mill-roach, 
'perch, rock-fish, drum, bass, trout, sun-fish, red-horse, mackerel, 
red-snapper, and shad.* Of course the Commissioner, in bringing 
carp from Germany, did not for a moment suppose that he was 
introducing a fish equal in delicac}^ to trout, bass, or shad ; but he 
has always claimed that its edible qualities were equal or superior 
to those of such fish as suckers, catfish, perch, buffalo, mullet, and 
sun-fish, and that by reason of its rapid growth, liardiliood, and 
simple diet, it was more desirable for pond cultivation. Several of 
these replies (Nos. 100, 101, 140, 177, 186) indicate that scale 
carp are received more favorably than leather carp, while none 
speak of leather carp as superior to the scaled variety. In making 
these comparisons with other fish, all but six (Nos. 141, 144, 149, 
lol, 159, 166) place carp ahead of the fish with which they compare 
them. The reports cover the same wide range of territory as those 
in the preceding groups ; here, as in the previous divisions, how- 
ever, Maryland furnishing the larger number. The earliest distri- 
butions of carp were made to this State, probably on account of 
its proximity to Washington. 

4. Criticisms as to softness or muddy taste. — Under this 
head are gathered 19 reports, a part of which speak of the carp as 
tasting muddy, and part alluding to their softness. Under other 
heads. No. 144 speaks of an " earthy taste," and Nos. 187 and 
213 testif)^ that soaking in salt water removed this taste. It may 
also be stated that removing the fish from a muddy pond, in which 
they would necessarily partake somewhat of the nature of their 
food, to a tank or tub of fresh water for a week, would very largely 
purif}' their systems. Carp is no exception to the rule that the 
flesh of animals will be affected by their food, but fish are excep- 
tional in the ease with which this difficulty may be overcome. 
Many who have spoken of carp as being soft have betrayed their 
ignorance of the fact the flesh of all fish becomes soft and unsuit- 
able for food during, and for a time after, spawning. Some of 
these correspondents have stated the time of the year when they^ 
ate their carp, thus conclusively proving this hypothesis. Particu- 
lar attention is called, in this connection, to Nos. 39, 181, 190, 
191, 192, 193. In regard to No. 194, it can only be said now that 
the water of the tank in which the gentleman kept his carp must 

* Most of the fish with which carp have been compared unfavorably are carnivor- 
ous species. To raise these on meat is expensive. Carp are vegetable feeders, and 
adapted to districts where fish are scarce and so remote from the ocean that sea fish 
cannot be obtained, but where corn, cabbage, pumpkins, squashes, potatoes, etc., are 
abundant and cheap. The Commission does not ofier nor commend carp to those 
who have access to the better sea fish, such as salmon, trout, whitefish, etc. Com- 
pared with vegetable feeders, there is no question of the great superiority of carp. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 61 

in some way have become contaminated and have imparted its 
injuriousQsss to the carp. It is intended, however, to make a 
special investigation of this case, to ascertain what the contami- 
nation consisted in. While some have spoken of the sweet taste 
of carp (Nos. 55, 139, 189, 222), only Mr. Epes has objected to 
them as " too sweet " or " sickening." 

5. Other uncomplimentary reports. — Of the 194 testimonies 
above considered, none have presented nnexplainable objections 
except perhaps Mr. Epes. We now come to 10 testimonies, most 
of which are lacking in particulars, in which are used such expres- 
sions as " nothing extra," unfavorable," '' verj' poor," and, in 
three cases, " unfit to eat." There is, however, nothing to con- 
tradict the supposition that these people tried their carp in the 
{-pawning season, in which, as has already been said, any fish is 
unfit to eat. The anonymous newspaper clipping. No. 204, well 
illustrates the exaggerations in which people sometimes indulge 
when they know that they can conceal their names. 

6. The bones. — Most people have given up the ridiculous 
hunt for a fish without bones; but, while four (Nos. 141, 208, 
209, 210) have found more bones than they liked in the carp, 
six (Nos. 136, 185, 205, 206, 207, 213) found fewer bones than 
they expected. 

7. Hints upon cooking. — In 31 additional cases, correspon- 
dents, all praising the flavor of their carp, have added some sug- 
gestions as to the method of cooking. It is quite noteworthy that 
every person who has imparted some information about the proper 
methods of cooking has praised the carp. All methods of cooking 
have indorsements, but the large majorit}^ speak of ftying. The 
number of times that cliflferent methods of cooking have been 
mentioned is as follows: Fried, 163; baked, 35; boiled, 20; 
broiled, 14; stewed, 5 ; a combination of boiling and baking, 2. 

One (No. 91) advises frying the young and baking the old, and 
those who recommend baking usually speak of using large fish. 
The recipe in No. 242 is especially commended to those who would 
fry carp. The author of the wine method (No. 238), Mr. Black- 
ford, will be recognized as one of the New York commissioners, 
and the retail fish-dealer of the Fulton Market. 

I. — Moderate Praises — from Fair to Yery Good. 
1. Fairly good. — I have eaten three mirror carp that unfor- 
tunately jumped out of a tub of water one night. Their edible 
quality was fairly good. They were fried in butter. — Theodotus 
Garlick, Bedford^ 0. 



62 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

2. Fair. — Yes ; fried ; fair edible fish. — N. Blackwell, 
Barilett^ Tenn. 

3. Fair. — We have eaten them ; they were fried, and of fair 
quality. — B. C. Hinnant, Daingerfield^ Tex. 

4. Very palatable. — Fried in bacon grease they are very 
palatable. — John M. Ferguson, ^^cZersow, W. Va. 

5. Not inferior. — As a table fish carp is not of an inferior 
quality by any means, and is largely consumed in the principal 
cities of Central Enrope, as Vienna, Berlin, and Paris. — S. Wil- 
MOT, New Castle, Ont. 

6. Good. — We ate four fried. They were good. — Solomon 
Byer, Norton, Ohio. 

7. Good. — We have catena dozen or more, fried. All pro- 
nounce the fish good. — E. A. Welch, CatonsvUle, Md. 

8. Good. — Yes; they were cooked in water and eaten with 
butter sauce. The opinion of their edible qualities was a good 
one. — G. Hillje, Scliulenhurgli, Tex. 

9. Good. — My famity has, and said it was good. It was 
boiled. It was taken in hot weather in July. — E. B. Woodruef, 
Morristown, N. J. 

10. Good. — I have. They were fried. The flavor was good. — 
Mrs. S. A. Teel, Kyle, Tex. 

11. Good. — They were cooked b}^ a recipe from an English 
cook-book, and were good. — Samuel Hopkins, Highland, Md. 

12. Good. — Two. Fried in butter. Good. — Lewis W. 
Runner, Morgantown, W. Va. 

13. Good. — I have eaten but one, and was pleased with its 
flavor. — E. B. Isett, Spruce Creek, Pa. 

14. Good. — I ate the two caught a year ago last spring. 
Fried, the}'^ are good fish. — J. M. McAdoo, McEwen, Tenn. 

15. Good. — We have eaten but one, and that was fried. We 
think they are a good fish. — J. B. Hawxhurst, Homoivack, N. Y. 

16. Good. — We ate one fried, and pronounced it good. — S. 
P. McFall, Newton Falls, Ohio. 

17. Good. — Have eaten them boiled and fried, and think them 
a good fish. — William Shirley, 5 S. Calvert Street, Baltimore j 
Md. 

18. Good — We have eaten three fried. Their quality was 
good. I like them well. — J. B. Hager, Board Tree, W. Va. 

19. Good. — Have eaten some fried, and found them good. — 
R. D. Miller, Farmville, Va. 

20. Good. — One; fried. Good. — Abner T. Holt, Boling- 
hroke, Ga. 

21. Good. — One small scale carp, accidentally killed in drain- 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. G3 

ing the pond, was fried as a pan-fish, eaten in my family, and pro- 
nounced good. — C. S. White, Romney^ W. Va. 

22. Good. — I have not yet tasted carp. I prize my large ones 
too highly to kill them. Several friends have tested their table 
qualities, and all pronounce them good. — Milton P. Peirce, 
Philadelphia^ Pa. 

23. Good. — I heard my son say he ate one, and that it was 
good. — David Bowman, Timlerville^ Va. 

24. Good. — Have eaten one fried, and found it good. — Solon 
M. Bowman, Timberville, Va. 

25. Good. — I ate one last year ; don't remember how it was 
cooked. The edible qualities were good. — A. F. Whitman, Nash- 
ville, Tenn, 

26. Good. — I have eaten only one. It was stewed, and /part 
of it was fried. I consider it a good fish. — Jas. A. Peterkin, 
Fort Motte, S. G. 

27. Very good. — Yes. In the winter of 1882-83, the pond 
was drained by muskrats and the carp were killed. The older 
ones then weighed nearly 3 pounds. They were considered ver}- 
good eating. — Rush Taggart, Salem, Ohio. 

28. Very good. — Two ; fried ; very good. — William I. Dunn, 
Sepulga, Ala. 

29. Very good. — Yes; boiled, baked, and fried. The edible 
qualities were very good. — P. C. Carlton, Statesville, N. C. 

30. Very good. — Only one; very good. — David Farlow, 
Level Plains, N. C. 

31. Very good. — Those taken we ate. They were fried, and 
considered very good. — A. J. Michener, Colora, Md. 

32. Very good. — Yes; and consider them yqvj good. We 
ate one yesterday, fried. — Frederick Zahn, Frizellburgh, Md. 

33. Very good. — The one I caught was fried, and was thought 
ver}^ good. — R. Welby Carter, Upperville, Va. 

34. Very good. — I had one fried, and considered it a very 
good fish. It weighed 2^- pounds. — J. W. Price, Fincastle, Va. 

35. Very good. — I caught one last year weighing about 
one-half pound, which was cooked and thought very good by 
the family. — James A. Van Brunt, '75 South Street, Neio York, 
N. Y. 

36. Very GOOD. — I have eaten some, fried. I suppose they 
would eat better to some party who had not raised them. Others 
who have eaten them pronounce them very good. — Frank W. 
Green, Nashville, Tenn. 

37. Very GOOD. — Fried. I thought they were very good. — 
Wm. Arbaugh, Carrolltou, Md. 



64 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

38. Very GOOD. — We have eaten only two; fried in a pan. 
They were very good. — W. W. Grier, Charlotte N. C. 

39. Very good. — I ate one of about 1 pound weight in 1882, 
and another this spring. I thought them very good. This fall, 
after they have recovered from spawning, I will try another large 
one. — Richard T. W. Duke, Charlottesville^ Va. 

40. Good and very good. — We have eaten one. It was fried 
in lard, and was pronounced good and very good. — Michael 
Shank, Harrisonburg, Va. 

II. — Unqualified Praise and Very Emphatic Expressions of 

Approval. 

41. Very GOOD, INDEED. — Yes; one was taken out May 17, 
1883, a very fine fish. It weighed 7 pounds less 1 ounce, and 
measured 22 inches. It was baked, and pronounced ver}^ good, in- 
deed, by all who ate of it. — James Bayliss, Massillon, Ohio, 

42. Very GOOD, INDEED. — Yes ; fried. They are very good in- 
deed. — W. B. Chapman, Macon, Ga, 

43. Highly ESTEEMED. — I have not; but hear of some that 
have, and that they are highly esteemed. — Shotwell Powell, 
Keysville, Va. 

4t4t. Well pleased. — We ate one, baked, that got caught in the 
chute. We were well pleased with the edible qualities. — A. H. 
Baker & Co., Fairfield, 111. 

45. Highly pleased. — We ate two. They were fried. We 
were highly pleased. — Lowrey & Berry, Blue Mountain, Miss. 

46. Good and rich. — We broiled two, and found them of good 
flavor, fat and rich. — Geo. N. Falk, Lenoir, N. C. 

47. Juicy and good. — We ate three fried, and all were well 
pleased. They were juicy and good. — W. N. Reeves, Eufaula, 
Ala. 

48. Rich, juicy, but not delicate. — I have eaten about 3 or 4 
fried. It is a good pan-fish, rich and juicy, but flesh not delicate. 

— I. Randolph Mordecai, Baltimore, Md. 

49. Delicate, white, and very nice. — They are solid, delicate 
wiiite meat, and very nice. They were fried. — Jno. R. Brown, 
Woodstock, Md. 

50. Very nice. — I ate one fried that weighed about 8 pounds, . 
and it was very nice. — Thos. Longbotham, Wortham, Tex. 

51. Very nice. — We have cooked them two or three ways, and 
find that the larger ones areverj^ nice, — O. A. Gilman, Paris, Ky. 

52. Very nice. — I ate two of them fried ; they were very nice. 

— John Heeter, Hunting Hill, Md. 

53. Very toothsome. — Yes; fried; and pronounced as very 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 65 

toothsome by all who had the pleasure of partaking of them. — 
Jacob G. Heilman, Jonestown^ Pa. 

54. Very fine baked ; good fkied. — I have eaten three that 
were caught while fishing with hook for other fish and wounded in 
the mouth. We baked one three-pounder. It was ver3^ fine ; flesh 
firm ; good favor. We fried one of 2^ pounds. It was quite good. 

— John G. Keith, Jackson^ Tenn, 

55. Very fine, sweet, and rich. — All report them very fine 
eating ; very fat, sweet, rich, and tobthsome when fried. — H. C. 
Loose, Ilagerstown. Md. 

bQ>. The Dutchman said it was fine. — The one who proposed 
my getting carp suggested that I bring it to him and let him serve 
it up, as he knew all about it, and that I should dine with him. I 
consented. The carp was eaten. I was not told when, but the 
Dutchman said it was fine. — P. S. Clarke, Hempstead^ Tex. 

bl. Fine. — Yes, sir ; and it was fine. It was fried. — J.N. 
Thomason, Paris, Tenn. 

58. Fine. — Have eaten them fried ; weight, 4 and 10 pounds. 
They were pronounced by all to be a fine fish for the table. — Mrs. 
A. B. Watts, Newton, Miss. 

59. Very fine. — Yes ; and veiy fine. The}- were fried. — W. 
H. Shirley, Harrisonville, Md. 

60. Very fine. — I ate two of them. I had them baked. Their 
edible qualities were ver}- fine. — James Bumgardner, Sr. , Green- 
ville^ Va. 

61. Very fine. — I have eaten them baked and broiled. They 
are a very fine food fish. — Thomas Hughlett, Easton, Md. 

62. Very FINE. — M}' wife caught one with her hands while I 
was from home. She pronounded it very fine. She fried it in lard. 

— J. A. DuLA, Lenoir, N. C. 

63. Very fine. — I ate one ; baked it. The flavor was very 
fine. — C. W. Alexander, Charlotte, N. C. 

64. Very fine. — I have eaten several while some of my friends 
were participants. All pronounced them very fine cooked by fry- 
ing in plenty of lard. — S. M. Clayton, Cyruston, Tenn. 

65. Very fine. — They are very fine. — Wm. Elliott, Taylor, 
Tex. 

66. Very fine. — Persons who have eaten them cooked in the 
ordinary way (fried) say they are very fine. — C. J. Watson, Mun- 
fordville, Ky. 

67. Very fine. — I have not. Those of my neighbors who have 
pronounced them very fine, either fried or boiled. — T. M. Hipner, 
Mortonsville, Ky. 

68. Very fine. — In my absence one of the oldest was caught 



66 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

with a hook. When landed the line parted, and the fish was injured 
so that it could not be returned to the pond. It was fried and pro- 
nouneed by the family yevy fine. — Jas. G. Field, Gordonsville, 
Va. 

69. Very fine. — I ate two of them and found them a fish of 
very fine quality, much better than I anticipated. — F. S. Everist, 
Port Deposit, Md. 

70. Very fine — I have eaten a few. They were fried as we 
usuall}^ fry other fish. I have found them very fine pan fish. — 
John McFadden, Sudlersville, Md. 

71. Very fine. — The few eaten were fried, and were very fine 
food — remarkably good.— Christopher & Roberts, Fairhurn^ 
Ga. 

72. Very fine. — What fish I have taken from xn.j pond to eat 
I have bad baked and have found them very fine eating. — I. C. 
Plant, Macon, Ga. 

73. Very fine indeed. — We ate only two. These were fried, 
and we considered them very fine indeed, and only wished we could 
have more. — H. L. Spencer, Social Circle, Ga. 

74. Number one. — Yes, they were fried, and were thought by 
different persons to be No. 1. — Thomas R. Tulloss, Rock Hill, 
Tenn. 

75. First rate. — I have, fried; first rate. — Lewis Barlow, 
Sykesville. Md. 

76. First rate. — I have tasted three of the oldest. They 
were fried, and the quatity was first rate. — J. M. Brooks, Water- 
ord, Miss. 

77. First class. — My neighbors and myself ate one, after fry- 
ing it as we would any other fish, and all unite with me in pro- 
nouncing it a first-class table fish. — George M. Emack, Versailles, 

Ky> 

78. First class. Yes, fried. They are first class in every- 
way. — J. A. Long, Yanceyville, N. G, 

79. First class. — Had one cooked. It was first class. — W. 
G. Delashmutt, Martinsville, III. 

80. First class; white and fine, — I caught two last j^ear 
that weighed 5f lbs. We baked them, and regard them first class, 
either baked or fried. The flesh is of a white texture, and fine. — 
A. Shinkle, Covington, Ky. 

81. Extra. — We have caught and eaten some fried, and claim 
them extra in quality. — S. O. Hawkins, JBwcA;s , Ohio. 

82. Good enough; excellent. — Yes, a great many, both fried 
baked. By our best judges carp is considered excellent. They 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 67 

are good enough. On account of their rapid growth and size Ihej'' 
are better for baking. — Greene B. Mobley, Eutaw, Ala. 

83. Excellent. — Yes, fried. They were pronounced excellent 
b}^ every one who tasted them. — Abram E. Null, Union Bridge, 
Md. 

84. Excellent. — Yes, one that was caught. It was fried and 
considered excellent eating. — R. K. Dabney, Powhatan C. H.^ Va. 

85. Excellent. — We have eaten one in April. It was pro- 
nounced by all a fish of excellent qualit}-. — I. C. Donaldson, Oil- 
hertsoille^ N, Y. 

86. Excellent. — My partner ate one, and pronounced it excel- 
lent. — A. P. Brown, Jefferson^ Tex. 

87. Excellent. — We had them fried once ; they w^ere pro- 
nounced to be excellent. — J. W. Shimwell, Prince Frederick^ Md. 

88 . Excellent. — Four , fried. Taste excellent. — Charles Sense- 
man, West Charleston^ Ohio. 

89. Excellent. — We ate tw^o old fish and five young ones. 
Fried. Quality excellent. — Gustin Havens, Lewis Center^ Ohio. 

90. Excellent. — Have eaten some and think them an excellent 
table fish. — Harrison Sumnerour, Warsaw, Ga. 

91. Excellent. — Yes. Fried the young ones, and baked the 
old ones. Edible qualities were excellent. — W. M. Thornton, 
Lake, Miss, 

92. Excellent. — One, fried, was excellent. — A. H. Wilkins, 
Whitesborough, Tex. 

93. Excellent. — Only one, which was fried. All who tasted it 
pronounced it excellent. — Francis Pride, Cedar Hill, Tenn. 

94. Excellent. — In the summer of 1882, with hook and line, I 
caught three, one weighing 3^ pounds, the other two 2^ and 2 J 
pounds, respectively. The}^ were fried, and pronounced by the 
company to be '^excellent." — Joseph Ligon, Massie's Mills, Va. 

95. Excellent. — Got surprised. Yes ; broiled and the}^ were ex- 
cellent in flavor and consistency — much to m}^ surprise.— R. Emory, 
M. D. Taylor, Md. 

96. Excellent. — I have eaten carp in Eur «pe frequently and 
found them an excellent pan-fish — C. Bohn Slingluff, TomsoUy 
Md. 

97. Excellent. — I have eaten none myself; but those caught in 
Hardware were said to be excellent. — fried and boiled. — Hentiy 
M. Prince, M. D., Scottsville, Va. 

98. Excellent. — We had two cooked; one baked, the other 
fried. They were excellent. — Emanuel Heyser, Madison, Ga. 

99. Excellent; not gamy nor fishy. — Yes, one. Baked and 
stuffed. The meat was white and of the consistency of shad. It 



68 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

hfld no game taste whatever and none of the fish taste. With con- 
diments and being well cooked, all pronounced the dish excel- 
lent. — Wm. E. Smith, Albany^ Ga. 

100. Scale carp excellent. — Ate several fried. The scale 
carp I consider excellent. The leather carp not so good. — H. 
B. Dams, Macon^ Ga. 

101. Excellent; scale carp the best. — I have eaten one of 
each variety and much prefer the scale carp to the leather. They 
were boiled, and considered excellent. — A. W. Overton, Frank- 
fort, Ky. 

102. Most excellent. — Have eaten one — fried it. Think it a 
most excellent table fish. — C. C. David, Harmony Grove, Ga. 

103. Most excellent.— -Mayor T. J. Jarratt had one of the 
carp baked and it was pronounced b}' himself and other members 
of the family and also by Capt. E. A. Goodwin, who was invited 
to partake of it, as a most excellent fish. Mr. Coleman, the 
keeper of the Central Park, also speaks of it as very palatable. 
— Petersburgh, Va., Index-Appeal, August 12, 1882. 

104. Splendid; none better. — We have eaten some. We 
had them fried, and thought the}^ were splendid. I don't think 
there could be anj^ better fish. — James W. Ogle, Union Bridge, 
Md. 

105. Simply splendid. — Fried, and simply splendid. — M. S. 
Gilmer, Mathews, Ala. 

106. Very superior. — They are cooked according to fancy 
as other varieties, and are veiy superior in flavor. As a baking 
fish, they are very superior. — L. T. Wheeler, Corsicana, Tex. 

107. Superb. — We ate one, which was superb. — Peter 
Bonds, Harrisonburg Va. 

108. Superior. — We have eaten a few of them and consider 
them a good eating fish. They were cooked the same as shad — 
fiied. We look upon them as a superior fish. — James Harban, 
Dayton, Md. 

109. Delicious. — Onlj^ once. They were fried in the usual 
way and were pronounced very palatable and delicious. — Daniel 
Wolf, Fairplay, Md. 

110. Delicious. — Yes. Thy were fried and were delicious. — 
Thomas V. Richardson, Phoenix, Md. 

111. Delicious. — Fried; they were delicious. — J. M. Wal- 
ler, Mexia, Tex. 

112. Delicious. — Only one, weighing 3| lbs., which was 
fried, and m}^ family pronounced it delicious. — Samuel Ander- 
son, Rutland, Md. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 69 

113. Delicious. — Only upon one occasion, and fried. It was 
delicious. — J. W. Downey, M.T)., Newmarket^ Md. 

114. Good as he wants. — I have eaten 2 of the first lot 
merely to try them. The quality was as good as I want. They 
were only fried. — M. B. E. Kline, Broadway Depots Va. 

115. Fine as ever tasted. — I have eaten one and had it 
fried. It was as fine a flavored fish as I ever tasted. — W. K. 
Hunter, Bolesville, JSf. G. 

116. Oily, AND finest fish he ever ate. — AYe have eaten 
nine and given away three. We fried them like other fish. They 
contained nearly oil enough to cook themselves and were very fine 
— finest I ever ate. — Henry Pulse, Harrisonburg^ Va. 

117. Never ate better fish. — One killed through a mistake 
was fried, and we never ate a better fish. — Robt. H. Ricks, Rocky 
Mount, N. C. 

118. Never ate better fish. — Have had them fried and 
don't think I ever ate an}^ better fish in m}^ life. — Mrs. M. A 
Wallace, Sherman, Tex. 

119. Never ate better fish. — Have fried them, and never 
ate better fish. — Wm. O. Yager, Luray, Va. 

120. Better than any other fish. — I have had three messes ; 
one; last j^ear, and two since. They were fried. They eat very 
well — better than any other fish in the country. — J. T. Low, 
Saulsbury, Tenn. 

121. Very best. — We eat two large ones. The}' w^ere broiled. 
The quality was of the very best. — Dr. Samuel Hape, Hapeville 
and Atlanta, Qa. 

122. Best of fish. — I have eat 5 or 6 weighing from 1 to 
IJ lbs. each. We fried them in butter, and all who have par- 
taken of them have pronounced them the best of fish. — Michael 
Willax, Baltimore, Md. 

123. Best they ever ate. — We have eaten one which was 
fried. It was decidedly the best we ever ate. This was testified 
to by several. — John C. Wenger, Dayton, Va. 

124. Best fish he ever ate. — Yes, they were broiled and 
were very nice — the best either of salt or fresh-water fish that I 
have ever eaten. — H. G. Sanford, Warren, R. I. 

125. Best fish they ever did eat. — Yes, we used them all 
last summer, and gave a mess to all our friends and neighbors. 
All with one voice say they are the best fish they ever did eat, 
and we say so too. Cook them as you please. They are good 
enough for any man. — Samuel McClelland, Salt Springs, Mo. 

126. Never ate a superior fish. — In draining m}" ponds 
last year I caught a carp 18 inches long and had it fried. I 



70 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

never ate a superior fish. My family pronounced it excellent. 

— E. G. Peyton, Hazlehurst^ Miss. 

127. Superior to any other fish there. — We have eaten 
two, which were fried. They were delightful and have superior 
qualities over any other fish here. — Wm. L. Hudson, Luray, Va. 

128. Far superior to any Texas fish. — Yes, stewed and 
fried. They were splendid both ways, far superior to any Texas 
fish, in our estimation. — William Brueggerhoff, Austin, Tex. 

129. Good as any. — We have baked them and they are as 
good as any fish we ever ate. — J. Shaw Margerum, Washing- 
ton, Fa. • 

130. Equal to any fish. — I have eaten some. They were 
fried and were an excellent table fish : equal to any species of fish. 

— Wm. a. Jett, Atlanta, Ga. 

131. Equal to any fish in the country. — I have not, but 
several of my neighbors have and pronounce them equal to any 
fish in the country. — Monroe Pointer, Como Depot, III. 

132. Nicest fish ever tasted. — They are the nicest fish I 
ever tasted. We fried them the same as other fish. — Wm. A. 
Ridgely, Glenwood, Md. 

133. Finest fish in the country. — Have eaten none here, 
but plenty in Germany, and know it is the finest fish we Imve 
in our country'. — William Radam, Austin, Tex. 

134. Never ate anything more delicious. — We ate the one 
8 inches long, cooked with fine lard. I had visitors, and all joined 
in saying they never had eaten anything more delicious. I know 
I never will. — John Houston, Farmville, Va. 

135. Most excellent fish they ever ate. — I killed a dozen. 
Jkly family and neighbors had them fried, and all pronounced them 
the most excellent of any fish they ever saw. — E. C. Dickinson, 
Busk, Tex, 

136. A CRUCIAL TEST WITH MAGNIFICENT RESULTS. Eight OUt 

of ten men with whom we have ever conversed about the table 
qualities of the German carp have affirmed that the fish was unsur- 
passable as an article of diet, but every now and then there comes 
along a ninth and tenth man who pronounces it coarse, dry, and 
not fit to eat. Our mind being thus unsettled on this great subject 

— and the present absorbing public interest in the carp culture 
demanding a dissipation of all doubts — we addressed a note to 
our old friend, Capt. A. D. Bates, of Batesburg, the pioneer of 
carp-raising in our couniy, begging that he allow us to spend a 
day with him and test the qualities of the carp. His reply was, 
''Come any day you please. Bring whomsoever you please. I 
shall be delighted, and you shall eat fried carp three times a day." 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 71 

As regards the carp at dinner, it was in this wise : There were 
two dishes of them, 7 or 8 on each dish, fried. All these were in 
size from one to two pounds. They were fried as shad are. And 
certainlj' — and in all honest}^ and sincerity — we have never tasted 
a more delicious fish. So faj from being dry, they are precisely 
the opposite ; though as they grow older, the flesh becomes more 
solid. They have but few bones ; the backbone and ribs, with but 
few besides. As we ate of the fish, the thought occurred to ns that 
perhaps there was more in the cooking than in the fish. We inti- 
mated this thought to Mrs. Bates, \\ho laughingl}' assured us that 
the ftying process was of the ver}^ simplest, and that the fish were 
standing emphaticall}' upon their own merits. In conclusion, we 
beg to say that if our personal and individual experience of the 
table qualities of the German carp will be any encouragement to 
them in carp-raising, we again affirm, without fear of successful 
contradiction, that the carp is an exceedingly delicious fish, and 
well worth}^ of any pains that may be bestowed upon it. — J as. T. 
Bacon and Thos. J. Adams, Editors of the Edgefield Advertiser^ 
Edgefield, S. 0., March 29, 1888. 

III. — Comparisons with Other Fish — Very Generally Com- 
plimentary. 

137. Good; equal to buffalo. — Have eaten several that 
were fried. We consider their edible qualities good — equal to the 
buffalo in the Ohio River. — Matthew B. Carter, Shaker, Ohio. 

138. Equal to buffalo. — We ate one, fried, which got caught 
in the ice and was killed. It was about as good as a buffalo, 
though if it had been fresh perhaps it would have been better. — 
G. W. Varnum, Montgomery City, Mo. 

139. Equal to mullet. — I have eaten 140 fried. I found 
them something like the mullet. They are verj' nice, and sweeter 
than any other fish. Rather too sweet for some. — Charles J. 
Riddle, Forh, Md. 

140. Equal to branch mullet, or suckers. — Scale carp, 
first rate in qualit}^ Leather carp, not so good, being more like 
the branch mullet or sucker. — Benjamin D. Palmer, Sandy 
Spring, Md. 

141. Equal to suckers. — I have eaten only one. It was fried. 
I think it is about equal to our common sucker — fully as bony. — 
G. M. Gallaspy, Decatur, Miss. 

142. Equal to catfish. — A few days ago we ate two of the 
last lot, fried. They compared very well with ordinary fish — 
something similar to catfish. — P. Peyton Carver, Mount Juliet^ 
Tenn, 



72 INLAiS^D FISHERIES. [Dec. 

143. Equal to other pond fish. — Have not given them a 
fair trial, but think them equal to other lake fish. — I. A. Edmond- 
SON, 48 South Calvert Street, Baltimore, Mel. 

144. Equal to croakers, mill-roach, and mud-shad. — I 
have eaten some fried. I did not think the}- rated above croakers, 
mill-roach, or mud-shad. They had ^.n earthy taste. I have never 
eaten them any other waj- than fried. — Andrew Reese, Luther- 
ville, Md. 

145. Equal to perch. — They eat very much like the perch 
that is found in our creeks and rivers. — James Tv Bartlet, 
Trappe, Md. 

146. Equal to perch. — Yes, they were fried, and I thought 
them equal to our salt water perch, which are good. — F. I. Wiley, 
Charlotte Hall, Saint Mary's County, Maryland. 

147. Equal to perch. —We have eaten some. They were 
fried, and the flesh tasted similar to that of a perch. — George 
R. Parrott, Still Pond, Md. 

148. Equal to rock fish. — We have fried 12 or 15 of them 
and found them equal to pan rock. — James Burton, Greeri- 
wood, Md. 

149. Equal to drum but not to perch or bass. — Yes, three. 
Two were fried and one boiled. They were eaten in the winter, 
and opinion was expressed that they were a good coarse fish, about 
equal to drum, inferior to perch or bass. — William L Young, 
Waverly, Miss. 

150. Not equal to bass. — Yes, xerj fair. They are not as 
good as bass. The flesh has not much flavor and is soft. — M. 
GiLLET Gill, Baltimore, Md. 

151. Not equal to the river fishes. — In April, 1882, I 
tasted of a baked carp weighing some 5 pounds, properly seasoned 
and cooked. I think it inferior to any of our running stream fishes 
for the table in flavor and texture. — Ira P. Jones, Nashville, 
Tenn. 

152. Quite superior to native fish. — I have eaten two 
messes. They w^ere fried and very fine ; quite superior to our 
common fish. — J. C. Keithlet, Shackleford, Saline County, Mis- 
souri. 

153. Better than perch or catfish ; not equal to bass or 
TROUT. — In June, 1882, I caught several estimated at one and a 
half pounds. All were returned to the water except two, which 
were baked and eaten. They were considered as "good"; not so 
good as bass or mountain trout, but better than perch or catfish. — 
Matthew A. Miller, Richmond, Va. 

Ic4. Not equal to trout or shad. — Yes, I had some prepared 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 73 

as fish generally are. M}^ opinion is that they are the fish for the 
people, but not so good as the trout or shad. — C. M. Coe, Atlanta, 
Ga. 

155. Not equal to trout. — I have eaten carp from another's 
pond. I liked them pretty well — not so well as trout. They 
were fried. — Pemberton Wood, Union Bridge, Md. 

156. Not equal to trout or perch. — I commenced in 1882, 
and have been eating on them ever since. I am getting old and 
could not wait any longer. We fry and stew them. They are 
very good, either way — not equal to the trout or perch. — M. S. 
Finch, Sr., Wortham, Tex. 

157. Next TO TROUT AND perch. ■— Good ; onl}^ surpassed by 
our native trout and perch. — E. L. McGehee, Woodville, Miss. 

158. Better than sunfish or trout. — Fried, and better than 
the sunfish. I prefer them to the mountain trout from my pond 
near by or to my eastern trout bred here. — Addison Baker, Den- 
ver City, Colo. 

159. Better than red-horse — not equal to bream. — One 
only — of the scaly variety. It was fried and pronounced fine — 
not equal to the bream, but better than red-horse, which it resem- 
bles. — S. W. BooKHART, M.D., Blythewood, S. C. 

160. Equal to shad, red-horse, black bass, or suckers. — 
They are equal to the shad, red-horse, black bass, white sucker, 
and otlier fish we get here. — Abel A. Wright, Griffin, Ga. 

161. Equal to any native fishes. — Yes, fried. They are 
equal to any of our native fishes. — H. I. Irlt, Eiifaula, Ala. 

162. Equal to black bass. — I think they are as good as black 
bass. — Wm. Downey, New Market, Md. 

163. Better than black bass, rock or mackerel — equal to 
SHAD. — We have, fried. We consider them equal to shad, supe- 
rior to black bass, rock or mackerel, and we wish for nothing bet- 
ter. They are the fish for the million. — Edwin H. Reynolds, 
Risi))g Sun, Md. 

164. Equal to bass or perch — superior to lake fish. — The 
first one was caught about September 1, which we did not expect to 
be extra on account of the warm weather, but to our surprise it was 
excellent, and b}^ one guest who is used to eating fish caught fresh 
from Lake Michigan and from different streams of this State, it 
was pronounced equal to the creek bass or perch, as it is sometimes 
called, which is considered the best fish we have, even superior to 
lake fish. We all thought it far better than catfish or suckers. It 
was not oily or coarse, as some papers have stated. Three persons 
besides our own famil}- of four grown persons partook of it, and 
all liked it. The other fish was caught in October, after the weather 



74 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

became cooler, and four people, all different from the first party, 
besides our famil}^ ate of it, the same opinion being expressed as 
before. We who ate of both could see no difference, unless it was 
a verj' little more firmness to the flesh of the last. — Gustin Hav- 
ens, Lewis Centre^ Ohio, April 6, 1883. 

165. Nearly equal to red snapper. — Have eaten no carp 
under 2 pounds, at which weight they are an excellent pan fish, 
only the flesh is a little soft. An eight-pounder baked is nearly as 
good as a red snapper. — B. J. Wilson, Atlanta, Ga. 

166. Not EQUAL TO SHAD. — Yes, and I do not consider them 
first class for eating. They will not compare with shad and other 
fine fish in North Carolina waters. — H. B.Wright, Saulsbury, 
Tenn, 

167. Not equal to shad. — Yes ; they were fried as we cook 
herring and their quality was fair, but not so good as Potomac 
shad. — Asa M. Stabler, Spencerville, Md. 

168. Equal to shad. — We ate one this morning. It was 
broiled. It was very good — something like shad. — Wm. Thomp- 
son, Jr., Lemont, Pa. 

169. Equal to shad. — I have. They are first rate, about 
equal to boiled shad. — Samuel T. Earle, Gentreville, Md.. 

170. Equal to shad. — Yes, fried ; most excellent, equal to 
shad. — Ira A. Fitz Gerald, Linwood, J^. G. 

171. Equal to shad. — I cooked four during last year. They 
were fried as we usually prepare shad, and I consider them equal 
to shad. — Eichard H. Cornegys, Greensborough, Md. 

172. Equal TO TROUT or shad. — Yes, baked and fried, fresh 
from the water. It was equal to trout, and I think equal to shad. 
— Dr. H. H. Gary, La Grange, Ga. 

173. Better than shad. — We have eaten two fried and con- 
sider them better than shad. — Wm. B. Tewell, Rockhill, S. C. 

174. Better than shad. — Yes, baked ; superior to shad. — H. 
G. Evans, HendersonvlUe, iV. C. 

175. Better THAN shad. — Two, baked. I found them an ex- 
cellent table fish — in my estimation far superior to shad. — Adolph 
J. Gall, Jessup's, Md. 

IV. Criticisms as to Softness or Muddy Taste. 

176. Good, but a little soft. — We have eaten some few fried. 
They were good. Little on the soft order. — Jos. Hayghe, Upper 
Cross Roads, Md. 

111. Soft. — The scale carp are best. The others are too fat 
and soft. — Samuel M. Subers, Macon, Ga. 

178. Soft. — We ate two, fried in butter. They were pleas- 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 75 

ant tasted, but the flesh was most too tender. — J. W. Higbee, 
Castle Shannon, Pa. 

179. Excellent, perhaps soft. — I ate two fried. Their table 
qualities were excellent. The first one w^as a little too fat and the 
meat a little soft. — ^ C. C. Lobingier, Braddock, Fa. 

180. Too SOFT. — I do not think them a good pan fish, being 
too soft. Thej are good boiled. — Robert E. Withers, Wythe- 
ville, Va. 

181. Soft and of a muddy taste in July. — Cooked in lard. 
I did not like them. I found them to be soft and strong in flavor. 
I think it was July 8th that I tasted them. — Wm. Sal way. Super- 
intendent of Spring Grove Cemetery., Station A, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

182. Soft and of a muddy taste. — I have eaten them fried 
several times. I do not like them very much. They are soft 
and taste a little muddy. — Samuel Roop, Westminister, Md. 

183. Muddy taste. — I tried to eat a 3-pound scale carp, but 
found it strong, with a disagreeable, muddy flavor. We filed and 
served it with spiced sauce. Some of mine are the leather variety, 
and perhaps they may prove better. — Thomas Clapham, Rosyln, 
N. T. 

184. A little muddy taste. — I have eaten some fried in lard 
that was fat, very good except a little musty taste. — Andrew 
Mann, Forest Hill, W. Va. 

185. Muddy taste due to pond. — The Albright mill pond 
was drawn ofl" yesterday and ]\Ir. J. E. McKnight gave us a small 
carp which we had cooked. The flesh was white and rather soft. 
The fish does not have many bones ; but this one was not of fine 
flavor, having a muddj^ taste. This, however, may be owing to 
the character of the pond, which is a very old one, filled with red 
mud, and very offensive. — Tiie Daily Bugle, Jas. W. Albright, 
Editor, Greenboro; N. C, May 2, 1883. 

186. Cause of muddy taste. — I have eaten them, both fried 
and broiled. I think the scale carp superior to the leather, but 
the quality of the carp depends upon their food. If left to care 
for themselves they will taste of the mud. — L. Triplett, Jr., 
Mount Jackson, Va. 

187. How TO AVOID muddy taste. — We ate a few last 
spring, fried. They tasted of mud unless they were first soaked 
in salt water. After being soaked over night they were very 
good. The meat is firm. What I used were scale carp. — Capt. 
Jno. T. Fletchall, Foolesville, Md. 

188. Some not good, and some very good. — I ate three carp 
which weighed two pounds each. They were fried and I did 
not think much of them. The flesh was not very solid and had a 



76 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

sweet taste. Those eaten were in April before tbej^ had spawned, 
and while I and some of m}^ family did not like them, one of my 
neighbors, to whom I sent one, thought it very nice. These fish 
were some of the original lot received from 3'ou. I have this last 
week eaten some of the two-year olds, weighing ^ pound each, and 
all liked them verj^ much. — E. L. Tschiffely, Hunting Hill, Md. 

189. Soft in June. — We baked a 3-pound one taken from 
a verj' small and warm pond. We found it of good flavor, and 
sweet, but very soft. It was killed late in June, and was full of 
roe. — Leonard V. Green, Norwich, Conn. 

190. Not good when spawning ; otherwise very fine. - — 
Only one, but about spawning season. It was strong tasted. I 
am assured, however, that they are very fine at other seasons, 
and even then if too young to spawn. — J. W. Mewborn, Macon, 
Tenn, 

191. Not good in August; small ones very fair. — We 
have tried one weighing 10 pounds, and gave away others about 
that size. They were stuffed and baked. I think the}' are the 
poorest food-fish ever eaten. Even the smell is offensive. Jul}' 
25, 1883. 

The large carp I wrote about as being so offensive when cooked 
was served up in the month of August. 

The small carp, sa}' J pound to 1 a pounds, we catch with worms 
at the present time. The parties who have eaten them say they 
think them a very fair pan fish. — William Grtswold, Jobstown, 
JSr. J., July 30, 1883, 

192. Results of eating carp soon after spawning time. — 
It must be remembered that the taste of mankind is so different 
that what would delight one would disgust another. We had a 
carp boiled b}" a German, but none of our party liked it thus 
cooked. The next was stuffed splendidl}' and baked. This was 
found more palatable. As a pan fish we must sa}' that those fortu- 
nate people who know how a 13-inch frecklfe, such as you catch in 
Surre}^ and Sussex Counties, tastes will not take any stock in this 
new comer. But my opinion is that on a cold, frosty morning 
in October the carp will be found to be good eating, if properly 
cooked. — R. A. Martin, in the Petershurgh, Va., Index Appeal, 
Aug. 12, 1882. 

193. Do NOT eat carp in spawning season. — Last Novem- 
ber one gentleman got a carp 20 inches long, and all who ate of it 
said it was O. K. Two others tried one, each in spawning season, 
and said the}' were not good. Of course these persons knew noth- 
ing of carp culture. — S.J. Alexander, Macon, Tenn. July 3, 
1883. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. , 77 

• 

194. Inferior and sickening after two weeks' confine- 
ment IN A railroad tank. — It was in the months of December 
and February that I tasted the carp. On one occasion I caught 
four out of my pond and put them in a railroad tank containing 
some 5,000 gallons of water which was changing every day or so. 
I put them in there, not for the purpose of changing their condition 
or edible qualities, but I was expecting a friend who was thinking of 
getting some, and I wanted him to taste them. I put them in the 
tank so that I could take a net and get them at any minute. But 
my friend did not come at the time I expected him and the carp 
remained in the tank over two weeks, being fed in the meantime on 
bread alone. This tank is a large wooden tub containing over 
5,000 gallons of water. I served the carp in three different ways 
for the table, and in all the different waj^s it still retained its 
muddy, strong, fishy, sweet, sickening taste. Three out of four 
who ate any complained of a little sickness at the stomach after 
eating them. After trying myself I sent a half dozen or more to 
friends in the village, and every one who ate them said it had the 
same taste to them as above. I must say I think it the most 
inferior fish I ever ate. I tried hard to see if I could not over- 
come some of my bad opinions of the fish, as I had gone to the 
expense of fitting up a nice pond especially for them, but facts are 
stubborn things. I am now stocking my pond with black bass in 
order that they may eat up the young carp, as I think them worth- 
less for anything else. — Copeland D. Epes, Nottoway C. H., Va. 

V. — The Only Uncomplimentary Reports aside from those 
known to be due to Eating Carp in the Wrong Season. 

195. Rather indifferent. — Have eaten several fried and 
considered them rather indifferent. — Robert M. Stabler, Spen- 
cer ville^ Md. 

196. Nothing extra. — I ate two of them; I thought them 
nothing extra. — J. L. Woolfolk, Madisonville^ Ky. 

197. Opinions differ. — Have eaten a number of them ; most 
of persons pronounce them fine, others differ. — W. W. Tunis & 
Bro., Tunis Mills, Md. 

198. Could not tell. — We have fried and eaten two of the 
fish that we found in the grass with some hook holes through their 
mouths. Thieves had dropped them. We could not tell much 
about the quality. — John B. Brown, Nashville, Ohio. 

199. Unfavorable. — Opinion not in favor of carp. — John 
Collins, Bernardsville, N J. 

200. Vp:ry poor. — I have. They were fried in hogs' lard. 



78 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

Their edible qualities were veiy poor. — Josiaii Perry, Coving- 
ton^ Ga. 

201. Does not like them at all. — We have eaten them 
several times, alwa3'S fried in butter or lard, after being rolled in 
meal. I do not like them at all. — Oscar Reid, Ferguson^ Mo. 

202. Unfit to eat. — Have eaten one and pronounced it de- 
cidedly unfit for table use. — R. Payne, Georgetoicn, Ky, 

203. Worthless for eating. — Yes, have eaten a few, baked, 
fried, and broiled. Their edible qualities are not good. I was 
very much disappointed in them. The}" are worthless for eating. 
I think it very likely that the muddy bottom of the pond causes 
the fish to be so indifferent for eating. — E. F. Raworth, Vicks- 
hurg^ Miss. 

204. Tough and unfit to eat. — Our countr}^ is getting pretty 
thoroughly stocked with German carp, and there is hardly a paper 
in the land but teems with praises of their wonderful growth, love- 
liness, adaptability to the shallow ponds, &c., all of which we most 
unqualifiedly indorse ; but how seldom do we hear one word as to 
their eating qualities. Although our esteemed senator from this 
district, who introduced them here three years ago, tells us they 
sell "side by side" with the best fish in the Washington, D. C, 
market, still that does not keep other Kentuckians, at least, from 
having their tastes. From fifteen to twenty families around here 
have tried them at different times during the past year, and, except 
two persons who could eat them but did n't relish them, they un- 
hesitatingly pronounced them unfit to eat. They have tried them 
boiled, baked, and fried, and discarded them every way. One 
lady saj's, they are well named leather carp, for we would prefer 
leather served in an}^ style, to them ; and, right here, might not 
our fish commissioners have mistaken their use, and ought we not 
to send a few to the tannery? Another person saj^s he intends to 
keep raising them, for he knows they will prove valuable for soap 
grease. Such are some of their indorsements here, and we would 
like for others throughout the country not to think so much of them 
as we did, having them nearly three years before trying them, but 
to try them as soon as possible, and report the results. — An 
anonymous Kentucky correspondent of the American Fields January 
20, 1883. 

VI. — A Few Opinions in regard to the Bones. 

205. Very free from bones. — Very much like Lake Michi- 
gan white-fish ; bony at the back of the head, like shad. The 
remainder is very free from bones. — E. Miller, MahioaJi, N. J, 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 79 

206. Very few bones. — Fried, it was veiy good; very few 
bones. — T. Holt, Holfs Summit^ Mo. 

207. Fine flavor, no bones, and fat. — Yes ; dam broke, and 
those injured in catching were baked and fried. They were of fine 
flavor, fat, and no bones. — Ed. M. Gresham, Carlton's Store, Va. 

208. Good but bony. — Yes ; a good number fried and boiled. 
They are pronounced by all as good as an}^ fish, excepting a few 
more bones than we usually find in other fish. — M. S. O'Neal and 
C. G. Arnold, Versailles, Ky. 

209. Bony, like buffalo. — I dissected two or three and I 
found those detached bones that make the buff'alo (Western Cy- 
prinidse) thick-lip so objectionable. Otherwise it is a good fish in 
August and September. After that the}^ get soft, and continue to 
be so till after they have spawned in June. — E. Z. Butchek, 
Solomon City, Kan. 

210. Bones in small ones. — Yes. Fine baking fish. Small 
ones are rather too bony for frj'ing, perhaps. — E. A. Lindsey, 
Jackson, Tenn. 

211. Not full of bones nor muddy. — Carp are not full of 
bones and do not taste of mud, as some would have us think, but, 
on the contrary, are very free from small bones and are a most 
excellent table fish, to which several who have dined with me will 
testif3\ — H. B. Davis, Macon, Ga. 

VII. — Hints upon Various Ways of Cooking Carp by other 
Admirers of this Fish. 

212. Fried brovtn : first rate. — Yes; we have tried them 
three times. We scald them the same as catfish, roll them in meal, 
and fry them brown. We think they are first rate ; good as we 
want. — A. J. and W. B. Baird, Naslwille, Tenn. 

213. Salted to remove muddy taste; then fried. — They 
tasted of mud unless they were first soaked in salt water over night. 
Then fried they were very good. — Capt. John T. Fletchall, 
Poolesville, Md. 

214. Salted and fried brown: excellent. — We took one 
out of pond No. 2, in May, 1883, weighing three pounds. When 
scaled, salted five hours, floured, and fried brown, it was of excel- 
lent flavor. — J. W. Long, Mount Morris, Pa. 

215. Fried brovtn : very superior. — I have eaten one. I 
pronounce it splendid. It is a very superior fish when well cooked 
and fried brown, as a fish ought to be. — Edward Thompson, Saint 

I Johnland, N. Y. 

216. Best when fried brown. — Some 25 or 30 persons in this 



80 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

vicini<3' have eaten them and generally pronounced tliem goo 1 
enough. I ate two that were boiled and did not like them so well 
as fried and well browned. They are drier and suit my taste bet- 
ter. — W. E. Logan, Andrews, Ohio. 

217. Split AND FRIED : excellent. — We have tasted of the 
large size, and of the largest size of 3'oung ones. We had them 
fried. The large size were split before frjdng, and pronounced b}' 
my family and friends that helped to eat them excellent. — Benja- 
min G. CissEL, Highland, Md. 

218. Split AND FRIED : never ate better. — I have. The 1 
to 2 pounds carp were split open and fried, and the opinion of 
eveiy one is that the^^ never ate better fish. Mine are of the scaly 
variet}'. — P. G. Powell, Versailes, Ky. 

219. Fried in butter : nice. — We have eaten one ; cleaned it 
in the evening, salted it, and fried it in butter ; thought it good 
and nice. — Wm. Sadler, New Salem, W, Va. 

220. Fried in butter and lard. — Of the very finest. One, 
which was rolled in wheat flour and fried in butter and lard. Their 
eatable qualities were of the very finest. — Benjamin L. Oarber, 
Marietta, Pa. 

221. Fried in lard: exceedingly good. — Last October we 
ate two of the smaller ones. They were fried in lard, as fresh fish 
are often cooked, and all who tasted them pronounced them ex- 
ceedingly^ good. — David Scott, Elkton, 3fd. 

222. Fried in lard and oil. — Yes, sir ; fried in lard and cot- 
ton-seed oil ; we prefer the oil. We think they are a very fine fish 
and ver}^ sweet. — E. B. Plunket, Atlanta, Ga. 

223. Sliced and fried with eggs and crumbs. — The only one 
eaten was cut into steaks, dipped into egg and bread crumbs, and 
fried. The quality was good. — John Pickering, Fontana, Kans. 

224. Fried and boiled : good. — We have eaten and presented 
to our neighbors about 100, and all regard their edible quality good. 
We fry them and boil them same as rock fish. — John S. Dallam, 
Bel Air, Md. 

225. Broiled: first rate. — Yes; broiled, with butter and 
pepper, they are first rate. — Samuel T. Earle, Centreville, Md. 

226. Broiled with lemon sauce: delicious. — Yes; broiled, 
with lemon sauce, and baked, they are delicious. — P. H. Cole- 
man, Union Springs, Ala. 

227. Baked or fried. — Last fall we ate two mirror carp, and 
the 7th of August, 1883, two weighing 4 pounds and one ounce. 
One was stuffed and roasted, the other fried. A. Stout, Dr. Teny, 
S. Sharp, John Bidger, and others join me in saving they are the^ 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 81 

best the}' ever tasted. About twent}' persons tried them on my 
f]ft3'-sixth birthda}-. — Dr. Seth G. Bigelow, Silver Lake, Ind. 

228. Skin, and fry or bake them. — We first skin them, then 
thoroughly scald them and either fry or bake them. — O. A. Gil- 
man, Paris, Ky. 

229. Eats them various ways. — I have eaten them abroad in 
various styles of cooking, but have eaten none of mine. — Daniel 
C. BiRDSALL, Westport, Conn. 

230. All ways : very edible : scale carp best. — I have eat- 
en quite a number fried, baked, stewed, and boiled. When prop- 
erl}' prepared they are very edible. — Samuel M. Subers, Macon, 
Ga. 

231. All ways : equal to shad. — Baked, boiled, stuffed, fried, 
served on rice, eggs, toast, etc., they are equal to shad. — Abel 
A. Wright, Griffin, Ga. 

232. All ways, but large ones are best boiled. — Yes; 
boiled, baked and fried. They are best boiled when large. — Ben- 
jamin D. Palmer, Sandy Springs, 3Id. 

233. Prefers them boiled. — Have been eating them all sum- 
mer, broiled, fried and boiled. Boiled is thought the best with us 
and by others that have eaten them. — Capt. E. Herman, jr., Tow- 
son, Md. 

234. Boiled like rock: good, — Yes ; fried and boiled. The 
larger carp boiled and served as rock are served is palatable and 
good. — Robert E. Withers, Wytheville, Va. 

235. A German method. — It was with no comman pleasure 
that we were called on to witness the preparations for an original 
and savor}^ meal, which the forester of Max von dem Borne [of 
Berneuchen, German}'] cooked with consummate skill, closely fol- 
lowing the method employed by the North American trappers and 
sportsmen during their camp-life in the vast forests of the Western 
Hemisphere. Four plump carp were cleaned, washed, well strewed 
with salt and pepper both on the inside and the outside, and there- 
upon wrapped — each one separatel}^ — in a white sheet of paper 
well buttered. Round this a sheet of newspaper was wrapped, the 
package was for a few moments dipped in cold water, and finally 
placed on a bed of hot coals of an open fire. Above the four carp 
came a layer of raw potatoes, which were thus baked in the ashes. 
In about half an hour the "pepper carps" were ready for the table. 
Full of their own juice, they formed a most tempting and delicious 
dish, and being handed round, together with potatoes, on large 
napkins, satisfied even the most epicurean taste. [From the Mag- 
deburgische Zeitung, No. 501, Magdeburg, October 27, 1881. 



82 INLAND FISHEEIES. [Dec. 

236. German method of cooking. — Yes ; many a one in 
Germany. When young, sa}^ 2 to 3 pounds, they will do to fry ; 
but vvhen the}' weigh 10 to 50 pounds they are generally stewed in 
water first, afterwards in a grav}^ made of brown bread, a small 
portion of sugar or of molasses is added, and then ihey put in 
enough of brown beer to make gravy suflScient to cover the fish 
and also according to the size of the family. — Leo Weltz, Wil- 
mington^ Ohio. 

237. Boiled in beer : delicious. — Yes, sir ; the}- were boiled 
in beer after the Saxon fashion (not lager beer, however, but what 
is called common beer). Thej^ were delicious. — Hugo Mulertt, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

238. Wine method of cooking. — I have eaten carp and find 
them good. One specimen of 5 pounds and two j^ears old, taken 
from a pond on Long Island, was cooked as follows: First boiled 
in white wine for 15 minutes and then baked in an oven and served 
wiih a white- wine sauce. It was eaten hj a number of epicures, 
and hj all pronounced a fine table-fish. — Eugene G. Blackford, 
Fulton Market, Neio York, N. Y. 

239. Partly boiled and partly baked: fit for a king. — 
I alwaj's instruct the cook to clean them nicely ; then wrap the 
fish in a linen towel, have a large kettle of water boiling, coil 
the fish neatly in the kettle and boil fifteen minutes, then turn 
oflT the water, remove to a baking pan without marring and put 
in the oven, bake and then baste with butter grav3\ A nice dress- 
ing could occup3' the interior of the fish and the space around 
the sides. If jDroperlj^ done it makes a dish fit for a king or 
a hungry fisherman, — W. Van Antwerp, Mount Sterling, Mont- 
gomery County, Ky., Oct. 31, 1882. 

240. Skint^ed, dipped, and fried: excellent, — The carp 
we caught from our pond last September to eat were skinned 
when dressed, cut into pieces of suitable size, dipped in flour, 
and fried. It was excellent. — Gustin Ha.ye^s, Lewis Centre, 
Ohio. 

211. Boiled: butter gravy: resembled lobster. — I ate 
but one carp, which was boiled and served with a butter gravy. 
A friend, who was taking dinner with me, as well as m^'self, 
pronounced it " very good indeed," although different from any 
other fish, w-ith a faint resemblance to lobster in taste. It is, 
however, not impossible that we both were prejudiced in favor 
of carp. — A. Raht, South Cottonwood, Salt Lake County, Utah, 
Feb. 9, 1888. 

242. An excellent receipt for frying carp. — Be sure to 
clean the fish thoroughly. Remove the fat from the inside. Place 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 83 

the fish in a weak brine over night. Wipe it thoroughly drj- and 
cover it with flour or meal, Have the fat boiling hot and do not 
put the fish in until it is boiling. Fry quickly, and brown as joii 
like to have it. — Prof. E. T. Cox, Neiv Harmony^ Inch 



THE GERMAN CAPP AND ITS INTRODUCTION IN 
THE UNITED STATES. 

By Chas. W. Smiley. 

^A paper read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, at 
the Minneapolis meeting, 1883.] 

1. Systematic position, varieties, and economic relations. — 
The German carp belongs to the family Cypriiiidce^ and genus 
Cyprinus. Of the Cyprinus carpio there are three varieties : the 
scaled, which is the most edible ; the leather, which is the most 
prolific ; and the mirror, which is intermediate between the other 
two. The common gold fish, Cyprinus auratus Linnaeus, is an 
allied species, with which the German carp very readily hj^bridizes. 

The present purpose is not to speak of carp from a biological 
stand-point, but from an economic one, especially as there is little 
that is new with reference to its biology and much that is new 
when economicall}' considered. 

2. History of its introduction. — The carp was originally 
from Central Asia, whence it was introdaced into Europe a few 
centuries ago: into England in 1504, and into Austria in 1227. 
It is alleged that Capt. Heniy Robinson brought carp from Holland 
to the United States about 1830 and put them into his ponds at 
Newburg, N. Y., from whence the}" escaped into the Hudson.* 
As nothing practical came of this, the real introduction of carp 
into the United States dates from Maj^ 26, 1877, at which date Mr. 
Rud. Hessel arrived from Bremen with 345 carp of different varie- 
ties for the United States Fish Commission. | These were propa- 
gated under the direction of Prof. S. F. Baird. The distribution 
of their young commenced in the fall of 1879, and has continued 
to the present time in increasing quantities annually. The number 
distributed in 1879 was 6,203 to 273 applicants in 24 different 
States of the Union. In 1880, 31,443 were distributed to 1,374 

* See Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission, 1882, page 25. 
t Report of United States Fish Commissioner for 1877, page 43. 



84 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

different applicants in 34 different States and Territories. Daring 
the past season 113,605 have been distributed in lots of from 15 to 
20 to each applicant. 

3. Natural history. — The carp prefers a pond containing 
warm water and muddy bottom, but neither of these are absolutely 
essential. It feeds upon such worms and lower forms of animal 
life as are within its reach, but never upon other fishes. It will, 
however, eat its own eggs if forced to by hunger. It is very fond 
of vegetable food, such as lettuce, cabbage, leaves of various water 
plants, seeds, grain, meal, bread, crackers, corn-bread, &c. Most 
anything you would give to chickens j^ou can give to carp to eat. 

If the water is warm, the summer long, and there be plenty of 
food, either natural or artificial, the growth of the carp will be 
surprisingly ropid. There are well authenticated reports of it 
reaching 3 pounds in one year and 6 pounds in two years. If no 
artificial food is furnished, an 1 there is also a scarcit}^ of natural 
food, or if the climate be cold, the growth will be much less rapid. 
Indeed, when the water becomes quite cold it will partially bury 
itself in mud and lie in a dormant state through the entire winter 
and until spring fairh^ sets in. In the southern part of Texas it 
is probable that the carp will not be forced to hibernate at all 
except in case of an unusually severe winter. In the northern 
parts of Maine and Minnesota it may be expected to hibernate 
nearly half the 3^ear. As iL cannot grow during its hibernation, it 
is easy to see why so much more rapid growth is obtained in Texas 
than in Vermont. There is little danger, however, of its freezing 
to death, for carp have survived in tubs of water over which a thick 
film of ice has accumulated. 

Carp usually spawn in cool latitudes the third year, in temperate 
latitudes the second year, and there are well authenticated instances 
of its having spawned in Southern Texas at the age of one year. 
These cases, however, are where carp are supplied with an abund- 
ance of food, well cared for, and protected from their numerous 
enemies. 

The enemies of carp are legion, and in many cases exterminate 
the fish. Not only do all kinds of carnivorous fish prey upon its 
young, but nearly all kinds offish will eat its eggs. Frogs, snakes 
and turtles will eat both eggs and young in numerous quantities. 
A snake was recently killed at the carp ponds in Washington in 
which was found over 25 young carp and numerous undigested 
skeletons of the same fish. One medium size snake, if furnished 
the proper facilities, can be depended upon to eat forty carp per 
day, one thousand per month, or five thousand each summer. 
Divide your number of young carp by this figure and you can find 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 85 

out how many snakes it will require to exterminate your 3-ouug. 
Various birds, such as kingfishers, bitterns, cranes, herons aud 
fish-hawks understand catching carp much better than the average 
farmer. About the 17th of July last a marsh hen was shot at the 
Washington carp ponds whose stomach contained 38 young carp, 
and a night heron whose stomach contained the heads of 78 young 
carp. In many cases where the carp have been left to the mercies 
of these enemies they have succumbed. The only proper method 
is to furnish protection to the carp until they reach such an age as 
to be well able to cope with these enemies. It is therefore best to 
separate the spawning carp from all other animals, and carefulh' 
protect the eggs of the 3^oung for as long a time as convenient. 

In regard to the food qualities of carp, it ranks somewhat above 
the ordinarj" native fish, such as buffalo, mullet, suckers, mud-fish, 
croakers, mill-roach, perch, sunfish, &c., but it is hardly equal to 
the high-priced delicate class of fish which includes the bass, trout 
and shad. And 3^et manj^ persons who are cultivating carp declare 
them equal to any fish they ever tasted. If carp are grown io 
mnddj^ or polluted water their flesh, like that of smy other animal, 
will be impregnated thereb3\ But the carp ma^^ be removed to 
pure water for a week, during which the s^^stem will be purified, 
and at the end of which even these will be good eating. Some 
have alleged that salting such over night will greatly improve the 
flavor. During and immediately after the s pawning season adult 
carp, like all other fish, become soft aud unfit to eat. Some 
persons have ignorantly tasted of them at this season, and have 
therefrom very unjustlj^ condemned them. Carp contain bones, of 
course, but in the adult the flesh flakes oflf from the bones very 
nicely. Even in the small ones the bones are no more objectiona- 
ble than in the average fish. 

4. The method of distribution. — Several breeding ponds 
have been fitted up at Washington from the so-called Babcock 
lakes and from extensions into the Potomac marshes. These will 
present a very picturesque appearance, in addition to their useful- 
ness, after the reclamation of the Potomac flats. These ponds are 
constantly watched by their superintendent, Mr. Pud. Hessel and 
his assistants, who have abundant facilities for destroying enemies, 
draining the ponds, supplying fresh water, food, &c. At the 
proper season, which extends from October 15 to January or 
Februar}^, the young are sent out b}^ one of two methods : first, 
they are put in five and ten gallon cans of water and loaded in 
the cars of the Fish Commission, of which there are two fitted 
up with suitable appliances for carrying all kinds of fish. These 
cars, which present an outward appearance of parlor cars, are dis- 



Se INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

patched on passenger trains to central points in all the different 
States of the Union, where instalments maj^ be delivered to State 
fish commissioners or the carp treated by the second method. 
Second, a quart pail containing a pint of water and 15 to 20 
carp can be sent by express to any distance which will not 
require more than 36 to 48 hours, or even farther, if the water 
can be changed meantime, alwaj-s provided that water enough 
remains in the pail to cover the backs of the fish. Most of the 
States of the Union have appointed State commissioners, w^ho 
receive installments from the United States Fish Commission and 
distribute them to applicants within their jurisdiction. Many of 
them have also established propagating ponds, in which they are 
alread}^ producing young by the thousands and tens of thousands. 
Some private speculators have received carp from the United 
States Fish Commission, reared young, and are now selling them 
at speculative rates. The price list of one of these gentlemen 
states that he will sell mirror carp ten months old at $75 per 
hundred, scale carp ten months old, at $70 per hundred. Large 
fish are even sold at five dollars a pair and would perhaps be sold 
at higher rates were it not for the fact that the United States Fish 
Commission furnishes its small fish free of cost. The express 
charges constitute the only expense to the recipient. 

5. Economic results. — The cultivation of fish is destined to 
become as important among American farmers and planters as the 
cultivation of cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, or of grains, fruits, and 
berries. They have long since ceased to leave the latter to shift 
for themselves and to cope with their enemies, knowing that in 
such a struggle live stock, grains, and fruits come off second best 
or succumb. Fish should receive the same care and attention, 
both as to improving varieties, artificial propagation and growth. 
The practice which farmers will obtain in carp culture will probably 
open the way to the successful culture of various other kinds of fish. 
The hardiness and wide range of diet and the rapid growth of carp 
especially fit it to be the precursor in fish farming. Every rural 
community is destined to have its fish ponds in the same abundance 
that it has its pig pens or its poultry 3^ards. This will enable 
every farmer, however remote from market, to introduce fresh fish 
into his bill of fare at a very trifling cost. The carp may be made 
a pleasurable pet, learning to come to its food at call, if habitually 
fed in one place, and in shallow water, or upon a plank submerged 
a few inches. From these places, by reason of its tameness, it can 
be taken even with the hands. Finally, there is no more tasteful 
and economic means of decorating a plantation or a country seat 
than by a carp pond neatly prepared and protected. If, however, 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 87 

an}' persons should imagine that these good results are to be at- 
tained mereh' bj filing an application for carp and upon the receipt 
of the fish leaving them to shift for themselves, and unaided to cope 
with their enemies, it is well that their minds be disabused at the 
first, for there is no provision of nature anywhere whereby a man 
shall obtain his daily bread except by the sweat of his brow. 

United States Fish Commission, August 21, 1883. 



88 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



[F.] 
LEGISLATION 



[Chap. 31.] 
An Act relative to Fishing in the Merrimack River. 
Be it enacted^ etc., as follows : 

For the purpose of taking fish called " shiners" for bait, any 
person may draw a net or seine during the months of November 
and December at anj^ point in the Merrimack River, except within 
four hundred yards of any fishway ; provided., that all other fish so 
caught are immediatel}^ returned to the waters from which they were 
taken ; and the penalties provided for in sections thirty-six, thirty- 
seven, thirt3"-eight and thirty-nine of chapter ninety-one of the 
Public Statutes shall not apply to the taking of fish as herein pro- 
vided. \_Approved March 6, 1883. 



[Chap. 76.] 

An Act in addition to An Act to regulate the taking of Fish in North River in the 
county of Plymouth. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

1Sect. 1. Whoever sets a seine or casts a mesh net in the North 
River in Pij'mouth Countj^, or whoever by seine or mesh net takes 
an}^ fish from said North River, except such persons as have author- 
ity so to do under chapter forty-four of the acts of the year eigh- 
teen hundred and eight3'-one, shall be punished for each offence b}^ a 
fine not less than equal twenty-five dollars nor more than one hundred 
dollars, or b}^ imprisonment in the house of correction not less than 
one nor more than three months. 

Sect. 2. Section four of chapter forty-four of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and eighty-one is hereb}^ amended by insert- 
ing after the word " fish," in the second line, the words " from two 
o'clock in the m^n-ning until sunset." \_Approved March 24 .^ 1883. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 89 

[Chap. 121.] 
An Act to authorize the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries to issue permits for 

Fishing in the Merrimacli River. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Sect. 1. The commissioners on Inland fisheries may issue per- 
mitsforthetakingofan3^variety offish in the tidal waters of the Merri- 
mack River and its tributaries, the taking of which is now in any 
way prohibited by law. Such permits shall be revocable at the 
discretion of said commissioners, and no fee or consideration shall 
be charojed for the issuins; of the same. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take efiTectupon its passage. [Approved 
April 11, 1883. 



[Chap. 180.] 
Ax Act to regulate the taking of Fish in Acushnet River in the toAvnof Acushnet. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Sect. 1. The town of Acushnet may at any legal meeting 
called for that purpose make regulations, not inconsistent with the 
provisions of the laws of the Commonwealth, concerning the taking 
of herrings, alewives and shad within said town, or concerning the 
disposal of the privilege of taking the same for its own use and 
benefit. 

Sect. 2. Said town may, at its annual meeting in April in the 
year eighteen hundred and eighty-three, and in each year thereafter, 
choose three discreet persons b\^ ballot w^hose duty it shall be to 
inspect said river, to cause the regulations respecting said fishery 
to be carried into effect and to prosecute all violations thereof. 

Sect. 3. Whoever takes from said river any of said fish in 
violation of said regulations shall forfeit for each fish so taken not 
more than ten dollars nor less than one dollar, one half of all such 
forfeitures shall enure to the complainant and one half to said 
town. 

Sect. 4. The powers and duties granted by this chapter shall 
be subject in all respects to the rights heretofore granted to the city 
of New Bedford under chapter one hundred and sixtj^-three of the 
acts of the j'ear eighteen hundred and sixty-three, and nothing con- 
tained in this act shall in any way be construed as permitting or 
authorizing any interference with the water supply of said city, or 
authorizing any control in or in any waj' applying to the storing 
reservoir of said city or any works connected with its water supply, 
nor shall an}- such fishery be permitted to be operated in said reser- 
voir or in any portion of said water supply. 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [_Approved 
May 16, 1883. 



90 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



[G.] 
LIST OP PONDS LEASED 

By the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries^ under Authority given 
by Chap. 384, Sect. 9. of the Acts of 1869* 



1870. 

Feb. 1. Waushakum Pond, in Framingham, to Sturtevant and 

others, 20 years. 
April 1. Mendon Pond, in Mendon, to Leonard T. Wilson and 

another, 20 j^ears. 
Sept. 12. Baptist Lake, in Newton, to J. F. C. Hyde and others, 

20 3^ears. 
Oct. 15. Archer's Pond, in Wrentham, to William E. George, 

15 3^ears. 

1871. 

Jan. 10. Nine-Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to B. F. Bowles, 10 
years. 
30. Little Pond, in Falmouth, to F. H. Dimmick, 10 years. 
April -. Spectacle, Triangle, and Peters ponds, in Sandwich, to 
G. L. Fessenden and another, 5 3-ears. 
17-. Long Pond, in Falmouth, to Joshua S. Bowerman and 
three others, 20 years. 
May 15. Pratt's Pond, in Upton, to D. W. Batcheller, 20 year . 
18. Little Sandy Pond, in Plymouth, to William E. Perkins, 
15 years. 
Nov. 1. Punkapoag Pond, in Randolph and Canton, to Henry 
L. Pierce, 20 years. 

* We would remind lessees of ponds that they are required, by their leases, to use 
all reasonable efforts to stock their ponds, and keep accurate records of the same, 
and make returns of their doings to the Commissioners on the 1st of October, each 
year, of the number and species of fish which they have put in or removed from 
their ponds. Any failure to comply with these conditions is a breach of contract in- 
validating their lease. It is important that the State should know just what is being 
done ; and, where there appears to be mismanagement or apparent failure, the Com- 
missioners will visit the ponds, and ascertain, if possible, the cause. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 91 

1872. 

Jan. 1. Sandy Pond, Forest Lake, or Flint's Pond, in Lincoln, 
to James L. Chapin and others, 20 3^ears. 

July 20. Little Pond, in Braintree, to Eben Denton and others, 
20 years. 

1873. 

Ma}' 1. Meeting-house Pond, in Westminster, to inhabitants of 

Westminster, 15 years. 
1. Great Pond, in Weymouth, to James L. Bates and 

others, 15 years. 
July 1. Little Sandy Pond, in Pembroke, to A. C. Brigham and 

others, 16 j^ears. 
Sept. 1. Pontoosuc Lake, in Pittsfield and Lanesborough, to E. 

H. Kellogg and others, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Farm Pond, in Sherborn, to inhabitants of Sherborn, 

15 3'ears. 

1. Spot Pond, in Stoneham, to inhabitants of Stoneham, 

15 years. 
Nov. 1. Lake Cbaubunagungamong, or Big Pond, in Webster, 

to inhabitants of Webster, 5 j^ears. 
Dec. 1. Lake Wauban, in Needham, to Hollis Hunnewell, 20 

years. 

1874. 

Mar. 1. Walden and White Ponds, in Concord, to inhabitants of 
Concord, 15 j^ears. 

2. Upper Naumkeag, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants of 

Ashburnham, 20 years. 
April 1. Elder's Pond, in Lakeville, to inhabitants of Lakeville, 
15 years. 
20. North and South Podunk Poods, in Brookfield, to in- 
habitants of Brookfield, 15 years. 
May 1. Maquan Pond, in Hanson, to the inhabitants of Hanson, 
15 years. 
2. Brown's Pond, in Peabody, to John L. Shorey, 15 years. 
16. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to Lemuel Ful- 

1am, 15 years. 
20. Unchechewalom and Massapog ponds, to the inhabitants 
of Lunenburg, 20 3^ ears. 
July 1. Hardy's Pond, in Waltham, to H. E. Priest and others^ 
15 3^ears. 
1. Hockomocko Pond, in Westborough, to L. N. Fairbanks 
and others, 15 3^ears. 
11. Mitchell's Pond, in Boxford, to R. M. Cross and others, 
15 years. 



92 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

1874. 

Jul}^ 11. Hazard's Pond, in Russell, to N. D. Parks and others, 

20 3'ears. 
Oct. 1. East Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of 

Sterling, 20 years. 
20. Middleton Pond, in Middleton, to inhabitants of Mid- 

dleton, 15 ^^ears. 

1875. 

Jan. 1. White and Goose Ponds, in Chatham, to George W. 

Davis, 15 3xars. 
Mar. 1. Lake Pleasant, in Montague, to inhabitants of Monta- 
gue, 10 3^ears. 
1. Hood's Pond, in Ipswich and Topsfield, to inhabitants 
of Topsfield, 15 3'^ears. 
April 1. Chaunce}^ Pond, in Westborough, to inhabitants of 
Westborough, 15 j^ears. 
3. West's Pond, in Bolton, to J. D. Hurlburt and others, 

15 3^ears. 
15. Gates Pond, in Berlin, to E. H. Hartshorn and others, 

15 3'ears. 
24. Pleasant Pond, in Wenham, to inhabitants of Wenham, 
15 3^ears. 
May 1. Morse's Pond, in Needham, to Edmund M. Wood, 15 
years. 
1. Great Pond, in North Andover, to Eben Sutton and 

others, 20 3'ears. 
1. Chilmark Pond, in Chilmark, to J. Nickerson and 
others, agents, 20 j^ears. 
July 1. Winter Pond and Wedge Pond, in Winchester, to in- 
habitants of Winchester, 15 years. 
1. Haggett's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of An- 
dover, 20 3^ears. 
Aug. 1. Oyster Pond, in Edgartown, to J. H. Smith and others, 
20 ^'-ears. 
7. West Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of 

Sterling, 20 j^ears. 
9. Mystic (Upper) Pond, in Winchester, Medford, and 
Arlington, to inhabitants of Winchester and Med- 
ford, 15 3^ears. 
Oct. 1. Little Chauncey and Solomon ponds, in Northborough, 
to inhabitants of Northborough, 15 years. 

1876. 

Feb. 1. Great Sand}' Bottom Pond, in Pembroke, to Israel 
Thrasher and others, 15 vears. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 93 

1876. 

Mar. 1. Dennis Pond, in Yarmouth, to inhabitants of Yarmouth, 
15 years. 
1. Crj^stal Lake, in "Wakefield, to Lyman H. Tasker and 
others, 15 years. 
20. Lower Naumkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants 

of Ashburnham, 18 years. 
28. Dennison Lake, in Winchendon, to inhabitants of Win- 

chendon, 15 j^ears. 
28. Phillipston Pond, in Phillipston, to inhabitants of Phil- 
lipston, 20 years. 
May 8. South-west Pond, in Athol, to Adin H. Smith and 

others, 15 years. 
June 1. Norwich Pond, in Huntington, to inhabitants of Hunt^ 
ington, 20 years, 
10. Dug Pond, in Natick, to W. P. Bigelow and others, 15 
years. 
Oct. 1. Farm and Learned's Pond, in Framingham, to inhabi- 
tants of Framingham, 15 years. 
1. Whitney's Pond, Wrentham, to inhabitants of Wren- 

tham, 15 years. 
1. Little Pond, in Barnstable, to George H. Davis, 15 
years. 

1877. 

Mar. 1. Nine- Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to inhabitants of Wil- 
braham, 15 years. 
15. Pentucket and Pock ponds, in Georgetown, to inhabi- 
tants of Georgetown, 15 3'ears. 
Aug. 10. Onota Lake, in Pittsfield, to William H. Murray and 

others, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Fort, Great Spectacle, and Little Spectacle ponds, in 
Lancaster, to inhabitants of Lancaster, 20 years. 
1. Battacook Pond, in Groton, to George S. Graves and 
others, 15 years. 
Nov. 1. Tispaquin Pond, in Middleborough, to Abishai Miller, 
15 years. 
1. Asnebumskitt Pond, in Paxton, to Ledyard Bill and 
others, 15 years. 

1878. 

Jan. 1. Sniptuit, Long, Snow, and Marj^'s ponds, in Rochester, 
to inhabitants of Rochester, 15 years. 

Mar. 16. Asnaconcomic Pond, in Hubbardston, to Amory Jewett, 
jun., 15 years. 

April 1. Dorrity Pond, in Millbury, to inhabitants of Millbury, 
10 years. 



94 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

1878. 

Maj- 5. Spectacle, Peters, and Triangle ponds, in SandWich, to 
George L. Fessenden, 10 j^ears. 
1. Bear Hill Pond and Hall Pond, in Harvard, to inhabi- 
tants of Harvard, 15 years. 
July 1. Lake Buell, in Monterey and New Marlborough, to An- 
drew L. Hiibbell and others, o.jesirs. 
Oct. 1. Eel Pond, in Melrose, to J. A Barrett and others, 15 
years. 
1. Accord Pond, 'in Hingham, South Scituate, and Rock- 
land, to inhabitants of those towns, 10 years. 
1. Wright's and Ashlej^'s ponds, in Holyoke, to Henry C. 

E wing and others, 10 years. 
1. Magog Pond, in Acton and Middleton, to inhabitants of 
Acton, 15 3'ears. 

1879. 

Feb. 1. Lake Mahkunac and Lake Overic, in Stockbridge, to 
inhabitants of Stockbridge, 10 years. 

June 1. "Bald Pate," "Four Mile," and "Stiles" ponds, in 
Boxford, to inhabitants of Boxford, 10 years. 

July 1. Silver Lake, in Wilmington, to inhabitants of Wil- 
mington, 10 years. 
1. Fresh Pond, in Falmouth, to Thomas H. Lawrence, 20 
years. 

Oct. 1. Pomp's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 
15 years. 

Nov. 1. Lake Quinapowitt, in Wakefield, to inhabitants of 
Wakefield, 14 years. 

1880. 

Jan. 1. Granite-Cove Pond, in Gloucester, to David Babson, 10 
years. 

Mar. 1. Lake Winthrop, in Holliston, to inhabitants of Hollis* 
ton, 15 years. 
15. Massapoag Pond, in Sharon, to inhabitants of Sharon, 
10 years. 

May 1, Tisbury Great Pond, in Tisbury, to Allen Look and 
others, 10 years. 

June 1. Indian Pond, in Kingston, to inhabitants of Kingston, 
10 3'ears. 
1. Jordan Pond, in Shrewsbury, to inhabitants of Shrews- 
bury, 15 years. 

July 1. Swan and Martin's ponds, in North Reading, to inhabi- 
tants of North Reading, 15 years. 

Sept. 1. Herring Pond, in Eastham, to William H. Nickerson, 
]0 years. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 95 

1880. 

Dec. 24. Chadwick's Pond, in Bradford and Boxford, to town of 
Bradford, 10 j^ears. 

1881. 

Jan. 1. Great and Job's Neck ponds, in Edgartown, to Amos 
Smith and others, 15 j^ears. 

Mar. 1, The Mill Ponds (three), in Brewster, to Valentine B. 
Newcomb and another, 15 j^ears. 

May 2. Nonesuch Pond, in Weston and Natick, to W. A. Bal- 
lard and others, 15 3'ears. 

April 1. Long Pond, in Blandford, to Samuel A. Bartholomew 
and another, 15 years. 

1882. 

Mar. 1. Blair's Pond, in Blandford^ to Curtis M. Blair and 

another, 15 j^ears. 
April 1. Ward Pond, alias Wightman Pond, in Ashburnham, to 

Herbert F. Rockwood and another, 15 years. 
May 1. Horn Pond, in Woburn, to inhabitants of Woburn, 15 

years. 
June 1. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to inhabitants of 

West Brookfield, 15 3^ears. 
Oct. 1. Long and Hummock ponds, in Nantucket, to Charles 

E. Snow and others, 15 years. 

1883. 

Mar. 1. Halfway Pond, in Plymouth, taken by Commissioners 

for 5 years, in accordance with provisions of Chap. 

62, Acts of 1876. 
April 6. Fresh Pond, in Tisbury, to Allen Look and others, 15 

years. 
April 23. Keyes Pond, in Westford, to M. H. A. Evans, 15 

years. 
May 7. Singletary Pond, in Sutton and Millbury, to towns 

of Sutton and Millbury, 15 years. 
May 7. The Great Pond, in Ashfield, to town of Ashfield, 15 

years. 



96 



INLAND rrSHERIES. 



[Dec. 



[H.] 



EXTEACTS FEOM EETUEISTS ON PONDS. 



Eel Pond, Melrose. 

13 black bass, weight, 
206 pickerel, 
320 perch, 

29 pouts, 

13 eels. 



24J lbs. 
181f '' 
921- it 



Henry A. Bush. 



Sandy Pond, Lincoln. 

Black bass slowly increasing each 3'ear. The number of fish 
taken from the pond cannot be given with accuracy, but persons 
skilled in black-bass fishing have had some good days' fishing when 
the}' took from 6 to 25 good-sized fish. As a rule thej^ are not 
taken in great numbers by any one. 

I estimate the number taken from the pond during the 3^ear at 
not more than 500, weighing perhaps 1,000 pounds. 

James L. Chapin. 



Dennison Pond, Winchendon. 
The Fish Committee of the town of Winchendon would report 
that so far as they can judge from observations made and the fish 
known to have been taken, that the stocking i)f this pond is a suc- 
cess. Of the land-locked salmon obtained from the State four or 
five 3'ears ago, some have been taken of from J- of a pound to 1~- 
pounds in weiglit, each : those of less than one pouad being re- 
turned to tiie lake. Enough were seen to warrant the belief that 
the sahnon are doing well and are getting in a condition and of an 
age to propagate and keep their numbers good. The land-locked 
salmon and trout fry furnished us last spring b}^ the Commission, 
were all put into the waters in good condition and without loss. A 
few black bass have been taken, some weighing two and three 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



97 



pounds and over, which shows that of those put in, some have lived 
and flourished and will be heard from more in the near future. 

The State Commissioners have our thanks for the very liberal 
supply of fry given us for stocking purposes. 

E. S. Merrill. 

Hazard Pond, Eussell. 

The stocking of this pond with black bass has been a great suc- 
cess. During the past j'-ear the pond has been increased in depth 
and acreage by a dam, which, of itself, has very much benefited and 
assisted in raising fish. At present we have large numbers of black 
bass and pickerel, the latter being in the pond when it was leased. 
Of the land-locked salmon I can only say that tiiey have entirely 
disappeared — not having been seen for two or three years. Dur- 
ing the past season a large number of fish have been taken from 
the pond. For man}^ years after the pond was stocked with bass, 
it was closed and when it was opened to fishing we found the fish 
poor and of little use. Now, however, it is different ; they have in- 
creased largel}^ in numbers and improved in qualit}^ In fact I 
never saw fatter or finer quality of fish in my life. We feel much 
gratified at the results attained in stocking Hazard Pond. Any 
particulars 3'Ou may desire in relation to this matter I shall be 
pleased to furnish. 

Westfield. W. H. Foote 



Crystal 

111 black bass, weight, 
309 pickerel, '' 

1,750 yellow perch, 
32 white perch, . 
600 pouts, . 
40 bream, . 
5 eels, 



Lake , Wakefield . 



144^ lbs. 
238 '^ 



Lyman H. Tasker. 



Massapoag Pond, Sharon. 
There were issued to inhabitants of this town 263 permits. Es- 
timated weight of fish caught 1,315 pounds, fully one-third of which 
was black bass, the remainder perch and pout. The bass have 
bee.n on the average larger than previously. 



Henry A. Boyden. 



98 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



Ponds in Rochester. 
215 black bass, average weight, . . . . . 2 lbs. 

813 pickerel, 

150 white perch, 

375 red " 



Geo 



Weld. 



Little Sandy Pond, Pembroke. 

Black bass, . . 100 

Pickerel, 56 

This represents but a small part of the bass caught, all under 
2 pounds being returned alive. 

A. C. Brigham. 

Morse's Pond, Needham. 
Black bass, . . . . . . . . 75 lbs. 

P.ickerel, ........ 175 " 

Perch, . . . 134 " 

Pout, 80 " 

Edmund M. Wood. 

Learned's and Farm Ponds, Framingham. 

The stocking of Learned's Pond with black bass has proved a 
success. The number as well as the size of fish taken was large, 
from 4 to 6 pounds being common. Farm Pond, which is a storage- 
basin for Sudbury River water, was stocked with Plj^mouth white 
perch, — also a perfect success. A considerable number have 
been taken the present yeav and acknowledged the best fish taken 
from our waters. The land-locked salmon seem a failure, as we 
have never seen one of any size, nor heard of any being taken. 

Chas. W. Coolidge. 

HocKOMOCKO Pond, Westborough. 

58 black bass, weight, 133 lbs. 

130 pickerel, " 148 " 

Nothing to report with regard to land-locked salmon, as nothing 
has been seen of them since they were put in the pond. 

Geo. O. Brigham. 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



99 



Indian Pond, Kingston. 



Black bass. 



21 



Pickerel, 154 

Perch, 279 

John F. Holmes. 



±1SBUK1 V:xKJi,A± XUJNJ-», X 

White perch, 


5,800 


Alewives, .... 


89,731 


Striped bass, 


8 


Smelts, .... 


126,800 


Taatog, .• . 


57 




Allen Look. 



I 



Great and Job's Neck Ponds, Edgaktown. 

White perch, ■ 15,066 

Alewives, 72,591 

Smelts, 25,955 

Eels, 6,000 

Amos Smith. 

Chilmark Pond, Chilmark. 
Alewives, 19,399 

John W. Mayhew. 

Oyster Pond, Edgartown. 

Perch, . 23,560 

Smelts, ......... 65,728 

Alewives, ......... 15,798 

Tautog, ,. 558 

Eels, 2,312 

JoPHANUS H. Smith. 



Andoyer, Dec. 6, 1883. 
To the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries : 

On behalf of the lessees of Haggett's Pond and Pomp's Poncl, 
in Andover, we would respectfully report, that fishing has been 
allowed in Haggett's Pond on thirteen days during the past season. 
While no accurate account of the catch was kept, or was practi- 
cable, the number of black bass taken was apparently in excess of 
the number in any former year save the first, and indications of a 
steady increase of these fish in the pond are marked. 



100 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

Several thousand fiy of the Lake Superior salmon trout fur- 
nished b}' 3'our board, placed in the pond last spring without loss 
of a single one in transit. 

Under license from jouv board, some 25 or 27 bass were taken 
from Haggett's Pond, out of season, and placed in Pomp's Pond. 
They varied in weight from a few ounces to three pounds, and are 
believed to be sufficient in number to stock successfully this small 
pond. 

RespectfuU}^ submitted. 

Inhabitants of Andover, Lessees. 

By Geo. H. Poor, of their Fish Com. 

Huntington, Mass., Dec. 8, 1883. 
E. A. Brackett, Esq., Commissioner of Inland Fisheries: 

Dear Sir, — One hundred and nine fishing permits have been 
issued for fishing in Norwich Pond during the present year to resi- 
dents of Huntington and non-resident tax-pa3'ers therein, and 
seventy-five fishing permits have been issued to non-residents who 
are not tax-payers in said town. As the fishing permits, which 
call for the number and weight of fish caught, have not generallj^ 
been filled out, we are not able to report definitely in regard to 
those matters, but estimate as follows : 75 black bass, weighing 
125 pounds ; 150 pickerel, weighing 250 pounds ; 3,500 perch, 
weighing 700 pounds ; 300 bull-heads, weighing 100 pounds ; 25 
eels, weighing 30 pounds ; and 75 suckers, weighing 40 pounds. 
No land-locked salmon have been taken from the pond. 

The income from the pond for the fishing year, beginning Maj^ 15 
and ending October 15, 1883, was thirteen -^-^^ dollars,* and the 
pond keeper's fees were six -^^ dollars, leaving the net income 
six -^^^ dollars. 

Submitted with respect. 

Schuyler Clark, 
Austin Reede, 
Lewis A. Clark, 
Fish Committee of Huntington, 

Millburt, Mass., Dec. 19, 1883. 
E. A. Brackett, Esq., Commissioner of Inland Fisheries : 

Dear Sir, — The inhabitants of the town of Millbury, lessees 
of Dimity Pond, for the purpose of cultivating useful fishes, by 
their selectmen, would respectfully submit the following report. 

The pond was stocked with black bass in 1878-9, through the 
liberality of Chas. W. Seabury, Esq., a citizen of the town. 
* Probably from permits to non-residents. 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



101 



The present season, ending Dec. 1, 1883, is the first that fishing 
has been allowed in the pond since it was stocked. 

Permits for fishing have been issued to 791 persons, citizens of 
the town. These permits were returnable Dec. 1st, but at this 
date only 72 have been returned, say 9 per cent. This report will 
therefore be necessarily incomplete, as it must be based upon so 
small a percentage of permits issued. 

From the 72 permits returned, it appears that the 49 fishers have 
caught 5 black bass, weighing 11^ pounds ; 132 pickerel, weighing 
175J- pounds; 218 perch, weighing 92 pounds, and other fish, 
mostly horned pouts, 472, weighing 48 pounds, as will be seen 
from the foilowins: table : 



KIND OF FISH. 


Number. 


Pounds. 


Black bass, . 




5 


Ill 


Pickerel, 





132 


1751 


Perch, . 




218 


92 


Other fish, . 


• 


472 


48 


Total, . 


827 


327 



An estimate of the fish caught under the whole 791 permits 
issued, based upon the returns made by the above 72 holders of 
permits, would be as follows : — 

Return of Fishing in Dimity Fond, 1883. Fermits issued, 791. 



' KIND OF FISH. 


Number. 


Pounds. 


Black bass, . 


. 


55 


126 


Pickerel, 




1,450 


1,928 


Perch, . 




2,395 


1,011 


Other fish, . 





5,185 


527 


Total, . 


9,085 


3,592 


A fnllpr rPT 


~»nrh ■CTTill V»fk aont. fr* Trnn liovoaffov 







Respectfully submitted. 

S. N. Rogers, 
Fo7' Board of Selectmen of Millhury. 



TABLES 



104 



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1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



107 



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108 



INLAND FISHERIES, 



[Dec. 



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1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



109 









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110 



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[Dec. 



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Alpheus Mayo, 

B. F. Lumbert, . 

Harry Morgan, 

Duim & Nye, 

Samuel G. Allen, . 

James J. Austin & A. G-. Allen, 

Perry Gr. Potter, . 

Charles A.Tripp, 


a 

Ph 

O 

)?; 

O 








Chatham, 
Hyannisport, . 
Marion, . 
Mattapoisett, . 
Westport, 

South Westport, 


1 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



Ill 





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1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



113 



I I I I I I I I 



I I I I I I I I 



I I I ( O I O I 



I I I I I I I 



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till 



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iii5ililill^5i jlilllli 

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= = = = . = = = = . = = = = :::. = ,. I 



114 



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1883. J PUBLIC D0CUMP:NT — No. 25. 



115 





























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116 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



Table No. IV. — Connecticut Rivp:r Seinks. 



Town ok Place. 



Proprietor. 



South Hadley, 

Chicopee, 

Agawam, 



C. C. Smith and others, 
F. W. Chapin, . 
A. Converse, 
A. J. Hills, . 
Total, . 




Table No. V. — Merrimac River Seines. 



Town or Place. 



Proprietor. 



Shad. 



North Andover, 
Amesbury, 



Eben Sutton, 
Jonathan Morrill, 
Total, . 



Table No. VI. — Taunton River Seines. 



Town or Place. 


Proprietor. 


-a 

C3 

.c; 




1 


Raynham, 

<c 

Middleboroxigh, 
Taunton, . 
Dighton, . 

Berkley, . 
Somerset, 

u 






J. S. Townsend & Bro., . 

George B. Williams, 

George B. & Edwin Williams, 

L. M. Alden, .... 

J. W. Hart & Co , . 

E. 85 0. M. Buffington, . 

Edmund Hathaway, . 

Charles N. Simmons, 

Isaac N. Babbitt, 

J. B. Hathaway and others, 

George H. Simmons, 

Total, . . . . 


784 
315 
333 

281 

750 

697 

800 
• 
850 

200 

2 


89,835 
126,900 
130,991 
139,1.53 

95,100 
100,000 
110,400 
120,000 
144,809 

50,000 

16,294 


294 








5,012 


1,123,473 


294 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



117 



Table No. VII. — Other Fresh-water Seines and Dip-net Fisheries. 



Town or Place. 


Proprietor. 


1 

i 

m 


i 

i 

< 


1 

m 
% 


1 


Weymouth, 


Weymouth Iron Co., 






- 


154,300 


- 


- 


Kingston, . 


Philander Cobb, 






- 


38,325 


- 


- 


Plymouth, . 


E. & J. C. Barnes, . 






- 


47,152 


- 


- 


" 


William S. Hadaway, 






- 


- 


- 


27,000 


- 


B. F. Hodges, . 






25 


36,132 


2 


- 


"... 


J. H. Newcomb & Co., 






360 


2,965 


- 


- 


Barnstable, 


R. Marston & Co., . 






- 


42,850 


- 


- 


Centreville, 


Eli Phinney & Co., 






- 


80,000 


~ 


- 


Yarmouth, 


David S. Baker, . 


• 




- 


8,713 




_ 


<( 


N. W. Grush, . 






- 


268,089 




- 


" 


Long Pond Fishing Co., 






- 


2,478 


- 


- 


Brewstei, 


J. Howard Winslow, 






- 


244,607 


- 


- 


Wellfleet, . 


Warren Newcomb, 






- 


162,861 


- 


- 


Marshpee, . 


Matthias Amos, 






- 


19,718 


_ 


- 


«« 


David Lovell, . 






- 


5,960 


80.'; 


- 


•' 


W. R. Mingo, . 






- 


25,230 


- 


- 


Wareham. . 


George Sanford, 






- 


463,200 


- 


- 


Marion, 


Hammond & Sisson, 






- 


1,600 


- 


- 


Mattapoisett, . 


A. H. ShurtleflE", 






- 


131,710 


- 


- 


Westport, . 


C. V. S. Remington, 






- 


10,000 


- 


- 


« 


Philip 8. Tripp, . 






6 


5,066 


264 


- 


«• 


Lysander W. White, 






- 


1,261 


1 


- 


Chllmark, . . 


Estate H. H. Smith, 






- 


10,733 


- 




Total, . 


391 


1,762,950 


1,072 


27,000 



118 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec.'83, 






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— .— . T^ -S **A-«A C-J-V-l^S T^T/^-WTTV*^ ■' 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 25. 



NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



COMMTSSIONEES 



INLAND FISHERIES, 



FOR THE 



Year ending December 31, 1884. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1885. 



\ 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Report, 5 

Appendix A. List of Fish Commissioners, 31 

B. Address by Hon. Theodore Lyman, . . . .36 

C. Fishways in Norway. By A. Landmarls, . . 52 

D. Black Bass, . 56 

E. Salmon and Trout. By Samuel Garman, . . 61 

F. Legislation, . . . . . . . .82 

G. List of Leased Ponds, 86 

H. Returns of Weirs, Seines and Gillnets, . . .93 



(Eommonujealtt) of iltassacljujeirtte. 



To His Excellency the Governor and Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries beg leave to pre- 
sent their Nineteenth Annual Report. 

Fish WAYS. 

The fishway at Middleton, on the Ipswich River, was com-, 
pleted last May. That at Willowdale was not built in 
accordance with the plans furnished, and will require some 
alteration. 

No fishway has yet been built at the second dam on the 
Acushnet River. The case is still pending in court. 

The Lawrence fishway has been thoroughly repaired dur- 
ing the fall, and is in excellent condition. 

Some repairs will be needed on the fishway at Holyoke 
next season. 

In the appendix will be found a description, with illustra- 
tions, of the fishways on the river Sire by A. Landmark, 
Government Inspector of Fisheries of Norway. 

Report of Thomas S. Holmes, Superintendent of the Lawrence 
Fishway: Fish Seen in the Lawrence Fishway in 1884. 

May 6. (The first fish), alewives and suckers, run moderate. 

7. Alewives, suckers and chubs, run small. 

8-9. No fish. 

10. A few alewives and suckers. 

11. A few alewives and suckers. 

12. A few alewives and suckers. 

13. A few alewives. 

14. A few alewives and suckers. 

15. Alewives and suckers, run small. 

16. Alewives and suckers, run small. 

17. Alewives and suckers, run small. 

18. Alewives, run small. 

19. Alewives, run moderate ; suckers, run small. 



6 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

May 20. Lampers, run moderate; alewives and suckers, run small. 

. .21. Alewives, run moderate; lampers and suckers, run small. 

22. Lampers and suckers, run small (river has risen, muddy). 

23. Lampers and suckers, run small (water very muddy). 

24. Lampers and suckers, run small. 

25. Lampers, suckers and alewives, run small. 

26. Lampers, run moderate ; suckers and alewives, run small. 

27. Alewives, run large ; lampers, run moderate. 

28. Lampers, run large; alewives and suckers, run small. 
2Q. Lampers, alewives and suckers, run small. 

30. Lampers, alewives and suckers, run small. 

31. Lampers, alewives and suckers, run small. 
June 1. Lampers, alewives and suckers, run small. 

2. Lampers, run large ^ alewives and suckers, run small. 

3. Lampers and suckers, run large ; alewives, run small. 

4. Lampers, run large ; suckers, run small. 

5. Lampers and suckers, run small ; a few red-fin shiaers. 

6. Lampers, suckers and chubs, run large. 

7. Lampers, suckers and chubs, run large. 

8. Lampers, alewives and suckers, run moderate. 

9. Alewives and suckers, run large ; lampers, run moderate. 

10. 0?ie salmon, 6 pounds ; lampers, suckers and alewives, run 

moderate. 

11. Three salmon, 12 to 20 pounds; lampers, suckers and ale- 

wives, run small. 

12. Lampers, run moderate ; suckers and alewives, run small. 

13. One salmon, 14 pounds ; lampers and suckers, run small. 

14. Lampers, suckers and small silver eels, run small. 

15. Lampers, suckers a.nd small silver eels, run small. 

16. Lampers, suckers and small silver eels, run small. 

17. Two salmon, 10 to 20 pounds; lampers and suckers, run 

small. 

18. Lampers and small silver eels, run small. 

19. One salmon, 14 pounds ; lampers and small silver eels, run 

small. 

20. Lampers and small silver eels, run small. 
21.' Lampers and silver eels, run small. 

22. Lampers and silver eels (mostly small ones), run small. 

23 Lampers, suckers and silver eels, run small. 

24. One salmon, 15 pounds; a few lampers and small silver eels. 

During the rest of the month of June suckers, in small numbers, and 
a good many small silver eels, were all the fish seen in the fish way. 

In July small silver eels, in large numbers, with now and then a 
large one, and a few suckers, were all the fish in the fishway. The 
water was shut out of the fishway about a third part of the time because 
the river was low. 

Silver eels and suckers were the only fish in the fishway in August. 
Water was shut out of the fishway the last half of the month. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 7 

Water was shut out of the fishway, excepting Sundays, in Septem- 
ber until the 23d ; the fall run of fish commenced on the 24th, and was 
as follows : 

Sept. 24. One salmon, 12 pounds ; a few suckers. • 
25.^ 

2^; [ No fish. 

28. j 

29. One salmon, 14 pounds ; a few suckers. 

30. Two salmon, 12 to 14 pounds. 
Oct. 1. One salmon, 12 pounds. 

2-13. No fish. 

14. One salmon, 10 pounds. 

15. No fish. 

16. One salmon, 14 pounds. 
17-21. No fish. 

22. One salmon, 12 pounds. 

No fish after the 22d to the end of the month, when water was shut 
out. 



Shad Hatching at North Andover 

Was continued during the past season. As was expected 
there was a still further falling off of the spawning fish, suf- 
ficient time not having elapsed for the youngs hatched the 
two previous years, to mature. It being desirable to return 
alive to the water, all shad not used for spawning, a net with 
a mesh of two and a half inches was used to prevent gilling 
them. This was effective ; not only were no salmon killed, 
but very few shad were injured, and its use led to important 
information regarding the two previous years' hatching. It 
was found that in the river at North Andover were large 
numbers of young shad, one and two years old ; sometimes 
a hundred or more would be taken at one sweep of the 
seine with scarcely any mature fish among them. These 
small shad were all males. As has been heretofore stated, 
females do not ascend the river until they are three or four 
years old, or until they are sufficiently mature to spawn. 
The milt in shad and salmon is ripe at the age of one and 
two years. With the enforcement of the law prohibiting 
the use of small mesh seines in the coves and eddies on the 
lower part of the river, and the continuation of the hatching 
at North Andover, there is every reason to warrant the con- 



8 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[D 



ec. 



elusion that a large increase in the shad fisheries of the Mer- 
rimac may be secured. A small increase may be expected 
in 1885, and a still larger the following year. 

To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — We respectfully submit the following report, showing 
the full details of the' work of hatching shad at North Andover, for the 
season of 1884. The hatchery was opened June lOth, and closed July 
5th. 



Number of shad taken, . 

returned to river alive, 

given away, 

males, .... 

females, 

salmon taken, 

returned to river alive, 



166 

74 

92 

132 

34 

9 

9 



From the above table it will be seen that a large percentage of the 
fish taken were males. Of the 34 females, only 20 were found to be in 
condition to furnish spawn, and from this number 268,000 spawn were 
taken. The number of shad hatched was about 252,000. These ^vere 
turned into the river at North Andover. 'Owing to the short supply, no 
young fish were sent to the New Hampshire Commissioners, as in for- 
mer seasons. The average cost to the State, for hatching shad at North 
Andover, for the last three seasons, has been a fraction less than 38 
cents per thousand. The following table will show the number of fish 
taken each day, the time of drawing the seine, the temperature of the 
water and air, the proportion of males to females, also the number of 
fish taken at each sweep, and the estimated amount of spawn taken. 



1884.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 





1884. 








2 S 

3 O- 
o O « 


£ S 

O C ■" 


1| 

O w 






mated 
unt of 
1 taken. 






es 


i 


1 


t 1 


a i 


e 1 




^ Z 


1 i i 










^ 


H ^ 


^ ^ 


H 




a 


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June 


11, . 


11 


11 





68 


62 


7, p.m. 




11 


000 


t< 


12, . 


15 


11 


4 


68 


70 


7,8, " 




8, 7 


30,000 


i( 


13, . 


4 


4 





68 


66 


7,8, - 




1, 3 


000 


i« 


14, . 


5 


2 


3 


69 


61 


7,8, " 




2, 3 


000 


(( 


16, . 


2 


1 


1 


69 


68 


6,7,9," 


0, 


2, 


20,000 


(( 


17, . 


19 


16 


3 


71 


71 


7,8,9," 


3, 


10, 6 


30,000 


(( 


18, . 


13 


10 


3 


73 


73 


7,8, " 




2,11 


30,OUO 


t( 


19, . 


5 


4 


1 


74 


72 


7, 8, " 




0, 5 


10,000 


n 


20, . 


18 


17 


1 


76 


72 


7,8,9," 


10, 


5, 3 


10,000 


(( 


21, . 


13 


11 


2 


80 


76 


7,8,9," 


8, 


3, 2 


30,000 


t( 


23, . 


15 


12 


3 


76 


65 


7,8,9," 


2, 


7, 6 


35,000 


C( 


24, . 


4 


3 


1 


78 


69 


8,9, " 




1, 3 


15,000 


t( 


2o, . 


5 


3 


2 


79 


68 


7,8, " 




2, 3 


10,')00 


(( 


26, . 


5 


3 


2 


76 


70 


7,8,9," 


3, 


2, 


000 


(( 


27, . 


2 





2 


74 


67 


S,9, 10, " 


1, 


1, 


000 


(t 


28, . 


4 


4 





74 


68 


7,8,9," 


2, 


2, 


000 


" 


30, . 


7 


5 


2 


77 


70 


7,8,9," 


2, 


3, 2 


30,000 


July 


1, . 


4 


3 


1 


79 


70 


«, 9, 10," 


2, 


0, 2 


8,000 


a 


2, . 


5 


4 


1 


79 


69 


7,8,10," 


2, 


3, 


000 


(( 


3, . 


8 


6 


2 


79 


68 


7,8,9," 


3, 


3, 1 


10,000 


(( 


5, . 


2 


2 





78 


70 


7,8, " 




0, 2 


000 



During the fishing season of only three weeks, thousands of young 
shad were taken, and of course returned to the water alive. The return 
of the young shad to the Merrimac in such large numbers is, to say 
the least, an indication of good results from the work of hatching. No 
perceptible increase of mature shad can reasonably be expected until 
the season of 1885, and perhaps a year later, as a great many of those, 
hatched in 1882 were undoubtedly destroyed at the mouth of the river. 
The Act of the Legislature prohibiting the u-e of fine mesh seines is 
certainly a step in the right direction ; for if it is desirable to be success- 
ful in fish culture, one thing must not be lost sight of, viz., the protec- 
tion of the young fi-h. 

The restocking of a stream in the exhausted condition of the Merri- 
mac, is a work not to be accomplished in a moment. It requires 
thought, time, patience and money. 

B. P. CHADWICK. 
EDWIN F. HUNT. 



Carp. 

Through the kindness of Prof. Spencer F. Baircl, U. S. 
Commissioner oi' Fish and Fisheries, four thousand young 
carp were forwarded to this State for distribution, arriving 
here about Nov. 9, 1883. 

There were applications enough on file to have taken all 



10 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec, 



these fish, but although the parties were notified that the fish 
were ready for delivery, many were not sent for, and a con- 
siderable number were lost in consequence of not having a 
proper place to keep them. They do not thrive in tanks sup- 
plied with spring water, and they could not have been kept 
well in any other place, subject to the orders of applicants. 
Notwithstanding all that has been said in former reports, more 
than half of the persons applying for them were without 
suitable ponds. It was to be hoped that a fish so easily cul- 
tivated, and apparently of considerable value in many parts 
of the country, would receive more attention. Its cultiva- 
tion in Southern and Western States is rapidly increasing. 
While they may not, in this climate, make the phenomenal 
growth attributed to them in some of the States, the lower 
temperature of the water will probably enhance their value 
as edible fish. The time will come when not only the farmer 
will find it profitable, but gentlemen owning estates will con- 
sider them incomplete without a well-arranged carp pond. 
If persons having suitable ponds for these fish will send in 
their orders for them before the first of September, they can 
be filled about the last of October, with no expense except 
transportation. Carp were delivered to the following per- 
sons in 1883 : — 



John F. Wild,. 
A. W. Austin, . 
Nathan Keith, 
H. Goulding, . 
W. H. P. Wright, 
J. T. Mosher, . 
C. E. Gould, . 
G. P. Dwight, . 
Geo. Bradshaw, 
Benj. F. Bee, . 
Edw'd Gillett, . 
T. H. Meek, . 
J. Dyer, . 
O. K. Rice, . 
J. A. Harwood, 



Wilmington. 

Boston. 

Campello. 

So. Natick. 

Lawrence. 

Squibnocket. 

Leominster. 

Dunstable. 

Springfield. 

Harwich. 

Southwick. 

E. Douglas. 

Truro. 

Ayer. 

Littleton. 



F. S. Bennet, . 
Geo. D. Danforth, 
F. A. Stimson, 
M. IL A. Evans, 
H. W. Phelps, . 
E. Rude, . 
O. W. Fiske, . 
J. B. Batchelder, 
E. T. Kent, . 
W. P. Hood, . 
B. Morse, 

Messenger, 

Miss S. L. Gray, 
J. L. S. Thompson, 
Enoch Foster, . 



Tyngsboro'. 

Tyngsboro'. 

Rockport. 

Graniteville. 

Springfield. 

Huntington. 

Bedford. 

Hyde Park. 

Maiden. 

Melrose. 

E. Douglas. 

Boston. 

Andover. 

Lancaster. 

Tewksbury. 



Trout. 
We received from the works at Plymouth, N. H., about 
one hundred and twenty-five thousand (125,000) trout spawn, 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 11 

which were hatched with very little loss. These would have 
filled the orders on hand, had it not been for the mischievous 
action of some boys, who broke the windows at the head of 
the tank, and endeavored to feed the fish by throwing in sev- 
eral handfuls of orange peel, which caused a loss of about 
fifty thousand young fish. The effort to restock our depleted 
trout streams has thus far been successful, the only drawback 
being the small number distributed to each applicant. The 
amount of spawn for this year will be greatly in excess of 
last season, and all orders can probably be liberally filled. 
The trout and landlocked salmon fry are delivered free at 
the hatching-house, Winchester, Mass. Cans necessary for 
their transportation will be loaned to all applicants, on con- 
dition that they are immediately returned. 

Distribution of Young Trout. 

CA»3 

F. Dimond, No. Carver, 1 

D. Fisk, Upton, 1 

A Barrus, Goshen, 2 

H. Goulding, So. Natick, 2 

M. Ryson, Foxborough, 1 

Wm. H. Little, Sheffield, 2 

J. Alden, Stoneham, 1 

G. F. Newbegin, Salem, 1 

H. C Stark, Hyde Park, 1 

A. H. Manning, Pittsfield, 1 

J. O. Parker, Methnen, 1 

J. Cummins, Wobm'n, 1 

H. H. Wyman, Winchendon, . . 1 

Aug. Fels, Lowell, . . .1 

J. A. Loring, Boston, 4 

J. B. Hull, Stockbridge, 2 

P. Aldrich, Boston, . .1 

Note. — There may be some discrepancies in these lists of fry 
delivered at the hatching-house, arising from the haste occasioned by 
frequently having to deliver several lots for the same train. 

Lake Superior Salmon Trout. 
One hundred thousand spawn of these fish were received 
and. hatched, with little loss, and distributed as follows : — 

CAN». 

D. Fisk, Upton, 1 

J. D. Francis, Pittsfield, . , . 1 



12 INLAND FISHERIES. [Doc. 



CAKS. 



J. B. Hull, Stockbridge, 3 

T. Lawrence, Falmouth, 4 

J. F. Hinds, Webster, 2 

A. C. Brigham, So. Abington, 2 

H. C. Stark, Hyde Park 1 

M. Gifford, Falmouth, .4 

A. H. Manning, Pittsfield, 1 

H. H. Wyman, Winchendon, 1 

J. O. Parker, Methuen, 1 

C. G. Reed, Worcester, 1 

M. Palmer, Groton, 1 

C. E. Peck, VVilbraham, 2 

Landlocked Salmon. 

The following report of Mr. Hodge, Commissioner of New 
Hampshire, shows that the introduction of this fish in that 
State has been a decided success. Similar reports have 
been received from some of the ponds in Connecticut. It is 
to be regretted that so little information upon the subject 
has been received from the leased ponds in this State : — 

The habits and haunts of these fish are such that they may 
exist in considerable numbers in a pond or lake without the 
public being aware of it. Their presence in New Hamp- 
shire and the northern part of Connecticut would be more 
likely to be known than in the waters here, for hundreds of 
expert fishermen who understand how to catch this fish, 
annually visit those States, having ample time for investigat- 
ing and exploring every stream and lake. If there is any 
fish in New Hampshire that has not made the acquaintance 
of some one of this great army of anglers, he ought to be 
considered unfit for the table. 

The regulations governing leased ponds in this State 
require that, for the present, all landlocked salmon shall be 
returned to the water alive. The temptation to retain so 
remarkable a fish may possibly have had some effect on the 
returns. 

Of the ponds where these fish have been introduced, only 
fifteen have reported any catch. In some of the waters most 
favorable for their growth, they have not been introduced 
suflSciently long to expect, as yet, any favorable results. 
As a rule they do not make their appearance until the third 
or fourth year after planting. The following list shows the 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT. — No. 25. 13 

distribution of these fish for 1884. The number of fish in a 
can, of course, varied somewhat, according to the tempera- 
ture and the distance to be carried. 

CANS. 

Thomas Lawrence, Falmouth, 6 

Charles G. Reed, Worcester, . . 7 

J. B. Hull, Stockbridge, 3 

Henry A. Bo3'den, Sharon, 2 

C. E Peck, Wilbraham, 2 

Meltiah Gifford, Waquoit, 4 

John F. Hinds, Webster, 2 

E. S. Thayer, Salem, 8 

W. A. Bullard, Cambridgeport, . . 6 

A. H. Manning, Pittsfield, . . 3 

E. Howes, Gloucester, 2 

S. P. Keyes, New Marlborough, 4 

Luther Hill, Spencer, 2 

B. P. Chadwick, Bradford, 1 

H. H. Wyman, Winchendon, . . . ■ 4 

J. O. Parker, Methuen, .2 

Moses Palmer, Groton, ... 1 1 

C. E. Gould, Leominster, . . ; 2 

Mystic Pond, Medford and Winchester, 20,000 fry. 



PLYaiouTH, N.H., Dec. 8, 1884. 
E. A. Bracken, 

My Dear Sir : — In answer to your question as to the result of 
the introduction of the landlocked salmon or the Schoodic salmon, 
I am happy to say that we consider them a success and a great 
addition to our game fishes ; good reports are being received from 
various parts of the State. 

In some waters their growth has been remarkable, particularly 
in Squam and Sunapee lakes. The first plant in Squam Lake was 
made in 1877. In June, 1880, a salmon was taken in the outlet 
that weighed 6^ pounds ; another measured 27 inches in length, 
weight not taken. 

In November, 1883, six j-ears after the lake was stocked, a pair, 
male and female, were speared on their spawning bed, weighing 
10 and 15 pounds each. This last spring another was caught, 
9J- pounds. I only give jon the first that I know were weighed ; 
man}^ others, fully as large, have been reported. 

In Sunapee, first stocked in 1877, they have done fully as well. 
In 1882 and 1883, salmon were taken weighing 6^, 7^ and 8^ 
pounds, and others of 5 and 6 pounds. The largest taken this 
year, that I have a record of, weighed 11 J- pounds. This was a 



14 INLAND FISHEEIES. [Dec. 

female fish. I could give 3'ou man}^ other instances of the reported 
capture of large landlocked salmon, but the above is enough to 
show that they are a success in this State. 

In some of the small lakes they have not done as well, while in 
others, no larger, they have been a success. This result might 
have been expected, as the 3'oung fry were introduced into the 
various ponds and lakes without any examination of the water 
to ascertain whether it contained suitable food for the young fry, 
or whether the water was of sufficient depth for the adult fish. 

I am, respectfuU}", 3'ours, 

E. B. HODGE. i 

Salmo salar. 

The distribution of young salmon is detailed in the follow- 
lowing report by Mr. E. B. Hodge, Commissioner of New 
Hampshire and superintendent of the works at Plymouth, 
carried on jointly by the two States. 

The effort to stock the Merrimac with California salmon, 
mainly on account of the cheapness of the spawn and the 
more rapid growth of that fish, was a failure. This, with 
the large number of breeding fish unlawfully destroyed by 
the fishermen below Lawrence, four years ago, retarded the 
stocking of the river for several years. This has now been 
bridged over, and a much more rapid increase of salmon may 
be expected hereafter. There have been three seasons of 
remarkably low water in the river, which has greatly inter- 
fered with the salmon reaching their spawning grounds. 
According to records kept at Lowell, it is probable that 
this drouth will be followed by three or four years of abun- 
dance. 

The fall run of salmon this year was unusually large, 
indicating an increased run for next season. The works at 
Plymouth are being extended and greatly improved. 

To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries for the Oommonweallh of i 

Massachusetts : 

After my report to you of Nov. 26, 1883, I received in January, 
from Bucksport, Maine, 550,000 Penobscot salmon eggs, 350,000 
of which was the share belonging to Massachusetts from the Pen- 
obscot salmon-breeding establishment ; 200,000 were given bj^ 
Prof. S. F. Baird, U. S. Fish Commissioner. These, with the eggs 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

taken from the salmon caught in the Pemigewasset, making over 
600,000, were hatched, with a veiy small loss (less than one and 
one-half per cent.), and the young fry were planted in the Pemige- 
wasset River in June ; 250,000 were placed in the east branch of 
the Pemigewasset, at the terminus of the P. V. R. R. in North 
Woodstock, some twenty miles above the hatchery ; the remainder, 
in lots of 50,000, at various points from two to fifteen miles above 
the falls. This is largest plant by nearly 200,000 that has yet 
been made in the head-waters of the Merrimac. 

The spring run of salmon was about the same as last year. Un- 
fortunatel}', the water was so low in September that none of the 
fall run, which I understand was unusually large, reached here. 
The salmon taken this season were all large fish, weighing from 
fifteen to thirtj^-five pounds. 

As usual, the young salmon were very plenty in the river this 
season. They begin to leave this part of the river the last of Au- 
gust, and b}' the first of October ver}- few can be found, and they 
are male fish, from five to seven inches in length, with the milt 
fully developed. 

There are now in the hatchery 380,000 eggs of the brook trout, 
and, when all taken, there will be about 400,000, of which I shall 
send you one-half as soon as they will do to move. 

As instructed, at the annual meeting of the Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire Commissioners, I have added 5,000, from four to 
eight inches in length, to the stock of breeders, which will, another 
3'ear, add materialh' to the number of eggs. I have built a pond, 
18 b}^ 60, to accommodate the small trout ; the sides are planked 
thirty inches above the water. The small pond at the head of the 
old trout tanks has been enlarged, planked and graded. I find it 
necessary to have the sides of the ponds planked to prevent mink 
from destroying the trout. 

Respectfully yours, 

E. B. Hodge, Superintendent, 

Plymouth, N. H., Dec. 8, 1884. 



Fisheries ox the Lower Merrimac. 

In the last two reports the cause of the decliDO of shad in 
the Merrimac was fully set forth. As the statements therein 
made were the result of a thorouofh investigation, extendinor 
over a series of years, there seemed to be no doubt that this 
depletion was largely due to the small mesh seines used at 
the mouth of the river for taking bait. It was therefore 



16 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

recommended that no seine of less than two and a qnarter 
inches be allowed for that purpose. This was accepted by 
the last Legislature, and the only argument used against its 
passage was that it would reduce the fishermen to a state of 
poverty little better than starvation. The fact that none 
of these fishermen are dependent on the use of their seines 
for a living was ignored. 

As it has always been the earnest desire of the Commis- 
sioners to give all fishermen the largest possible liberty in 
fishing consistent with the preservation of their interests, at 
the suggestion of several of the leading citizens of Newbury- 
port, a meeting of the fishermen was called for the purpose 
of consultation and to find out how far they had been injured 
by restricting them to a larger mesh seine. It was claimed 
by these gentlemen that the fishermen were laboring under 
a misapprehension, and that they had already received all, if 
not more, than they could reasonably expect, and that an 
explanation from the Commissioners would be likely to 
lead to a better understanding of the case, and probably 
remove all unpleasant feelings on the part of the fishermen. 
The meeting was held on the 24lh of June, and the following 
statement, made in the *' Newburyport Herald " by one of its 
reporters, who was present, is substantially correct : — 

" A social conference between Commissioner Brackett and the 
ward one fishermen was held at the home of Deputy Commissioner 
Hunt, last evening, the object being to arrive at a better under- 
standing on the part of fishermen and commissioner, relative to the 
various phases of the local fisherj^ laws. All the seining crews 
were represented, and to the first question of Mr. Brackett, as to 
whether the fishermen had reallj' been injured by being forced to 
use a 2]-inch mesh, all substantially agreed that the}^ had not ; all 
freely admitted that the 2 J mesh let the smaller fish slip through, 
but held the larger and to them more valuable fish. Mr. Brackett 
said that he had believed this to be the case after extensive conversa- 
tion among fishermen elsewhere, and for that reason had favored the 
2^ mesh. He also said that the commissioners had no desire what- 
ever to crowd the fishermen ; they onlj- asked for square dealing 
and compliance with the law on their part, and were willing to do 
everything within the law that would prove of benefit to them in 
return. Regarding the issuing of permits to catch sea shad, he 
said that the resolution relating to it, which had become a law, was 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 17 

written b}' himself, and was purely a voluntary act on his part in 
the interests of the fishermen. These permits he had authorized 
Deputy Hunt to issue, subject to the discretion of the latter, and 
with the distinct understanding that Mr. Hunt, at all times, is to 
have the privilege of looking over the nets, and examining the fish 
caught, to see that the law is not violated b}^ the catching of river 
shad, salmon and other prohibited fish. The men agreed to this, 
and Mr. Brackett suggested that a record of all fish caught should 
be kept, that the value of the industry might be easily computed at 
the end of the season. He also said that if the men had a griev- 
ance at any time, it would be better for them to confer with the 
commissioners, and by that means all difficulties could be more 
easily adjusted, than by running to the legislative committees. The 
men all appeared pleased to meet Mr. Brackett, and the meeting 
closed with a heart}^ expression of friendly feeling on both sides. 
The spokesman of the seiners, after the meeting, said it had been, 
a good thing for the fishermen, who had been led to believe that 
the commissioners had a disposition to crowd them, whereas the}^ 
were tr3ing to protect the river fish, and at the same time allow the 
fishermen every privilege which could possibly be allowed by the 
law." 

Mr. Caswell, one of the leading seiners, stilted that he had, 
in times past, taken large quantities of small fish for bait, so 
small that the vessels refused to accept them, and ho was 
obliged to throw them away. If they had been allowed to 
grow they would have been valuable. He thought the law 
a good one, and in the interest of the fishermen. 

Sea Shad. 

Permission was given to take these fish, and about seven 
thousand were caught. They were all the true shad. A care- 
ful examination showed that only one of this large number had 
well developed spawn. In all the others the spawn and milt 
were so small as to preclude the possibility of their spawn- 
ing before another season. The prevailing opinion is that 
these fish have spawned in more southern waters, and in 
moving north along the coast, occasionally run into the 
mouths of our rivers. So far as we know, this theory is 
not based upon any well-authenticated facts. Possibly the 
solution of this question may be found in another direction. 
AVithin a few years it has been definitely settled that the 



18 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

Atlantic salmon spawn only every other year, and should 
it be proven that the same law holds good with the shad, it 
might account for the appearance of these fish at the mouth 
of the river at the time when the ripe fish are seeking their 
spawning grounds. In the sea, shad move in schools, and 
on reaching the mouths of the rivers to which they belong, 
only those ready to spawn go up ; the others may loiter for 
a few days in the brackish water. From testimony obtained 
during the last season, it is probable that a small school of 
these fish may be found animally, in the month of June, in- 
side of Plum Island Light, and that this school is distinct 
from the phenomenal movement described in the last report. 
Until something more definite is known about them, it can- 
not be determined whether these fish belong to the Merri- 
mac or to some other river. 

In considering the fisheries of the lower part of the Merri- 
mac, it is important to understand that the present arrange- 
ment is, in part, a compromise, reached after a thorough 
discussion by both sides, for the two and one-quarter mesh 
will necessarily destroy more or less young shad. In reach- 
ing this settlement there have been expensive hearings, some 
legislation, and a great deal of unnecessary debate. The 
interest of the State has been fairly preserved, and the fish- 
ermen express themselves satisfied with the results. So long 
as they adhere to this, there seems to be no good reason for 
any further conflict. There were no menhaden in the river 
this summer, and the total amount of fish taken for bait did 
not exceed 350 barrels, valued at $440, 

Newbueyport, Nov. 10, 1884. 

E. A. Brackett, Chairman of Board of Commissioners on Inland Fish- 
eries : 

I regret to say, that owing to the absence of menhaden in the 
river, the past season has not been a prosperous one for the fisher- 
men. 

The fishing commenced the 20th of June, with four seines, 
owned as follows : John Janvrin, W. H. H. Perkins, Charles Cas- 
well & Co., and Ezra Thurlow & Co. The catch for the season 
was : bait, 350 barrels, valued at $440 ; sea shad, 7,000, valued at 
$300 ; total value, $740. This was divided among some thirty 
fishermen, according to their interest in boat and seine. Had it 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

been equally divided, each would have received 824.66f . No action 
of the legislature or of your Board, could have aided the fishermen 
in obtaining better results. All that could be done was done for 
their benefit. The fish were not here, and therefore could not be 
caught. Fortunately, none of the fishermen are dependent upon 
the use of their seines for a living. 

It will be seen, by reference to my report of last year, that the 
real value of the fisheries of the lower part of the Merrimac is de- 
pendent upon the menhaden. Whenever these fish are plenty in 
the river, the fishermen are arapl}^ rewarded for their labor ; at other 
times the fishing is more a matter of diversion than of profit. The 
order permitting the taking of a considerable number of what are 
here called sea shad, was promptly carried out. Of the twenty- 
five hundred inspected by your Board, only one contained spawn. 
There was none in the catch which I afterward examined. All 
these fish were the true shad, belonging, if not to the Merrimac, to 
some other river. If there was any doubt as to their location, the 
benefit of the doubt was given the fishermen, in 3'our decision 
granting them the privilege of taking these fish. 

I also, under your direction, gave permission to take sperling at 
the extreme mouth of the river, on condition that no other fish 
were destroyed. The shad, which appeared early in the season, 
lasted about one week, then began to fall off, and in a few days 
entirely disappeared. Then the bluebacks struck into the river 
and lasted about a month. 

I am happy to say that the good feeling on the part of the fish- 
ermen, which grew out of the meeting at my house, last June, 
where everything pertaining to the fisheries of the Merrimac, was 
freely and frankly discussed, still continues. No one complains 
that he has been injured by the passage of the law restricting them 
to the use of the 2i-inch mesh, and the better understanding of 
both sides of the question has, in my opinion, led them to honestly 
endeavor to keep their part of the obligation. 

Yours truly, 

Edwin F. Hunt. 

Lobsters. 

The legislature, at its last sessioD, passed an amendment to 
to the lobster law, placing the enforcement of it in the hands of 
the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. At the hearinor before 
the committee on fisheries, which led to the passage of this act, 
all the dealers and lobster fishermen who were present were 
very earnest that the law should be enforced. There is no 



20 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

reason to believe that they have not acted in good faith, but 
there is always a lawless element that requires looking after, 
and several arrests and convictions were made during the past 
season. So far as the cities and larger towns are concerned, 
the law has been fairly maintained. There is, however, a 
defect in the law, which, if not corrected, will make it of little 
value. Large numbers of small lobsters were caught during 
the year, put into locked cars, smuggled aboard vessels, and 
sent to New York, where there is no law regulating the size. 
Many were also sold at the hotels at watering places, or used 
for bait. Although fully satisfied of the fact, the officers had 
no authority to open the cars, and consequently no evidence 
that would convict. This has led to a good deal of com- 
plaint on the part of the law-abiding fishermen, who claim 
that nothing has been gained by the attempt to arrest this 
wholesale destruction of young lobsters. The feeling among 
many of the dealers and fishermen is that nothing short of 
a closed season, in which no lobster pots are permitted to be 
used, will be effective. If the lobster fisheries are to be 
preserved, — are to be saved from annihilation, there is a 
plain, simple way of doing it; one that requires no great 
amount of scientific knowledge, only a little exercise of 
common sense. You cannot have eggs, if you destroy 
your hens ; you cannot raise chickens, if you do not save 
and protect the eggs. The lobster is a bay or estuary 
animal ; it does not migrate like the cod, haddock and 
mackerel. Its range is so limited that it can be and has 
been so reduced in size and numbers as to be of little value 
in this and adjoining States. 

The lOi^-inch law, if rigidly enforced, would be a step in 
the right direction. It is profitable neither to the dealer 
nor the consumer, that the lobster should be marketed 
below this size. Again, lobsters less than 10|^ inches, 
are seldom found with spawn ; therefore, supplement this 
act with the right of search, and a close season of two or 
three months, covering the principal part of the spawning 
season, or that period wdien the most spawn is deposited, 
and you conserve not only the interest of the State but 
of the fishei^en also. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 21 



OrncE OF THE Chief of the District Police, 

65 BowDoiN Street, Boston, Mass., 

December 1, 1884. 

E. A. Brackett, Esq., Chairman Commissioners on Inland Fish- 
eries. 

Dear Sir : — In answer to 3'our inquiry as to the enforcement 
of the statute, chapter 212, Acts of 1884, " An Act for the Better 
Protection of Lobsters," I have the honor to inform 3'ou that from 
the reports of the officers of this force, I am of the opinion that the 
law is, in a great degree, inoperative. 

It is alleged b}" many honest dealers, that large numbers of short 
lobsters are taken in everj^ catch, and that it is of rare occurrence 
that they are returned to the water. These short lobsters, with 
others, are placed in floating cars, and moored some distance from 
the shore. Sales are made direct from said cars, and evidence of 
violations of the law cannot be obtained. Open sales of short or 
mutilated lobsters are seldom reported, and but ten prosecutions 
have been made since the enactment of the statute. To make the 
law more effective, the right of search, and authorit}' to enter 
places and buildings where lobsters are kept, should be given to 
officers, whenever there is reasonable grounds to believe that the 
provisions of the law are violated. 

Very respectfully, 

RuFus R. Wade, 

Chief District Police. 

Extracts from Report of W. H. Venning, Esq., Inspector of 
Fisheries for the Province of New Brunswick, for the 
Year 1883. 

Lobsters, 
The effects of the enormous annual drain made on this shell-fish 
for the last fifteen years, are now plainly to be seen, and even 
interested cupidity can no longer deny them. Though the number 
of factories has increased and greater numbers of men have been 
employed, the returns show a decrease of nearly 2,000,000 cans, 
compared with the quantity put up last 3'ear. This serious decline 
in numbers, added to the still more serious decline in size, visible 
everywhere, points to the certain extinction of the fish, if the busi- 
ness continues to be pursued on the same excessive scale. In 
former reports, both annual and special, I have expressed my con- 
viction that no creature can long withstand so great a yearly drain 
as has been made on the lobster. This drain has been out of all 



22 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

proportion to the power of so slow-growing a creature to multiply. 
Even the canners themselves are now convinced of this fact ; but 
in the hope that the fish will last their time, they are redoubling 
their exertions to increase their catch ; are endeavoring to make 
increased numbers of small fish compensate for the almost total 
absence of large ones, and are striving to have the present insuffi- 
cient restrictions relaxed. While every officer in the Province, in 
whose district this fishery is pursued, records the fact of its failing 
supply, none of them, except Overseers Wyse of Chatham, Girou- 
ard of Buctouche, and Deacon of Shediac, off'er any suggestions for 
its improvement or conservation. I have given their opinions in 
their own words in the abstracts from their reports. Whatever 
opinion I may entertain of the practicability of Overseer Wyse's 
views, it cannot be denied that their adoption would give lessees a 
direct interest in so conducting their business that their breeding 
stock could not be exhausted, and that none but mature and healthy 
fish should be killed. At present, neither canners nor fishermen 
have any interest in protecting or conserving the fishery ; their 
interest now lies rather in destroying it by over-fishing. But with 
respect to the opinions of Messrs. Deacon and Girouard, my own 
observation forces me to differ from their conclusions. The pres- 
ent close time extends from 20th August to 20th April, a period of 
eight months. Soft-shelled lobsters, those with eggs attached, and 
all less than nine inches in length, are now forbidden to be killed. 
With all this protection, the fishery shows indisputable signs of 
exhaustion. Not only is the supply failing, but the average size 
has fallen below nine inches. Had the law been rigidly enforced 
this season, every cannery in the Province would have been closed. 
In the face of these undeniable facts, I cannot see how extending 
tJiefisMng season is going to improve matters, — increase the sup- 
ply of fish or raise their average size. My conviction is now what 
it has been for j^ears, that the fishery has been pursued to so un- 
reasonable an extent that it is sheer folly to suppose it can continue 
much longer on the same extravagant scale. Mere tinkering with 
it will do no good. This has been tried and has failed most sig- 
nally. Some radical change must now be made, or the fishery is 
doomed to extinction. 

Extract from Annual Report on the Fisheries of Nova 
Scotia for the Year 1883, by W. H. Rogers, Esq., In- 
spector. 

There have been several thousand tons shipped alive from Yar- 
mouth and Shelburne to the United States during the past two or 
three years, — a profitable trade, likely to increase in the future. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 23 

The lobster is one of the most important items in our fisheries, and 
will become more and more so. Hence, ever}^ means should be 
adopted not only to facilitate the business but to protect the "raw 
material" from exhaustion. To this end, a rigid enforcement of an 
ample close season is indispensable, together with the protection 
of the female and small lobster. 

The difficulty in regard to the closed season in the Prov- 
inces is that it does not appear to cover the best part of the 
spawning season. 

In Scotland there is a closed season from June 1 till Sep- 
tember 1, under a penalty of £5 for each lobster caught 
during that time. 

In Norway and Sweden the close time is from July 15 to 
October 15. From the following report on the lobster fish- 
eries of Norway, it will be seen that for a few years after the 
passage of the act making a closed season there was a falling 
off of the catch, but in the end the fishermen were greatly 
benefited. With a closed season of three months they were 
able to take a great many more lobsters than when they 
w ere allowed to fish the whole year. 

Extract from the Report of the United States Fish Com- 
missioner ON THE ''Norwegian Lobster Fishery and its 
History, by Axel Boeck." 

By this law, which forbids all fishing during two and a half 
months, the yield of the fisheries was of course somewhat dimin- 
ished during the first years following its passage, till the protected 
young could reach the necessary size. Thus fewer were exported 
in 1849 and 1850 than during the preceding years, so that, while 
from 1846 to 1848 about 600,000 were exported, the number had 
sunk to 408,310 in 1849 and 427,600 in 1850. This decrease, 
however, is not merel}^ owing to the circumstance that the number 
which were usually caught during the close months remained in the 
sea, but likewise to the fact that the English joint-stock company 
which carried on the exportation from the districts of Jarlsberg 
and Laurvig began to ipnj a lower price for the lobsters, so that 
the fishermen resolved no longer to catch any, even during those 
months when they were permitted to do so. While from this dis- 
trict there were from 1846 to 1848 on an average about 26,000 
exported every year, only 7,960 were exported in 1849, 1,664, in 
1850, and none at all during the following years ; but, in 1855, 



24 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

14,470 were again exported, chiefly to Copenhagen. Since 1850 
the lobster trade has steadilj^ increased, and the governors, in their 
quinquennial reports on the economical condition of their respective 
districts, state that protection seeras to have produced this result. 

In the district of Stavanger, the exports rose, from 1850, when 
they amounted to 120,653, to 204,803 in 1854. In the South 
Bergen district it is also stated that the fisheries have increased. 
Of the following j'ears, the least productive was 1858, when the 
exports from the whole kingdom only amounted to 553,238, on 
account of unfavorable weather during the whole fishing season ; 
but, in 1860, the number had again risen to 1,333,037, and kept 
tolerably stead}^ during the following years, so that the exports 
during these 3'ears were about the same as during the years 1825- 
30, when they were at their highest, only to decrease very rapidly 
during the following years. In 1800 the exports rose to 1,000,000, 
and increased constantly, till in 1865 they very nearly reached 
2,000,000 ; viz., 1,956,276. 

Returns of Weirs, Seines, and Gillnets. 

Returns have been received from 205 fisheries, comprising 
93 pounds and weirs, 22 sea seines, G3 gillnets, 2 Connecti- 
cut River seines, 2 Merrimac River seines, 10 Taunton River 
seines, and 13 other fresh-water seines. In all, there are 34 
less than last year,* of which 25 are gillnet fisheries. Each 
year fewer returns are received, so that we must infer either 
that the State is losing her fishermen, or that there is a decided 
neglect on their part to send in their returns. 

There is an increase in the catch of sea-herring, flounders 
and flat-fish, eels, striped bass, and bluefish ; but in the 
catch of most fish, as might be anticipated from the smaller 
number of returns, there is a falling off", as compared v/ith 
the two preceding years. 

Shad shows an increase of 2,539 over the catch of 1883. 
This increase is due entirely to the exceptional catch by the 
Newburyport sea seines. In the rivers there is a falling off 
in the number of shad caught. An Agawam fisherman, who 
caught only 54 shad, complains of the obstructions lower 
down in the Connecticut River, which prevent the ascent of 
the fish; but a South Hadley firm above him return 1,539 
shad. 

* Three more returns have come in since this report went to press. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 25 

A lame decrease in mackerel and menhaden 13 noticeable. 
A Mashpec fisherman records his observations that the 
herring, though plentiful, arc only half grown this year. 



Salmon and Tkout. 

The importance of specific knowledge of the salmon and 
trout of the country, in connection with the many questions 
that arise in relation to the determination of the several 
species and varieties in the New England States, have led the 
Commissioners to request Mr. Samuel Garman to prepare a 
paper on the subject for publication in this report. Mr. Gar- 
man is an assistant in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
and has char2:e of the collection of fishes belonojin": to the 
museum, and thus has been able, in his studies, to use the 
large amount of material in the museum. He has been 
aided also by specimens sent him by the Commissioners of 
New^ Hampshire, and from the hatching houses at Plymouth. 
His paper is given in the appendix of this report, under the 
title of Notes and Descriptions of the Salmon and Trout of 
North America, with notices of the introduced species. The 
illustrations accompanying the paper were made under his 
personal supervision by Mr. Denton, and are consiilcred to 
be accurate delineations of the several species and varieties 
native to or introduced into New England waters. 

Leased Ponds. 

Less than one-half of the returns of the leased ponds have 
been received. Taken as a whole, they show a large increase 
over former years. There are a few complaints that the fish 
have not increased. This may be due, in part, to the unfa- 
vorable character of the water, but mainly to a lack of man- 
agement. Of the 114 leased ponds, seven give a total return 
of 237,817 fish caught during the past season. Computing 
returns received, and estimating others on the basis of 
former returns, the total catch from the leased ponds for 
1884 would be about 400,000 fish. As the weight is not 
generally given, it is not easy to estimate the marketable 
value. 



26 INLAND FISHEKIES. [Dec. 

The inland fisheries, during the last ten years, have not 
only held their own against the demands of a growing popu- 
lation, but have steadily increased. What they would have 
been, had there been no effort to arrest their downward 
tendency, can be easily seen by any one who will give the 
subject a careful consideration. 

E. A. BRACKETT. 

F. W. PUTNAM. 
EDWARD H. LATHROP. 



1884.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



27 



EXPENSES OF COMMISSION. 



Salary, $1,650 00 

TravellinPT expenses, 202 63 

f 1,852 63 

General Expenses. 

Postage, telegrams, and expressage, 94 25 

Printing, " 64 70 

Hardware, 12 72 

Fish food, 31 37 

Trout spawn, 100 00 

E. B. Hodge, services as Snpt. joint hatchery, . . . 300 00 

Assistant, services as Supt. joint hatchery, .... 67 50 

Rent, joint hatchery, 50 00 

Legal services, Fred. Williams, 28 00 

Serving notices, deputy sheriff, 10 12 

Rent of land for hatching house, 50 00 

Subscription to fund of Penobscot salmon breeding estab- 
lishment for 1884 and 1885, 400 00 

Subscription to fund of Schoodic salmon breeding estab- 
lishment, 400 00 

E. F. Hunt, services and expenses, . . . . . 457 25 
B. P. Chadwick, services and expenses at North Andover 

shad hatchery, 64 11 

E. S. Robinson, services and expenses at North Andover 

shad hatchery, 21 00 

John L. Murphy, services and expenses at North Andover 

shad hatchery, 21 00 

Robert Elliot, services and expenses at North Andover shad 

hatchery, 42 GO 

Patrick Barrett, services and expenses at North Andover 

shad hatchery, 15 00 

J. C. Walker, services and expenses at State hatchery, . 20 00 

Expense planting salmon, * 10 00 

D. L. Withington, legal services and expenses, ... 22 79 

Thomas S. Holmes, labor at Lawrence fishway, ... 70 00 

Total, ,...,.... $4,203 99 



APPENDIX. 



[A.] 
LIST OF FISH OOMMISSIONEES. 



Dominion of Canada. 

[We have had no notice of any appointment to the office vacated by Mr. 

W. F. Whitcher.] 

Province of New Brunswick. 
W. H. Venning, Inspector of Fisheries, . . .St. John. 

Province of Nova Scotia. 
W. H, Kogers, Inspector, Amherst. 

Province of Prince Edward Island. 
J. H. Duvar, Inspector, Alberton. 

Province of British Columbia. 
A. C. Anderson, Victoria. 

The United States. 
Prof Spencer F. Baird, Washington, D. C. 

Alabama. 

Col. D. R. Hundley, Mooresville. 

Hon. C. S'. G. Doster, Prattville. 

Arizona. 

Hon. J. J. Gosper, Prescott. 

Hon. Richard Rule, Tombstone. 

J. H. Tagart, Business Manager, .... Yuma. 

Arkansas. 

James H. Hornibrook, Little Rock. 

H. H. Rottaken, Little Rock. 

California. 

J. D. Redding, San Francisco, 

A. B. Dibble, . . . . . . . . Grass Valley. 

B. H. Buckingham, . . . . . . . Washington. 



32 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



Colorado. 



Wilson E. Sisty, 



Idaho Springs. 



CONXECTICUT. 



Dr. W. M. Hudson, 
Robert G. Pike, . 
James A. Bill, . 



Hartford. 

Middlctown. 

Lyme. 



Delaware. 



Enoch Moore, Jr. 



Wilmington. 



Georgia. 
Hon. J. T. Henderson, Commissioner of Agriculture, Atlanta. 
Dr. H. H. Cary, Superintendent of Fisheries, . . La Grange. 
Under the laws of the State these two constitute the 
Board of Eish Commissioners. 

Illinois. 

N. K. Fairbank, President, ..... Chicago. 

S. P. Bartlett, Quincy. 

S. P. ;McDole, Aurora. 

Indiana. 
Calvin Fletcher, Spencer, Owen Co. 

Iowa. 

A. W. Aldrich, Anamosa. 

A. A. Mosher, Spirit Lake. 



Kansas. 



W. S. Gile, . 


• 




. Venango. 




Kentucky 




William Griffith, President 


5 • • 


. Louisville. " 


P. H. Darby, . 






. Princeton. 


John B. Walker, 






. Madisonville. 


Hon. C. J. Walton, . 






. Munfordville. 


Hon. John A. Steele, 






. Versailles. 


W. C. Price, 






. Danville. 


Dr. W. Van Antwerp, 






. Mt. Sterling. 


Hon. J. M. Chambers, 






Independence, Kenton Co 


A. H. Goble, . 






. Catlettsburg. 


J. H, Mallory, . 




. 


. Bowling Green. 




Maine. 




E.M. Stilwell, . 


, 


. BanfTor. 


Henry 0. Stanley, 


. 




. Dixfield. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 33 

Maryland. 

G. W. Dclawder Oakland. 

Dr. E, W. Humphries, Salisbury. 

Massachusetts. 

E. A. Br.ickett, • Winchester. 

F. W. Putnam, Cambrid<j^e. 

Edw. II. Lathrop, Springfield. 

Michigan. 

Dr. J. C. Parker, President, Grand Rapids. 

John II. Bissell, Detroit. 

Herschcl Whilaker, Detroit. 

Minnesota. 

1st District — Daniel Cameron, .... La Crescent. 

2d District — William M. Sweeney, ^I. D., . . Red Wing. 

3d District — Robert Ormsby Sweeny, President, . St Paul. 

Missouri. 

John Rcid, Lexington. 

J. G. W. Steedman, Chairman, . . . 2803 Pine Street, St. Louis. 

Dr. J. S. Logan, St. Joseph. 

Nebraska. 

R. R. Livingston, Plattsmouth. 

William L. May, Fremont. 

B. E. B. Kennedy, Omaha. 

Nevada. 

Hon. Ilubb G. Parker, Carson City. 

New Hampshire. 

George W. Riddle, Manchester. 

Luther Hayes, . . South Milton. 

Eliott B. Ilodge, Plymouth. 

New Jersey. 

Richard S. Jenkins, Camden. 

William Wright, Newark. 

Frank M. Ward, Newton. 

New York. 
Hon R. Barnwell Roosevelt, President, 76 Chambers Street, New York. 
Gen. Pvichard U. Sherman, Secretary, . New Hartford, Oneida Co. 
Eugene G. Blackford, . . . 809 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn. 

William H. Bowman, Rochester. 



34 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



North Carolina. 
S G.Worth, Raleigh. 



Col. L. A. Harris, President, 
Charles W. Bond, Treasurer, 
George Daniel, Secretary, 



Ohio. 



Cincinnati. 

Toledo. 

Sandusky. 



Oregon. 

A B. Ferguson, Astoria. 

Pennsylvania. 

John Gay, President, Greensburg. 

James Duffy, Treasurer, Marietta. 

H. H. Derr, Secretary, Wilkesbarre. 

A. M. Spangler, Corresponding Secretary, . . Philadelphia. 

Arthar Maginnis, Swiftwater, Monroe Co. 

Aug. Duncan, Chambersburg. 

Ehode Island. 

John H. Barden, Rockland. 

Henry T. Root, Providence. 

Col. Amos Sherman, Woonsocket. 



South Carolina. 
Hon. A. P. Butler, Commissioner of Agriculture, 
C. J. Huske, Superintendent of Fisheries, 
These two officers constitute the Fishery Commis- 
sion. 

Tennessee. 

W. W. McDowell, 

H. H Sneed, 

Edward D. Hicks, 



Columbia. 
Columbia. 



Memphis. 

Chattanooga. 

Nashville. 



John B. Lubbock, 



Texas. 



Austin. 



Vermont. 

Hiram A. Cutting, . Lunenburgh. 

Herbert Brainerd, St. Albans. 

Virginia. 
Col. Marshall McDonald, Berry ville. 

Washington Territory. 

Albert B. Stream, North Cove. 

(Term expired Nov. 9, 1877 ; no notice of reap- 
pointment.) 



1884.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



35 



West Virginia. 

H. B. Miller, President, Wheeling. 

C. S. White, Secretary, Romney. 

N. M. Lowry, Hinton. 

Wisconsin. 
The Governor, ex officio. 

Philo Dunning, President, Madison. 

C. L. Valentine, Secretary and Treasurer, . . Janesville. 

J.V.Jones, Oshkosh. 

J. F. Antisdel, Milwaukee. 

Mark Douglas, Melrose. 

C. Hutchinson, Beetown. 



Wyoming Territory. 
Dr. M. C. Barkwell, Chairman, 
Otto Gramm, Secretary. 
N. L. Andrews, . 
E. W. Bennett, . 
P. J. Downs, 
T. W. Quinn, . ' . 



. Cheyenne. 

. Laramie. 

Buffalo, Johnson Co. 
Warm Springs, Carbon Co. 

. Evanston, Uinta Co. 
. Lander, Sweetwater Co. 



36 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



[B.] 
ADDKESS 

OF 

HON. THEODORE LYMAN, 

President of the American Fish Cultural Associatiox, 

At the Thirteenth Annual Meeting, held in the National 
Museum, Washington, D. C, May 13th, 1884. 

Old Rondelet wrote a great work at the beginning of the six- 
teenth century on sea-fishes. His breadth of view incUided under 
the term " Fishes" almost eyeiy living thing that he found in salt 
water. It is in relation not to a fish, but to the radiated Medusa- 
head, that he uses these fine words, more familiar, perhaps, to our 
older naturalists than to those of the rising generation: Immensa 
et summe admirdbilis dei poteniia atque solertia in rebus cmlestibus 
Usque quce in acre et terra Jiunt, maxhne vero in marl, in quo tarn 
varice et slupendoe reruni former conspiciuntur ut quoirendi et con- 
templandi nullus usquain futurus sit finis. — "Vast and highly 
admirable are the power and skill of God in things heavenl}^ and 
earthl}^ and in those of the air, but more especiallj* in the sea, 
where are beheld shapes so various and stupendous that the study 
and contemplation of theiji shall never end." 

He spoke thus in a spirit of prophecy. Three centuries have 
passed and we are still contemplating and investigating the things 
of the sea. We have skimmed its surface with muslin nets in 
search of its infusoria, and we have let down dredges and scraped 
its vallej'S three miles deep, and still the shapes various and stu- 
pendous continue to multiply. The more workers there are the 
more work remains to be done. Humble clams, worms and urchins 
take on great importance and become marine Sphinxes, asking 
riddles that no one can answer. Creatures that once were conve- 
niently dismissed as gelatinous, or gristlj^, now advance claims to 
an intricate circulatoiy system, to muscular fibres and to ncrv^ous 
ganglia. Na}', i\\Qy proudl}^ look down on the vertebrates, in the 
matter of reproduction, as they pass gracefully through the varied 
stages of alternate generation and self-division. 



I 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT —No. 25. 37 

Ronclelct lived near a sea whose inhabitants were well calculated 
to excite his wonder and delight. He was professor of medicine at 
Montpellier, not many miles from Aigues-Mortes, the port whence 
St. Louis embarked for his crusade, and whose walls, now sur- 
rounded b}' dry land, were in the middle of the sixteenth century 
still bathed by the waters of the Mediterranean. The shallows of 
the bay teemed with the smaller Crustacea and shells, while the 
open sea bej'ond was then, as now, the home of many fishes, varied 
in form and brilliant in color, — the whiting, the red mullet, and 
the tunn}', celebrated by classic writers. There, too, were f jund 
the darting squids and the great-e^'ed octopus, while from its depths 
came the rosy coral. 

In the ancient medical school of Montpellier still hangs the por- 
trait of Rondelet in his red gown. lie has the grave and placid 
look of a man who was master of his studies, and who stood well 
with science and with the Church. For had he not, as a patron, 
Bishop Pelicier? and was he not the first authorit}^ in zoolog}' and 
medicine, at a time when a good scholar could acquire all that was 
known of these and many things beside? 

Every gain in knowledge has a loss that balances it. As the 
current of human thought grows wider, it becomes also more shal- 
low, and splits into that infinitude of little channels which now are 
called specialties. In each of these channels may be seen a dili- 
gent investigator urging forward his little skiff, and well content to 
be navigating what to him seems the great river of truth. 

Learning has grown so great in our da}' that the genius of one 
man can grasp no more than a part of it ; so that in proportion as 
learning becomes larger, generalization, which is the final end of 
learning, grows more difficult. Worse than this, the mind em- 
ployed on particular investigations gets unsymmetrical. The side 
that is used is strengthened ; the disused side fails, and there 
results a scholar who believes in one set of ideas only. 

After all, then, we must look with a certain envy at the state of 
mind of old Rondelet. Like most men of his age, he had that 
richness of thought and expression which comes of manj'-sided 
culture, and a strong faith in things both material and immaterial. 
When he said '^ Dei potentia," he distinctly meant power of God, 
and not "potentialities" or "molecular environment" or "power 
that works for rightconsness," or any of those modern euphuisms 
which taste in the mouth like weak boiled arrow-root. Neverthe- 
less, if we look closely, we can find the beginnings of that skepti- 
cism which plaj^s so great a part in our day. For both he and his 
Bishop Pelicier were strongly suspected of favoring the Reforma- 
tion. As to his colleague, Rabelais, he was noted for his unortho. 



38 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

dox opinions, and went so far as to describe the future life as a 
" great perhaps." 

But it is high time to leave Rondelet, and turn our attention to 
his sea-fishes. Their importance was great then ; it is greater 
now. We might know hj analogy, did we not know by actual 
research, that fishes have ever been of the first importance for man's 
food. Their natural abundance and the easy capture of shallow 
species put them within the reach of the primitive savage. The 
skeleton of the pre-historic chief, found in the cave of Mentone, 
had as a head ornament a net strung with Trochus shells, showing 
that he had walked the beaches of the neighboring Mediterranean, 
whose waters doubtless furnished his food. 

The shell heaps of Scandinavia and of America contain abundant 
bones of fish. Morton, of Merry Mount (1628), gives us a good 
idea how these shell heaps were formed, when he tells how the 
Indians came each 3'ear to the shore near Quinc}- , in Massachusetts, 
and there camped for a long time, feasting on the plentiful clams 
and lobsters, and alewives and striped bass, whose shells and bones 
combined with the camp offal to build those deposits that we call 
shell heaps. 

In New England, it must have been the fish that furnished the 
surest support to the native savages. Even in the depths of its 
Arctic winter there was a chance to get eels, smelts and clams, and 
at the first approach of mild weather the waters teemed with abun- 
dance. " It (Pawtucket Falls) is excellently accommodated with 
a fishing place," wrote good Mr. Gookin in 1674, " and there is 
taken a variety of fish in their seasons, such as salmon, shad, 
lamprey eels, sturgeon, bass, and divers others. And this place 
being an ancient and capital seat of the Indians, they came to fish ; 
and this good man (Mr. Eliot) takes this opportunity to spread 
the net of the Gospel to fish for their souls." 

That child of Belial, Morton, of Merry Mount, as keen a sports- 
man as any of our Bohemian backwoodsmen, gives enthusiastic 
accounts of the abundance and excellence of the fish which were 
in the sea convenient to his house. He is the first author that 
mentions cod-liver oil, which now plaj^s so beneficent though 
nauseous a part in medicine. 

He writes : " The coast aboundeth with such multitude of codd 
that the inhabitants of New England doe dunge their grounds with 
codd, and it is a commodity better than the golden mines of the 
Spanish Indes. . . . Greate store of train oyle is mayd of the 
livers of the codd, and is a commodity that without question will 
enrich the inhabitants of New England quickly." 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 39 

Almost coincident with the establishment of Plj'month Colon}', 
we find laws concerning the fisheries, proof positive of the esteem 
in which they were held. 

In 1633 was passed what I take to be the first law for the en- 
couragement of fish-culture, in these words : " It is enacted hy the 
Court . . . but if any man desire to improve a place and stocke 
it with fish of any kind for his private use, it shal bee lawfull for 
the Court to make any such graunt and forbid all others to make 
use of it." 

In 1637 the same court enacted, with the contrar3^-mindednes3 
of our Puritan forefathers, that six score and twelve fishes shall 
be accounted to the hundred of all sorts of fishes. 

In 1670 it was set forth with pious teleology that " the provi- 
dence of God hath made Cape Cod commodious for us, for fishing 
with seines" ; implying that it might not be commodious for less 
religious persons. The act goes on to say that "careless persons" 
must not interfere with the said providence, "bj- lAving the gar- 
bage of fish to lie there." 

The country had not been settled a half century before there was 
complaint of the diminution offish. The act just quoted goes on 
to speak of the great inconvenience of taking mackerel at unsea- 
sonable times, whereby their increase is greatly diminished, and a 
law was passed prohibiting the catching of fish before thej^ have 
" spaumed." This shows that our ancestors were not more logical 
than most of their descendants, who still hold, that to take a fish 
when ripe for spawning is in some peculiar way destructive to the 
species. It is almost needless to say that fishes taken at any time 
of the year are killed before they have '• spaumed." The only rea- 
son that it is more destructive to take fish daring the spawning 
season is because they are then tamer and are crowded together, 
so that greater numbers are likely to be captured. 

The river fisheries, too, call aloud for protection. In 1709, it 
was enacted " That no weirs, hedges, fish garths, stakes, kiddles 
or other disturbance or encumbrance shall be set, erected or made 
on or across any river, to the stopping, obstructing or straightening 
of the natural or usual course and passage of fish in their seasons 
. . . without allowance first had, and obtained from the General 
Sessions of the Peace in the same county." This law especiallj^ 
applied to such fishes as run up the rivers to spawn, — salmon, 
shad and alewives. The Indians, in their day, were wont to con- 
struct weirs and the like obstructions to capture these fishes. But 
the Indians were few and were idle and wandering. They took 
onl}^ what was necessary for their present use. Now, however, 
had come the white men, who put up permanent abodes and in- 



40 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

creased in numbers, j^ear by 3'ear. They were monej^-makers, 
who worked every da}^ and all the day. They would catch fish, 
not for themselves onl}^, but to sell to strangers ; and so they have 
gone on ever since. Pawtucket Falls, on the Mcrrhnac, where 
the Apostle Eliot spread his net of the gospel, now furnishes the 
water power for the great manufacturing city of Lowell. And 
Merry JMount, to-day the country seat of John Quinc}^ Adams, is a 
suburb of the metropolis of New England. The inhabitants no 
longer " dunge their grounds with codd," but are fain to buy that 
fish in the market at a round price per pound. 

The river fish whose protection has cost most law-making in the 
old commonwealth of Massachusetts is the humble alewife. In 
contradiction of the proverb, " mute as a fish," this one may truly 
be said to have made a great deal of noise in the world. Like 
some men they are small and humble, but persistent and numer- 
ous. In the springtime the alewives stand in from the sea, and 
push up the sigaller fresh-water streams, seeking ponds wherein to 
deposit their spawn. They come in great armies and insist on 
entering those ponds. Nothing less than a vertical wall six feet 
high will stop them. Amid the clatter of mill wheels, and in the 
very face of the sweeping scoop net, they force themselves through 
rapids, over falls, and by long underground drains, regardless of 
their perishing comrades, who bj' thousands fall a prey to the fish- 
ermen and to hawks and eagles, or who run themselves ashore in 
their frantic efforts to get on. It may be that only a few reach the 
spawning ground, and these are enough to keep up the race ; for 
one female will lay a quarter of a million of spawn. They are, there- 
fore, par excellence domestic and cultivable fish, and have been so 
regarded in Massachusetts for generations. As earl}- as 1741, 
there was passed "An Act made to prevent the destruction of the 
fish called alewives," wherein it was provided that any owner of a 
dam " shall make a sufficient passageway, for the fish to pass up 
such river or stream, hrough or around such dam." 

It is, however, not until 1790, that the alewife fisher}^ of Taun- 
ton Great River first appears on the statute books, whose pages it 
was destined to encumber. If very few of my hearers know any- 
thing of Taunton Great River, the fact proves how miserably our 
system of popular education fails to instruct people concerning the 
most remarkable geographical features of the land. Taunton 
Great River was doubtless named in the spirit of contrary-minded- 
ness already referred to as a characteristic in our Puritan ances- 
tors. The unregenerate would be inclined to call it Taunton Small 
River, for it is a small stream, which heads in some ponds in the 
town of Lakeville, and after a short and quiet course empties into 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 41 

the sea at Fall River. But not the mighty Mississippi itself bears 
on its bosom so great a mass of legislation. The great and gen- 
eral court of Massachusetts invariably spends a portion of each 
session in trying to regulate the fisheries of this stream. The fish- 
ermen of the upper waters always complain that those of the lower 
waters get all the alewives, while those of the lower waters main- 
tain that their rivals feloniously conspire to shut the fish ofi.' from 
their spawning grounds. And when by some special providence, 
both sets of fishermen are at peace with one another, they invaria- 
bly make a combined attack upon the regulations of the State Fish 
Commissioners. The riparian inhabitants of other alewife streams, 
although not so combative, are quite as much interested as those 
of Taunton Great River. Indeed it was in such waters that a sort 
of fish-culture first grew up. In some cases where a dam owner 
wished to save his water power by shutting up his fishwa}^, he 
would agree to catch each 3'ear so many thousand alewives at the 
foot of the dam, and to convey them alive to the mill pond above, 
and thus to keep up the crop. And it has been the custom for 
more than a century to regulate these little streams b}^ special acts 
which govern the public sale of the fish, the daj^s on which they 
ma}^ be netted, and the fish ways that are to be kept open fjr their 
passage The law goes often so far into detail as to provide that 
each widow of the town shall have a barrelful for nothing. I 
have dwelt thus long on this humble fish, because its successful cul- 
ture gives encouragement to attempt that of others more difficult. 

I shall follow briefly the decline of the fisheries in New England, 
because it is there that an organized system of fish-culture first in 
this country took its origin. That region has two rivers of consid- 
erable size — the Connecticut and the Merrimac. Both rise in the 
cold streams of the White Mountains. The Connecticut, flowinoj 
sonth, empties into Long Island Sound, and the Merrimac, by a 
southeasterly course, reaches the Atlantic Ocean. A century ago both 
rivers abounded in shad, salmon and alewives, and would doubtless 
have continued for many 3'ears to give a fair yield in spite of over- 
fishing, had it not been for the erection of impassable dams, which 
were intended to give water-power to the manufacturers, or to fur- 
nish slack-water navigation to lumber rafts. As early as 1798, the 
Connecticut River was thus barred at a point just within the north- 
ern limit of Massachusetts, but it was not until 1847 that the Mer- 
rimac was in a like manner shut off by the great dam at Lawrence. 
In both cases the salmon, stopped on their passage to the spawn- 
ing grounds, became extinct after a few jxars, w^hile the shad and 
alewives, which could be bred in the lower waters, continued an- 
nually to revisit these rivers. 



42 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

What happened on the Mernmac and Connecticut happened 
equally on ahiiost every lesser stream in that region. The people of 
New England, lacking advantages for farming, turned all their 
attention to manufacturhig. "Water-power was then much cheaper 
than steam, so that before long there rose a dam wherever there 
was a full great enough to turn a mill-wheel. Except some simple 
trenches for the passage of alewives, no fishways were then known. 
The complete ignorance of this subject may be illustrated by the 
great dam twenty-seven feet high at Lawrence. The charter of the 
compan}' permitted the building of a dam, i)rovided a pass were 
furnished for salmon, which should be satisfactory to the county 
commissioners. Before the dam was finished, a solemn council of 
the best ichth3'ological and engineering talent was held to deter- 
mine what kind of a pass would be suitable. The council based 
its judgment apparentl}^ on the cheap wood-cut in the primary geog- 
raphies of half a century ago, which represented a salmon briskly 
leaping over falls at least tift}^ feet high. At any rate, the salmon 
pass finall}^ approved by the learned commissioners consisted of a 
simple plank trough, sloping from the crest to the foot of the dam, 
at an angle somewhat steeper than fortj-five degrees. It is need- 
less to sa}^ that the salmon declined to exhibit any of the feats of 
agility portraj^ed in the wood-cut of the primary geography. 

There soon came to be a general feeling, and one under the cir- 
cumstances quite natural, that manufacturers and fish mutually 
excluded each other, and so things were allowed to drift at their 
pleasure. The streams that emptied into salt water no longer 
furnished such abundant swarms of small fry as had in former 
days served to toll the sea fishes toward the land, while the pas- 
sage of boats and steamers and the increase of population and of 
fishing tended to destroy or to scare away the fish of the small bays 
and coves. The balance of nature had thus been changed, and one 
part had reacted against another. 

The steady diminuition would have gone uninterruptedly on but 
for the revival of fish-culture. 

The discovery of artificial impregnation of eggs is such a simple 
one that the only wonder is that it was not practised long ago. 
Country boys who watch the brooks in autumn know hovv trout 
deposit their eggs ; and fishermen after hauling their seine ashore 
are familiar with the spectacle of spawn and milt flowing from the 
ripe fishes. It is more than likely that many persons have in the 
past times practised the artificial fecundation of ova. The process 
was described in 1420 by Dom Pinchon, a monk of the abbey of 
Reome. It was re-discovered by Jacobi, of Westphalia, in 1763, 
and several naturalists availed themselves of this method in their 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 43 

embr3'ological researches. Among others, Louis Agassiz, who, in 
1838, hatched the inipregnated eggs of Swiss white fish by tying 
them in a muslin bag, and sinking it on the margin of the lake of 
Ncufchatel. 

In 1843, two fishermen of the Vosges, Joseph Remy and Antoine 
Gehin, not only hatched a large number of trout, but devised 
means of feeding tliem artificially. They succeeded in stocking 
several water courses in their neighborhood with these trout fry. 
Seven years later their results had become known to the scientific 
men in Paris. Napoleon the Third had already began his elaborate 
measures for the material aggrandizement of France, and he took 
up fish-culture and the acclimatization of new animals among other 
schemes. He disliked the professors of the Garden of Plants, 
because of their Orleanist sentiments, and he set up a rival under 
the name of the Garden of Acclimatization, of which fish-culture 
was in some sort a branch. Its apostle was Professor Cosle. 
With large appropriations from the central government he estab- 
lished at Huninguc, near the Swiss frontier, a large and elaborate 
station for fish-culture. His enthusiasm was great. He estimated 
that the 3'ield of fresh- water fishes in France was not worth more 
than $1,200,000 annually, which he was confident could be raised 
by artificial fecundation to $180,000,000. Like many another 
inventor, Professor Coste was doomed to opposition and dis- 
appointment. M. Rimbaud, Secretary of the Fishery Board of 
Marseilles, ridiculed what he called the unnatural water-culture. 
He said the machinery and labor for hatching and the artificial 
food would cost more than the fish would come to. He was 
not far from right. With plenty of money to work with, it 
was not diflflcult to build hatcheries, dig ponds, set up apparatus, 
and put in turbine wheels for pumping. The working of the 
establishment was more diflficult. The spawn, collected at distant 
points and sometimes in a careless waj', often failed to hatch. 
The fry, carefully placed in suitable pools, disappeared in a way 
considered m^'sterious until it was discovered that several large 
pickerel had found their way into the pools. The eminent en- 
gineers of the ponts et chaussees contended in vain with the waters 
of the Rhine, which sometimes backed up and flooded the pools 
and tanks, and anon receded, leaving the turbine wheels high and 
dry. Years rolled on, and Professor Coste was still struggling to 
make fish plenty in France, when the Prussian armies crossed the 
Rhine and appropriated Huningue to the use of the German 
Empire. 

All these disappointed hopes had not been quite in vain. Many 
valuable experiments had been tried and precious information pub- 



44 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

lished, and, above all, it had been discovered that certain things 
could not be done. IMeanwhile, knowledge of these discoveries 
had crossed the Atlantic, and in 1853, Dr. Theodatus Garlick 
hatched the artificially' impregnated eggs of trout. Three years 
later commissioners appointed b}- Massachusetts published a valu- 
able report on the general subject of fish-culture, and attempted 
unsuccessfully to hatch trout. In the same year an admirable 
report on fisheries was written b}^ the eminent scholar, George P. 
Marsh, who had been appointed a commissioner by the State of 
New Hampshire. 

The true beginning of fish-culture, however, under the auspices 
of State governments, was in Jul}^, 1864, when New Hampshire 
and Vermont passed legislative resolves calling on Massachusetts 
to re-establish a free passage for migratory sea fish through the 
dams on the Connecticut and Merrimac rivers. To the late Judge 
Henr}^ A. Bellows, of New Hampshire, this country owes the suc- 
cessful beginning of the undertaking. He was an advocate learned 
in the law and full of enthusiasm for the restoration of the former 
runs of salmon and shad in the cool waters of the Pemigewasset 
and the broad expanse of Lake Winnepiseogee. He appeared 
before a committee of the Massachusetts legislature, and by their 
recommendation two commissioners were appointed, of whom I 
had the honor to be one. This was in 1865. Within a year every 
New England State was represented by fishery commissioners. 
They were accustomed to assemble from time to time for the 
discussion of their mutual interests. These modest gatherings, 
whereat the assembled authorities failed not to test the excellence 
of their own fish, were the prototj^pes of the national gathering 
which we celebrate this evening. 

The opening of the great dams by fishways led to several im- 
portant results. In the first place the decision in the case of the 
Massachusetts Commissioners against the Holyoke Water Power 
Company, has settled the law in regard to the rights of migratory 
fishes in rivers. This decision, which was confirmed by the United 
States Supreme Court in 1872, sets forth that a river was a public 
way, and the passage of migratory fish in it a public right. There- 
fore, whoever builds a dam across a river must furnish a passage 
to its migratory fish unless expressly exempted by the legislature. 

It thus became easy to open the streams, and hundreds of 
owners of dams, who, by adverse possession had considered them- 
selves safe from intrusion, now found themselves obliged to con- 
struct fishways at their own expense. 

The second important step was also a legal one. It was the 
passage in 1869, by Massachusetts, of an act to encourage the cuL 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 45 

tivation of useful 6shes, which was intended to embod}' in one law 
all necessary regulations. Before that time the fishery laws of 
that State, to the number of nearly four hundred, were for the 
most part special enactments. The new statute substituted gen- 
eral provisions. It established a board of fisher}^ commissioners, 
and gave them suitable power ; gave to the riparian proprietor the 
control of ponds not exceeding twenty acres in extent, and regu- 
lated the times and methods of taking fish. 

In attempting to restock the Merrimac and Connecticut, the 
most difficult problem possible was the one first encountered, that 
of building a fish way which would carry salmon, shad and alewives 
over a vertical dam near thirty feet high. In this country we had 
nothing to go by save the salmon passes of Great Britain, or the 
little water-steps over the low continental dams. Through suc- 
cessive improvements we have now attained a fishway that will 
with certainty carr^^ salmon, alewives and the common river fishes 
over the most difficult dams. But the shad, with his love of the 
broad, gentle stream, and his suspicion of artificial contrivances, 
still remains rebellious. There is, however, a strong belief that 
the ingenious Colonel McDonald will irresistibly inveigle the shad 
into his m^'sterious pass. It is, indeed, a truly Irii;h pass, in which 
more water runs in than runs out ; and the stee| er is the incline, 
the more rapidly the water runs up hill ; so tl at a shad would 
think he was swimming towards Fortress Monroe when he was in 
reality going over the falls of the Potomac. From the outset, the 
Massachusetts Commissioners had foreseen that the building of 
fishwa3's on the Merrimac River was but a half remed3^ It was 
further necessary to breed salmon and place them in the upper 
waters, that the}^ might thence descend to the ocean, and return as 
marketable fish to their native river. To obtain impregnated Qggs 
of salmon was at that time a work of great difficulty and expense. 
In the autumn of 1866, Dr. W. W. Fletcher, of New Hampshire, 
placed 15,000 New Brunswick salmon eggs in the Pemigewasset ; 
but it was not until 1872, that 16,000 3'oung fry were let loose in 
its waters; and in 1873, 185,000., Occasional captures of salmon 
in nets at various points on Massachusetts Bay were soon after 
reported; and on the 31st of May, 1877, two full-grown salmon 
were discovered mounting the Lawrence fishway. Since that yetxr, 
salmon have been artificially bred at the head waters of the Merri- 
mac, and the full-grown fish have annually ascended a river in 
which for twentj'-five years they have become extinct. 

The other chief river of New England, the Connecticut, was the 
scene of the first artificial hatching of the shad. With the encour- 
agement of the Massachusetts commissioners, Seth Green of New 



46 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

York, began, in the summer of 1867, his experiments in shad hatch- 
ing at Holyoke. His simple and ingenious invention of a hatching 
box, which kept up a constant current b}' floating, not horizontally 
but at an angle, has become a matter of familiar histor^^ Great 
was the ridicule directed against Green, as he painfully waded 
about in the river under the hot July sun. But when, a few sea- 
sons later, the shad appeared in unusual numbers at the mouth of 
the river, ridicule was changed to admiration, and the great crop of 
that year was called " Green's shad." 

In the following 3'ear, 1868, shad hatching was established on 
the Merrimac, and dailj'- record was kept of the temperature of 
the air and water, of the number and sex of the fish taken, and the 
quantit}^ of eggs hatched. These tables were the first of the kind 
published in this countrj'. 

The progress of this slight sketch has brought us to the question 
which underlies the subject of fish-culture in its broadest sense ; it 
is the question of the possible exhaustion of great fisheries, and 
especially those of the sea. 

We have seen that soon after the settlement of the country com- 
plaints of the decrease of fish began to arise. It is ver^- likely that 
these complaints came rather from the accidental differences of 
seasons than from any real decrease. Nevertheless, the}- indicate 
that the relation between overfishing and decrease of the crop was 
one that was early suggested to our people. The entire subject 
was brought into prominence in our own day by the report of the 
English commissioners to inquire into the sea fisheries of the 
United Kingdom in 1864. Of these commissioners it has been 
said : '' Their industry was so extraordinarj', and the piles of evi- 
dence were such as to leave the impression that every fish-wife in 
the three kingdoms had had her say. The trawlers were vehe- 
ment against the set-hook men, and the set-hook men were furious 
against the trawlers. The commission decided that they all were 
right, and might fish when, how and where they pleased. But just 
then Mr. Bertram comes out with his ' Harvest of the Soa,' in 
which, by fact and figure, he aims to show just the opposite ; 
narael}", that the open-sea fish had decreased by overfishing." 

The question of the progressive exhaustion of sea fisheries came 
up six 3'ear3 later in America, in the form of a monster petition 
presented to the Massachusetts legislature, which was asked to 
pass a law restricting fishing with weii's, seines and gillnets. The 
petitioners alleged that valuable fishes, such as the scup, the tau- 
tog and the striped bass, were taken by the above-mentioned con- 
trivances in so wholesale a wa}^ as to threaten their speedy extinc- 
tion. The complaints applied chiefly to the southern waters, 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 47 

including those of Narragansett Ba}^, where the inhabitants of 
llhocle Island were equally interested, and both States proceeded 
to investigate the subject. Their methods, however, were no better 
than had been those of the English commissioners, and consisted 
chiefly in the examination of numerous witnesses. It w^as the 
same stor3'over again. The weir men swore against the hook-and- 
line fishermen, and the hook-and-line fishermen swore against the 
weir men. The moment had evidently arrived to abandon the 
methods of the court-room, and to take up those of scientific inves- 
tigation. 

To this end the Massachusetts commissioners, in the spring of 
1881, hired a weir at Waquoit, on the south side of Cape Cod, and 
put it in charge of an observer, who kept a daily record of the 
fishes taken, of the w^ind and weather, and of the temperature of 
air and water. At the end of the season the results were 
embodied in a report entitled, "Third Notice upon the Possible 
Exhaustion of Sea Fisheries." It was shown by this investigation 
that the moment at which fishes leave the ocean to enter riA^ers is 
determined bj^ the temperature of the water. It further appeared 
that these so called anadromous fishes are usually- caught in weirs 
and in similar traps, when hurrying along the coast in their north- 
ward migrations, whereas those that arrive near or at the mouth of 
their native river, slacken their pace and cautiously feel their wa}' , 
like a ship standing into a harbor. These last are more apt to 
avoid the nets ingeniously set for their capture. 

Up to this time the movement in favor of fish-culture had been 
confined to New York and New England, and chiefly to the State 
of Massachusetts. Dams, hitherto impassable, had been opened to 
the passage of anadromous fishes ; fish-ways of an improved form 
had been built ; a decision of the Supreme Court had given to fish 
the right of way in rivers ; acts for the encouragement of the culti- 
vation of useful fishes had been passed ; the artificial hatching of 
shad and salmon had begun, and an investigation into the exhaus- 
tion of sea fisheries had been set on foot. All these measures 
were, however, partial and on a small scale. The moment had 
arrived for the interposition of a power stronger and more general 
in its character. 

That democratic and gregarious fish, the scup, was the founder 
of the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. It is a 
fish coeval with the first white settlements. In 1621, on the 
shores of Buzzard's Bay, the hungry Englishmen were entertained 
by Massasoit with "two fishes like bream, but twice as big and 
better meat" ; and Roger Williams says, in 1G42, " Mishcup, the 
bream. Of this fish there is an abundance, which the natives dry 



48 INLAND FISHERIES, [Dec. 

in the sun and smoke, and some English begin to salt." With 
the first warm daj^s of spring, the scup were wont to push into the 
ba3's and fiords and salt ponds in great multitudes, standing in 
from the off-shore depths which had sheltered them and furnished 
them abundant food during the winter. Then followed a jubilee 
for poor and rich. Anybody who had a hook and line could catch 
a '• mess of fish" before breakfast ; scup, he was sure to get, and 
he was likely to get a fat tautog or a striped bass. But when did a 
Yankee ever allow any peace either to himself or to his neighbor, 
or when did his mind, sleeping or waking, ever cease to dwell 
on the invention of some labor-saving machine ? Hook and line 
was too primitive a method to be permitted in this age of improve- 
ment. About the 3'ear 1846, one Benjamin Tallman, being doubt- 
less moved and abetted by the evil one, conceived the idea of 
driving posts in a straight line running out to sea, and stretching 
thereon netting so as to make a fence, and constructing at the end 
thereof a sort of enclosed ^-ard. The schools of scup, as they 
coasted along the shore, ran against the fence, and turning their 
heads seaward, were captured in the said yard. The inventor, in 
the pride of his heart, named this engine a "trap." He little 
knew that he had only made a small cop\^ of the contrivance that 
was known to the Phoenicians, who used it along the shores of the 
Mediterranean and even on the coast of Spain. There, in later days, 
the Moors called it the almadraba^ whence is derived the modern 
French word madrague. If the Moors created as much popular 
indignation with their almadrahas as Benjamin did with his 
"traps," the fact may account for their expulsion from Spain by the 
Gothic tribes. For twenty ^^ears, war and recrimination prevailed 
between the trappers and the hook-and-line men, until, at length, 
both parties, like the Jewish factions, determined to appeal unto 
Caesar, or as he is now called, Uncle Sam. 

On the 19th of Februar}', 1871, was passed a joint resolution of 
Congress, the preamble of which says : " Whereas^ it is asserted 
that the most valuable food fishes of the coast and the lakes of the 
United States are rapidlj- diminishing in number, to the public 
injury, and so as materially to affect the interests of trade and 
commerce, therefore^ Resolved^ that the President be authorized to 
appoint a Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries." 

It has been truly said that when the critical moment arrives, the 
man appears also ; and this critical moment made no exception to 
the rule. A man — nfX}\ the man — was at once found in the per- 
son of Professor Spencer F. Baird. The Caesar to whom the war- 
ring factions had appealed could not have sent forth a more judi- 
cious praetor. Mercifully he was not one of those self-taught men 



1884. J PUBLIC DOCUMENT ~ No. 25. 49 

(of whom for some occult reason we are so proud) , but a man of 
careful scientific training ; and one as industrious in collecting 
facts as in arranging them. Also, was he a man of a pleasant 
countenance and conversation, and well calculated to assuage the 
irritated feelings of the hook-and-liner, or to soothe the exasperated 
nerves of the trapper. Indeed, he seems to be the only individual 
in historj^ who ever intervened between two combatants without 
receiving the blows of both. 

Henceforth the history of American fish-culture is contained in 
that of the United States Fish Commission. Its work, wide spread 
and pushed with extraordinary energy, attracted the attention of 
the whole countr}'. A greater part of the States appointed fishery 
commissions, which co-operated with and were assisted by that of 
the general government. Its rapidly increasing value and power 
culminated in the great fishery exhibitions of Berlin and London, 
where the United States exhibits gained the chief prizes. 

The history of the movement for the restoration of our fishes may 
seem like a triumphal march ; but in summing up its results, we 
cannot in honesty avoid the cold question cui bono f of what good 
is all this ? 

Up to the year 1880, the fishery commissions of the States and 
of the general government had had appropriated $1,306,378. Has 
the country got a return of a million dollars' worth of additional 
fish? 

In 1880, the total value of the fishery products of the United 
States was $43,000,000, a less sum than that of the manufactures 
in a single Congressional district in the little State of Massachu- 
setts. The two products shcw^ that real value is not always to be 
measured by money. The people of this country could have been 
deprived of the manufactures of that district without recognizing 
their loss, but what an outcry would arise were they cut off, even 
for a month, from cod and white-fish, lobsters and oysters ! 

Did the expenditure of $1,300,000, since 1866, add anything to 
the $43,000,000 which our fisheries produced in 1880, or did it 
pave the way for an increase ? 

To answer these questions we must define what we mean by a 
decrease in fisheries. 

When so many fish are annually taken from the waters that the 
remainder are not numerous enough to produce a new crop equal 
in numbers to the old one, there must be a progressive decrease in 
the 3'ield. It is a very simple matter to demonstrate such a decrease 
in ordinary rivers or in lakes of moderate size, where it is easy to 
show that spearing and netting of the trout on their spawning beds 
has diminished their numbers, or that the establishment of weirs 



50 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

has made whiic-fisb scarce. In the bays and coves of the sea, 
also, where the waters are shallow, it is not difflciilt to show that 
the use of numerous f3'kes and trawl-lines destroy the local fish, 
like tantog, rock-bass and flounders. But, when we come to the 
schooling fishes of the open sea, it is very difficult to tell how much 
effect the hand of man has in lessening them. If, for example, we 
argue that traps and purse seines diminish the crop of menhaden 
by capturing them in enormous numbers, we leave out of mind the 
fact these same traps and purse seines also capture bluefish and 
small sharks, which are thus taken from their daily occupation of 
killing menhaden. Again, when menhaden entirely disappear from 
a long stretch of coast, they are, in reality, no scarcer than before. 
The}" refuse to come to their wonted waters, either because the 
temperature is too low, or because their favorite food is not to be 
found. They are not destroj'cd, only absent. There are familiar 
instances of such disappearances. The scup was plentiful when the 
whites first landed in New England ; they afterwards disappeared, 
and reappeared about the beginning of the present century. The 
bluefish w^as caught on the southern coast of New England from 
1659, for more than a hundred 3'ears. In 1764 they disappeared, 
and, after an absence of sixty-six years, they reappeared about 1830. 

Another element that must be borne in mind in estimating the 
total catch of fish, is the number of men and the kind of engines 
employed. Jf, for example, the population of a coast is scanty, 
and only a dozen men go afishing, each of them is likely to have 
a good catch ; but when the coast becomes thickly settled, a hun- 
dred men will fish, and though each one may take but few, the 
catch of the hundred will be much greater than that of the twelve. 

In the light of the patient investigations of the past dozen years, 
it is safe to assert, first, that our fresh-water fisheries have, in gen- 
eral, greatly diminished since early times, and have, in some cases, 
been destro3^ed. Secondly", that the local coast fisheries have also 
to a greater or less degree diminished. 

What have our fishery commissions done to remed}^ or to palliate 
these evils ? It is fair to say that they have done a good deal, and 
are in a way to do more. 

Their first, and perhaps most valuable service has been to excite 
universal interest in our fisheries, and to draw general attention to 
their importance. The second great step in advance has been- the 
accumulation of a vast amount of accurate information concerning 
the numbers and variety of our fishes, their food, manner of breed- 
ing, condition of life, migrations and stages of growth. The third 
degree of progress has been fish-culture, which may be called nega- 
tive and positive : negative, when obstructions to the increase of 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 51 

fish, such as improper apparatus and impassable dams arc removed ; 
positive, when fishes are artificial!}' bred, or when new species are 
introduced from distant countries. 

It may be fairl}' said that both forms of culture have already 
given considerable results. Of the success of negative culture, a 
familiar example is that of the smelt, which, a few j'ears ago, had 
grown scant}^ in numbers and small in size on the Massachusetts 
coast, because the breeding fish were captured in. the brooks when 
crowded together on their spawning beds. The prohibition of this 
kind of fishing was followed within three years by the restoration 
of the smelts to their former numbers and size. 

The best instance of positive culture is that of the California 
salmon in the Sacramento River, where Livingston Stone, b}^ annu- 
ally turning into the river 2,000,000 j'oung fry, artificiall}' hatched, 
increased the 3'early catch from 5,000,000 pounds to 9,500,000 
pounds. 

Wide experience in the hatching of shad and white-fish proves 
pretty clearly that a marked increase may be obtained, if the work 
be done on a scale large enough, and that an amount of work 
insufficient to produce a positive increase will, nevertheless, check 
the decrease of these species. 

In a word, artificial breeding, by greatly augmenting the propor- 
tion of eggs impregnated and by protecting them until hatched, 
presents a great advantage over the natural process, and gives us 
an available method of preserving many important fisheries. But 
to produce results of commercial value, this water-culture must be 
practised as universally and methodically as is agriculture. 

It is not the custom of Americans to stop half-wa}' in a profitable 
enterprise. Therefore I do not doubt that in the next generation 
some of our chief fisheries will be maintained by an established sys- 
tem of artificial culture. 

Perhaps, in that day, the honorable guild of fishmongers will 
erect a monument of their gratitude, and will inscribe on its tablets 
the names of scientific men who have, in our time, labored to create 
a new industry. 



52 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec, 



[C] 

FISHWAYS ON THE RIVER SIRE. 



By A. Landmark, Government Inspector of Fisheries, Norway. 



The salmon fishways at Sire have attracted considerable at- 
tention in the last few 3^ears, being the greatest undertaking of 
this description ever completed in the world. We accompany this 
article with an illustration of the larger and more complicated ot 
the two fishways of which we are to speak — the one at the so- 
called Rukanfos, or upper Logsfos. 

It is commonly believed that the main object of salmon fishways 
is to enable the greatest possible number of persons to share the 
profits of the salmon fisheries, by affording the owners, whose 
property is situated above the obstacles to be overcome by the fish- 
way, an opportunit}^ to participate in the salmon fishery. This 
belief, however, is far from being correct. If in building fishwaj^s 
this was the only object, it would not onlj' be an unnecessary 
waste of time and money, but simply an injustice to the present 
owners of the salmon fisheries, as their legally attained rights, 
self-evidently, would suffer, when being compelled to share them 
with others. The true object in building salmon fishways is, much 
more, to increase the salmon by improving the conditions on which 
the reproduction of the fish is dependent. The salmon can only 
increase in rivers, where it can spawn late in the fall or early in 
the winter, in places where the river bottom is made up of fine 
gravel and where there is an even, somewhat swift, but not violent 
current. In many salmon rivers, places of this description are 
rare, especially near the mouth of the river, where the bottom 
usually consists of clay, mud, or fine sand, and the water is im- 
pure. When the salmon is confined to short stretches of river of 
this nature, it is forced to spawn in places, which, if not altogether 
injurious to the development of the fry, are, at all events, in great 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 53 

measure unfavorable, and the inevitable result is that dispropor- 
tionately great quantities of spawn are destroj^ed. And as every 
river is usually only frequented b}^ the salmon hatched in it, the con- 
sequence is, that even great rivers will contain but a small number 
of salmon as long as desirable spawning grounds are so limited, 
or of unfavorable conditions. The spawn that is destro3'ed by 
such unfavorable circumstances, can easily be saved by fishways, 
as the}' enable the salmon to reach better and more extensive 
spawning grounds above the fall or dam that obstructed their fur- 
ther passage. Of course, it does not always hold good that a 
river contains better spawning places above the fall or dam than 
below ; but as a rule, especially in the larger rivers, the conditions 
for hatching the spawn are better at some distance from the sea, 
both as to the quality of the river bottom and the purity of the 
water. It is self-evident that all these circumstances must be con- 
sidered before building the fishway, and that any work of this kind 
is useless, unless some improvement of the natural conditions can 
be made. Good fishways, then, constructed in the proper places, 
will greatly improve the productiveness of a salmon river by aug- 
menting the number of favorable spawning places. 

The great results attained in this manner can be seen in other 
countries. In the Ballisodarc river, on the northwestern coast of 
Ireland, where formerly no salmon was found, on account of an 
insurmountable waterfall at the very mouth of the river, they 
have succeeded, by using three fishwa3^s, in establishing a sal- 
mon fishery, valued at 50,000 kroner a 3"ear, considerably more 
than the value of salmon fishing in any Norwegian river. By far 
greater profits have been realized in other rivers of Great Britain 
and Ireland by building fishways and demolishing mill dams. But 
such splendid results can scarcely be looked for, except in coun- 
tries where both the natural conditions of the land and the law in 
every instance furthers and protects the development of salmon 
fisheries. 

Owing to the nature of our country, the falls in our rivers are 
so numerous, that places which can be reached by the salmon are 
very limited in extent. Although the area of England and Ire- 
land is only about two-thirds of that of Norway, and the rivers of 
those countries are much more obstructed by dams, the total 
length of rivers in England and Ireland, favorable to the salmon, 
is about three and a half times as great as that of Norway^where 
the total length of salmon rivers is estimated by the Inspector of 
Fisheries to be 4,000 kilometers (2,485 miles). Hence there is a 
great field for fishways in our country, although many waterfalls 
are of such a nature that it is impossible to pass them. As yet 



54 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

but little work of this kind has been done, and it is feared never 
will be done, as long as the state does not appropriate the sufficient 
funds. 

Of all our fishways these of the Sire are the most extensive. 
Sire, situated between Lister, MandaU and Stavanger, is 146 
kilometers (90 miles) in length. By nature it is accessible to the 
salmon only a few hundred meters above the brackish water, 
where we have the Logsfos, 8.5 meters (28 ft.) in height; 1,200 
meters above there is another fall, Rakanfos, total height 27.2 
meters (89 ft.). Both these falls can now be passed by fishways, 
whereb}' 70 or 80 kilometers more are made accessible to the 
salmon, and where several good spawning places are found, 
whereas formerly the naturally accessible were few and unfavor- 
able. As a consequence the number of salmon in the river has 
always been small compared with its size. The flshwa3's were 
designed jointly by the Inspector of Fisheries Landmark, and 
civil engineer G. Saetren, and executed during the summer and fall 
of 1880. The total cost has been 25,000 to 26,000 kroner. The 
fishway at Logsfos is of a very simple construction, consisting 
mainly of a 320 meter (1,050 ft.) long chanuel of considerable 
dimensions, dug on the eastern shore of the river. At the lower 
end, where the channel is conducted through a narrow ravine, 
traverses have been built to moderate the swiftness of the current. 
At both ends the chaunel is fitted out with special contrivances to 
secure its eflfectiveness and durabilit}'. In order to obtain a suflS- 
cient water supply at low water, without too extensive excava- 
tions, a dam has been thrown across the river just above the fall, 
whereby the water level is raised. As this dam is not quite 
completed, there is not water enough in the channel in very dry 
seasons. Much grander and more complicated is the fishway at 
the Rukanfos, represented in our engraving ; it surpasses every 
work of its kind, both on account of the fall and the obstacles to 
be overcome. The total height of the fall is, as stated, no less 
than 27.2 meters (89 ft.), and the steep, wild cliffs that surround 
it on all sides, leave but little space for building a fishway. 
Further, the floods which occasionally occur are exceedingly vio- 
lent, often causing the water to rise 6.6 meters (21.6 ft.) both at 
the foot and head of the fall. Extraordinary measures have been 
necessar}^ in order to procure the necessary room to protect the 
works against the flood and make them useful at low water. The 
engrafing gives a general view of the work, at the same time 
conveying an idea of the huge, very nearly perpendicular, moun- 
tain side that towers above the fall at its left. It will be seen how 
the lower part of the fishway is guarded by two immense stone 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 55 

walls and, partk resting on one of Ihem, winds up through the 
narrow ravine, until reaching a point from which it is continued in 
a more horizontal direction. The fishway, which is built of wood, 
except at the very top, where it is blasted into the stone, has a 
grade of 1 in 7 and 1 in 8, and is principally arranged according 
to an American system (E. A. Brackett's), with a few minor 
alterations. The other two engravings show its complicated 
arrangement, with the numberless current breakers which check the 
motion of the water in a very high degree, and at the same time 
making the ascent about three times as long for the salmon. The 
total length of this fishway is 285 meters (935 ft.), while the 
passage to be made by the salmon is 785 meters (about one-half 
mile); it is 2.82 meters in width, with a depth of 1.18 meters; 
depth of water about one meter. The punctuated cross-lines in 
the outline show the current breakers, fixed in the bottom of the 
channel to check the swiftness of the current. The greatest 
peculiarity about the fishwaj" is the construction of the lowest part 
nearest to the mouth of the channel. To make the fishway more 
attractive to the salmon, a side channel, which lies nearly hori- 
zontal! 3' on top of the lower part of the wa}', has been constructed 
to increase the water ; to keep the water from overflowing during 
a flood the walls are made considerably higher at the mouth, where 
they are no less than 4.2 meters high. The upper course has also 
some peculiarities of its own, consistingof a number of cross-dams, 
whose level is 0.4 meters lower than those opposite, and in each 
there is an opening at the bottom 0.89 meters square. The 
principal dam at the top is fitted out with a trap-door which can 
be opened and closed at pleasure. It has been seen that the 
salmon can now pass the fishwa^^ without any diflficulty, notwith- 
standing that some improvements, to make the fishway more 
useful at very low water, still remain uncompleted. As the num- 
ber of salmon in this river, owing to the lack of spawning places 
which are accessible to the salmon, was small when the fishways 
were constructed, some 3'ears must pass before the results of the 
labor can be seen. Only few salmon have so far passed up the 
fishway. When the remaining improvements have been com- 
pleted, the undei taking will undoubtedly pay la.Yge\y. At the 
upper part of the fishway a house for the artificial hatching of 
salmon has been constructed. 



56 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



P] 
THE BLACK BASS. 



From "American Field." 



There is, perhaps, remarks the Philadelphia " Ledger," no other 
food fish indigenous to American waters so widel}^ distributed as 
the black bass. Originally its habitat comprised the whole of the 
United States east of the Rockj^ Mountains and from Canada to 
New Mexico, with the exception of the New England States and 
the Atlantic seaboard of the Middle States. Now it is to be 
found in nearly all the fresh waters of the continent, having been 
introduced into those in which it did not originally abound bj^ pri- 
vate individual enterprise, and b}^ the combined agencies of the 
National Fishing Commission and of the Fishery Commissioners 
of the various States. 

Being a remarkably hardy fish, easy of transportation, trans- 
planting has been generall}- successful ; and, being in addition very 
prolific, it has multiplied immensely wherever the fishery laws have 
been respected, and in a great many instances where the legal 
statutes for its protection at certain seasons have been set at 
defiance. 

Pennsj'lvania has been conspicuous for the number and extent of 
these violations, notwithstanding the stringency of the laws and 
the strenuous efforts of the State Fishery Commissioners to have 
them respected. Had the close seasons been observed as they 
should since bass were first introduced in our State, its waters 
would to day teem with these fine fish, and though no definite esti- 
mate as to the money value of such increase can be made, it is 
hazarding nothing to assert that it would be immensely large ; for 
the black bass is aggressive, self-reliant, and abundantly able to 
care not for itself only but for its progeny also, and with every 
disposition to do so. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENTING. 25. 57 

How rapidly they multiply can be learned from the facts con- 
nected with their introduction into the Potomac River. About the 
year 1854 thirty black bass taken from the Ohio River were placed 
in the canal basin at Cumberland, Md. Some of them, possibly 
all, escaped into the Potomac, and so remarkable has been their 
increase, that to-day, and for a number of years, the principal 
markets north have been supplied with bass from its waters. Not- 
withstanding these heavy drains upon its resources in that line, the 
bass do not appear to have diminished in numbers ; on the con- 
trary-, the successivel}' larger annual catches prove that they are 
growing more and more abundant, affording a comfortable liveli- 
hood to a great many professional fishermen, and rare sport to 
thousands of anglers. 

The first successful attempt to introduce the black bass into 
Eastern waters was made in New England in 1850. This was fol- 
lowed by others, with equally encouraging results, until there is 
scarcely a lake, pond, river or creek east of the Alleghenies, that 
has not been stocked with them, and in which they are not con- 
stantly multiplying. 

Pennsylvania was among the last of the Atlantic States to give 
the subject attention. It was not until 1869 that a private citizen 
placed some black bass in the Susquehanna at Harrisburg. These 
increased rapidly. At many points on that river they are now 
caught in fair numbers and frequently of large size. 

In 1873 the State Fishery Commissioners, deeply impressed with 
the merits of the black bass as a food fish, and the special adapta- 
tion of the streams of the State to it, supplied thirty-five different 
points in the tributaries of the Potomac, Susquehanna and Dela- 
ware rivers. In nearly every instance — presumably in all — these 
plantings proved successful^ as the bass delights most and thrives 
best, and perhaps only, in clear, pure water, avoiding that which is 
stagnant or sluggish. Whenever, therefore, even moderately fair 
opportunities have been afforded them, they have well repaid the 
trouble and cost of their transplanting. Were it possible to secure 
for them entire immunit}^ from interference by net fishermen, 
anglers, dynamiters and others bent upon their destruction, for five 
years only, the increment would be so great as to largely aug- 
ment the present animal food supply. The people of the State, at 
least the many who have been most eager and most successful in 
taking them, in season and out of season, do not appear to have a 
proper appreciation of this fact ; hence every device that could 
possibly be employed for their taking has been brought into requi- 
sition ; and for this reason the increase in the waters of the State 



58 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

— the natural advantages considered — has not been as great 
as in States where greater respect has been paid to the fishery 
laws. 

The new Board of Fisher}^ Commissioners has, it is understood, 
resolved to make special and much more vigorous efforts to secure 
a better enforcement of existing laws, and if possible to secure 
such additional legislation as ma}' be needed to carry its intentions 
into full practical effect. 

The habits of the black bass farnish ver}' interesting subjects for 
stud3\ These fish spawn from Februarj^ until after midsummer, 
the time depending upon locality, the temperature of the water, 
etc. Leaving the deep water earh' in the spring, the}^ resort to the 
shallower, where they pair off for breeding, generally selecting for 
their spawning beds gravelly or rocky bottom, and water from 
eighteen inches to three feet in depth, though at times water of 
greater depth is chosen. The eggs are usually deposited on the 
bottom in rows, and being fecundated by the male, stick to what- 
ever substance may be found there. They are hatched in about a 
fortnight, sometimes less, the time depending upon the depth of the 
water and the temperature. The parent fishes maintain a vigilant 
watch over the spawn, driving off intruders. Thej^ keep the water 
in the vicinit}^ of the eggs in constant motion, by a continuous' 
gentle motion of their fins, in order to prevent impurities from 
settling upon them. After the eggs are hatched the vigilance of 
the parent fishes appears to be redoubled. The young emerge 
from the egg almost perfectly formed, and remain on the bed from 
three to six days^ when they seek deeper water, or places where 
they can readily take refuge from the pursuit of enemies. The 
parental guardianship is maintained until the 3'oung fty are able 
to take care of themselves. They grow rapidly, attaining, when 
food is plentiful and of the right kind, the weight of a pound 
during the first year, the annual increase thereafter being about in 
the same proportion until the maximum, which is from five to six 
pounds, is reached, though heavier ones of the small- mouthed 
variet}' are claimed to have been caught. Large-mouthed bass of 
Funda have been taken weighing sixteen pounds. 

There are few fresh-water fishes more palatable than the black 
bass. Its flesh possesses the desirable qualities of firmness, flaki- 
ness and whiteness, combined with solidity, proper juiciness and 
rich flavor. As a pan fish, it is fully equal to the well-known sea 
bass, and the larger ones are by many as greatly esteemed for 
boiling or baking as sheepshead. Taken as a whole, when properly 
served, it has few superiors, and if the salmon and brook trout are 
excepted, probably none. It is cosmopolitan, thriving equally well 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 59 

North iinrl South, demanding only pare water, plenty of it, and to 
be let alone during its spawning seasons. 

Viewing the black bass from a sporting standpoint, it has ever}'- 
thing to commend it to the favorable consideration of those who 
delight in what may be termed game angling, though there are a 
great many who hold in thorough contempt the idea that there can 
possibly be any true sport in angling for any other fish than the 
salmon or the speckled trout. It would hardly be fair, because of 
the great disparity in size, to compare the former with the black 
bass ; but when the taking of trout is contrasted with bass fishing, 
only those who have not had experience with both will insist upon 
according a preference to the former. The respective merits of 
the two as game fish have been widely discussed of late years, with 
a decided leaning toward the bass, as their game qualities become 
ra(.re Ihoronghly understood. The trout is as full of pluck and 
decidedly more beautiful than the bass, and is withal a brave and 
honorable fish. It fights to the last gasp, and yields onl}^ when 
unable longer to resist. But trout of a respectable size are becom- 
ing rare and difficult to find. The relentless pursuit of them has 
nearly- depleted the waters in which the}^ once abounded, so that 
onl}- those who can afford to take long and expensive trips are 
afforded opportunities for honest comparison. But, conceding to 
the trout all that is claimed for it, there is no disputing the fact 
that the black bass, though less comely in appearance, is fairly its 
equal in i)oint of gaminess. It has been called " the hog of the 
waters," though it is not easj" to appreciate the title, unless because 
of thi3 voracious disposition of the bass. More powerful in the 
water than the trout, more democratic in its tastes, fully as stub- 
born in its resistance when impaled on the hook, and more dashing 
and vigorous in its struggles for freedom, the angler finds in it a 
combatant of bull-dog proclivities, and one whose rapid reproduc- 
tion and constantly increasing plentifulness fully entitles it to the 
hearty welcome it is receiving on every side ; not the least of its 
merits being the soliditj', sweetness, juiciness and tenderness of its 
flesh when properl}^ cooked. 

The black bass is a voracious feeder. It is charged with being 
the Islimacl of the fresh waters, one of the most heinous of its 
alleged otfeiices being that it wages unceasing war upon smaller 
fish (jf idmost every variety. 

The black bass, although not an indiscriminate feeder, is not at 
all capricious in its tastes. Impetuous and fierce in its assaults 
ujion whatever has the appearance of provender, it is readilj^ taken 
with ar ilicial flies, the varieties of which are almost endless. 
Arliiicial lures of the most novel forms are also used. Prominent 



GO INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

among these Protean devices, and perhaps the best, is what is 
known as the spoon-bowl, with its single hook. Those who desire 
to know how large is the number and variety of these traps for 
black bass must visit the establishments where such tackle is sold 
and see for themselves. 

Perhaps the most attractive natural bait for black bass is the 
live minnow. While experts at bass fishing insist upon the 
superiority of certain kinds of small fish for bait — the preference 
being given to those of the most silvery appearance — the tastes 
of the black bass are so nearly omnivorous in regard to minnows 
that it will readil}' take almost anj^ that may be offered. Catfish 
from four to five inches in length, although not silvery in appear- 
ance, have been found a taking bait in almost any water. Just 
here it is proper to remark that the angler will find profit in the use 
of large minnows, as a bass of seven or eight inches will readily 
take in a minnow of four or five. 

The helgramite, a repulsive looking creature, the larva of an 
insect of the neuropterous order, is a capital bait, as is the craw or 
era}" fish. Both are found in nearly all our fresh waters. Young 
frogs are at times almost irresistible, as are grasshoppers and 
crickets. Young catfish, and, when they can be procured, "mud- 
dabblers," a small fish plentiful in the vicinity of Baltimore, are in 
great request among the Susquehanna bass anglers. 

At seasons when natural live bait is not easily procurable the 
common earth-worm is used, and generally with success. Live 
shrimps are also a taking lure. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 61 



[E.] 

THE AMERICAN SALMON AND TROUT, 

Including Introduced Species. 
By S. Gaeman. 

*' A short paper that shall enable us to identify the different 
species of salmon and trout that belong here, or that have been intro- 
duced" is one not easily supplied. Among fishes there is probably 
no group of its size that presents more difficulty in determination 
than theirs, the genus Salmo. Short descriptions that shall dis- 
tinguish are almost impossible in many cases, without the aid of 
illustrations. A number of the species noted here have been 
supplied with outline figures, indicating certain shapes and mark- 
ings on which stress has been laid in the text. It remains to 
suppl}' a few definitions and explanations to make the work still 
more available for those not accustomed to the technical terms of 
the ichthyologist. 

The foremost fin on the back is known as the Dorsal (D.) , and 
the little fatty fin behind it as the Adipose; the tail fin is the 
Caudal; that behind the vent is the Annd (A.) ; the pair before 
the vent are the Ventrals (V.), and those close to the gills are 
called the . Pectorals (P.) Between the ventral fins and the body 
there are little pointed scale-like appendages called Ventral bracts^ 
one to each fin. The hinder part of the cheek forms the gill cover 
or Opercle. The BrancJiicd rays are series of ten or more blade-like 
bony pieces on each side of the throat below the Opercles. A 
narrow elongate strip of bone on the upper jaw reaching past the 
corner of the mouth under the eye is the Maxillary. The Vomer- 
ine Teeth are in the middle of the roof of the mouth ; in some 
species they form a small group just behind the front series between 
the forward ends of the Palatines, which lie toward the sides of the 
roof next the Maxillaries ; in others they are continued backward 
for a shorter or longer distance in one or two rows. The LcAteral 
line is a line of Pores and enlarged scales along the middle of the 
flank from head to tail. 

The Head is measured from the snout to the end of the gill cover, 
on the side. 



62 INLAND FISHEKIES. [Dec. 

In counting the scales a longitudinal line is taken from the upper 
angle of the gill opening, the beginning of the line of pores, 
directh' back to the caudal fin, keeping a short distance above the 
larger scales of the lateral line. Transverse series are counted 
from the dorsal to the lateral line, from the latter to the ventral, 
and again from the adipose fin to the same line. All of the Fin 
rai/s^ bon}' supports of the fins, short and long, are counted. 

B.,11 ; D., 14; A., 13 ; Y., 9 ; P., 14, reads thus : Branchial rays, 
11 ; rays in the dorsal fin, 14 ; in the anal, 13 ; in the ventral, 9 ; 
and in the pectoral, 14. 

Scales, 40, 238, 43," reads : Scales from dorsal to lateral line, 40 ; 
from head to tail, 238 ; and from lateral line to ventral, 43. 

The Pyloric cceca are a lot of tubes, closed at the outer end and 
attached by the other, at the lower end of the stomach on the intes- 
tine. So much for the terms used. 

The descriptions and outlines have been taken from specimens 
of particular sizes. When larger or smaller examples are com- 
pared with them it will be necessary to make certain allowances on 
account of variation. If the fish is younger it will be more slen- 
der, its head and snout shorter, its eye comparatively larger, its 
■maxillary shorter, and its tail more deeply notched ; if older, its 
bod}^ will be deeper, its head and snout longer, its eye compara- 
tively smaller, its maxillary longer, and its caudal notch less deep. 
Besides these, the longer snout — hooked and distorted in some — 
the longer maxillary and higher coloration of adult and old males, 
as compared with females, is to be kept in mind. Owing to lack 
of specimens of the young of a number of the species for com- 
parison, the coloration of the "parr'* or banded stage has not 
been dwelt upon. 

When all these variations are considered it will be seen that to 
make a complete clescription of a single species would take nearly as 
much space as has been allotted to this paper. In view of the 
prospect of confusion in future, from interbreeding and introduc- 
tions, such descriptions would be especially desirable ; but, at 
present, from lack of material — series of specimens of each sex, 
from ver}^ young to very old, and of the different varieties of each 
species — they are impossible. 

The genus Salmo includes all of the salmon and trout. It is 
characterized by the shape of the body, elongate fusiform ; the 
scales, small to medium, absent on the head ; the mouth, medium to 
wide ; the maxillary, extending under or behind the eye ; the small 
conical teeth, on the jaw-bones, the vomer, the palatines, and the 
tongue ; the anal fin, of eleven to nineteen rays ; the numerous 



1884.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



63 



pyloric caeca; and the transverse bands, ''parr marks," in the 
young. 

Different authors have subdivided the genus into Oncorhynchus 
(the Pacific salmons), having more than fourteen ra3's in the anal 
fin, and teeth on both head and body of the vomer ; Salmo (the 
salmons), having less than fifteen" anal rays, and teeth on botli 
head and body of the vomer ; and SalveUnus (the charrs or trout), 
having less than fifteen anal rays, and teeth on the head of the 
vomer but none on its bodj'. 

The list below gives the species included in this paper. Larger 
collections and further study will be likely to reduce the number 
among those from the Arctic regions, and possibly those of the 
Pacific, by putting two or more together as one. 



Oncorhi/ncJms. 
S. gorbuscha. 
S. keta. 

S. tshawytscha. 
S. hisutch. 
S. nerka. 



SALMO. 

Salmo. 
S. salar. 
S. iricleus. 
S. gaircliieri. 
S. clarkii. 

S. virginalis. 

S. lewisi. 

S. heushawi. 
S. levenensis. 
S. fario. 
S. salvelinus. 



Salvelinus. 
S. namaycush. 
S. siscowet. 
S. oquassa. 
S. naresii. 
S. arcturus. 
S. malma. 
S. fontinalis. 

S. agassizii. 
S. hoocli. 
S. rossi. 
S. nitidus. 
, S. alipes. 
S. stagnalis. 

Salmo gorbuscha. Humpback Salmon, 

Salmo gorbuscha Wsdh., 1792, Art. Gen. Pise, 69 : Salmo proteus Pallas, 
1831, ZoogT. Ross. Asiat., Ill, 376; Suckley, Monogr. Salmo, 97; Jord., 
1878, Pr. U. S. Mus., I, 71 : Salmo gibber Bl. Schneid., 1*801, 409. 

Salmo scouleri Rich., 1836, F. Bor. Amer., Ill, 158: Oncorhynchus 
proteus and 0. scouleri Guntlier, 1866, Cat., VI, 157, 158: Oncorhynchus 
gorbuscha Jord., 1883, BuU. 16, U. S. Mus., 305. 

B., 12 to 13 ; D., 14 to 15 ; A., 17 ; pyloric cseca, 180, more or 
less; scales small, 33, 210 to 240, 40; lateral line, 170; adipose 
fin to lateral line, 18. 

Slender to moderately stont. Breeding males with a fat hump 
between the head and the dorsal, the jaws much produced and 
hooked, and with large teeth in front. Vomerine teeth in a 
double series. Maxillary slender, straight, extending behind the 
orbit ; longer in the male. Ventral bract half or more of the length 
of the fin. Readily distinguished from other salmon of its region 
by the very small scales. 



64 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

Silver}^ ; back bluish, spotted posteriori}^ and on the tail with 
small spots of black. Males in season reddish, with brown 
markings. 

This species attnins a weight of five or six pounds. It occurs 
in the Northern Pacific, from California to Northeastern Asia. 
From descriptions. 

Salmo keta. 
Sahno keta Walb., 1792, Art. Gen. Pise, 72; Bl. Schneid., 1801, p. 407: 
Salmo lagocephalus Pallas, 1831, Zoogr. Eoss. Asiat., Ill, 272: Oncor- 
hynchus lagocephalus Gunther, 1866, Cat., VI, 161; Jord., 1883, Bull. 16, 
U. S. Mus., 305. 

B., 13 to 14 ; D., 12 ; A., 16 to 17 ; pyloric caeca, 140 to 185 ; 
scales about 28, 150, 30. 

A stout-bodied salmon, reaching a weight of twelve pounds ; 
resembling the Quinnat in shape. Head perhaps a little longer 
than that of the latter, and broader about the snout. Maxillary 
extending considerably^ behind the eye. Ventral bract not half the 
length of the fin. 

Brownish above, sides lighter. Sprinkled with small puncticula- 
tions, often absent. Tail brownish, plain, or sprinkled like the 
back, edge blackish. Varjing from light to ver}^ dark. Males in 
season with red color and markings on the flanks, becoming much 
distorted about the jaws, and deteriorating in quality of flesh. 
California to Kamtschatka. Not one of the best for introduction. 

Salmo tshawttscha. Quinnat Salmon. Fig. 1. 

Salmo tshawytscha "Walbaum, 1792; Artedi Gen. Pise, 71 : Salmo orient- 
alis Pallas, 1831, Zoogr. Eoss. Asiat., Ill, 367; Cuv. Val., 1848; Poiss., 
XXI, 356: Salmo quinnat Rich., 1836, F. Bor. Amer., HI, 219; Storer, 
1846, Sjmops., 196; Suckley, Wash. Terr. Nat. Hist., 321; U. S. Fish 
Com. Rep., pt. 2, 1874, 105; Girard, 1858, Pacif. R. R. Rep., Fish, 306, pi. 
67: Oncorhynchus orientalis and 0. quinnat Gunther, 1866, Cat., VI, pp. 
158-9: 0. choweecha Goode, Game Fishes, pt. 10, p. 41, pi. : 0. chouicha 
Jord., 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 306; Bean, 1883, Bull. 27, U. S. Mus., 
F, pp. 32, 38; 1884, Rep. Fish. Com., 1043. 

B., 16 to 18 ; D., 14 to 15 ; A., 18 ; V., 10 ; P., 15 ; pores, 133 
to 135; pyloric cteca, 140 to 180; scales, 28 to 30, 138 to 145, 
30 ; adipose fin to lateral line, 15 to 17. 

A specimen of twenty-four inches in length is stout, thick and 
moderateh^ compressed. The head is moderate and subconical, 
slightly flattened on the sides ; its length is less than the depth of 
the bod}^ and is scarcely contained four times in the length of body 
and head. E3'e rather small, nearly three times in the length of 
the snout or nine times in that of the head. From a vertical on 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 65 

the front edge of the eye the maxillary curves downward and 
broadens ; it extends farther back than the eye. Vomerine teeth 
weak, in two series, scattering, or absent. Three or four of the 
dorsal rays behind the middle of the entire length. Ventral bract 
nearly equal the length of the fin. Caudal fin lunate, excavation 
about half the fin's length. 

Color silvery, back dark to very dark. Back, flanks and. fins 
generally with scattered small spots of dark. 

A specimen of four and a half inches is much more slender. 
The head is less than one-fourth of the entire length. Snout less 
than the eye, blunt. Maxillary not reaching behind the eye. 
Ej^e four times in the length of the head. Middle of the entire 
length behind the dorsal. Caudal deeply notched, lobes some- 
what convex. 

Back brownish, puncticulate with brown ; flanks silver3\ The 
dorsal tipped with dark. Belly white. Parr-marks about twelve. 

The most valuable of the salmons. Said to attain a weight of 
more than fifty pounds. Introduced in various streams of the 
Eastern States. Originally occurring in the Pacific, from Califor- 
nia to China. Ascending the Columbia and other rivers in enor- 
mous numbers. 

Salmo hisutch. WJiite Salmon. 

Salmo hisutch Walb., 1792, Art. Gen. Pise, 70; S. kysutch Bl. Schneid., 
1801, 407: Salmo sanguinolentus Pallas, 1831, Zoogr. Ross. Asiat., Ill, 
379: Oncorhynchus sanguinolentus Gunther, 1866, Cat., VI, 160; Oncor- 
hynchus hjcaodon Gunther, 1866, Cat., YI, 155, part: Salmo scouleri Suck- 
ley, 1862, Monogr. Salmo, 94: Salmo tsuppitch Rich., 1836, F. Bor. Amer., 
111,224; Gunther, 1866, Cat., VI, 118: Oncorhynchus tsuppitch 3 OYd., 1880; 
Forest and Stream, 130; 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 307: S. kisutch 
Jord., 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 307. 

B., 13 to 14; D., 13; A., 16 to 17; pyloric caeca, 45 to 80; 
scales, 25, 127, 29. 

Body moderatel}'- stout and compressed. Head short, conical ; 
snout blunt- pointed, longer and wider than lower jaw. Arch be- 
tween eyes high. Eye quite small. Maxillary long, narrow, 
reaching behind the eye. Teeth few and small. Vomerine teeth 
few, those on the tongue feeble. Fins small ; pectorals and ven- 
trals short. Ventral bract more than half the length of the fin. 
Caudal pedicel slender ; fin strongly forked. 

Sides silvery, with puncticulations of dark. Back bluish green. 
A few small spots on the upper surface, dorsal, and upper part of 
the caudal. Males reddish in the fall. Reaches a weight of eight 



66 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

pounds. Abundant from San Francisco northward. Russian 
name, Baylooee rooibah, white fish. From description. 

Salmo nerka. Eed Salmon, 

Sahno iierJca Walbaum, 1792, Artedi Gen. Pise, 71; Bl. Scbn., 1801, 
417; Jord., 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 308. 

Oncorhynchns nerka Jord., 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 308 (which see 
for synonymy). 

B.,13to 14; D., 15; A., 17 ; V., 10; P., 15; pores, 137; pyloric 
caeca, 75 to 95 ; scales, 20, 135 to 143, 20 ; adipose fin to lateral 
line, 14. 

Bod}' moderately stout. Head subconical, little more than four 
times in length of body and head. E^^e twice in the snout and 
about eight times in the length of the head. Maxillary broad be- 
neath the eye and extending behind its posterior border. Mouth 
with a vnxvy outline. Jaws of the males become elongate, the 
upper crooked and flexible, in the spawning season. Ventral bract 
more than half the length of the fin. 

Back lustrous blue, olive in alcohol ; head from above the eyes 
dark. Cheeks, sides and belly silvery. Young more or less spot- 
ted, and males in the si)awning season more or less red. This 
fish attains a weight of seven or eight pounds. It is considered 
but little inferior to S. tshawytscha. Specimen described twenty 
inches in length, from Onalaska. Said to occur from the Columbia 
River to Kamtschatka. Called by the Russians Krasnooee rooibah, 
red fish. 

Salmo salar. Common Salmon. Figs. 2, 3 and 4. 

Salmo salar Linne, 1758, Systema, I, 303, — 1766, Syst., 509; Agassiz, 
1839, Poiss. d'eau douce, Tab. II; Gnntlier, 1866, Cat., VI, p. 11; Mitch., 
1815, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc, I, 435; picli., 1839, F. B. Am., Ill, 145; 
Dek., 1812, N. Y. Fauna, Fishes, p. 24, pi. 38, f. 122; Thompson, 1842, 
Nat. Hist. Vermont, 140; Storer, 1867, Fish Mass., p. 142, pi. XXV, f. 2;. 
Jord., 18S3, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., p. 312; Bean, 1884, Eep. U. S. Fish 
Cora., 1042; Goode, 1879, Game Fishes U. S., p. 5, ph 

Salmo gloveri Girard, 1854, Pr. Phil. Ac, 85; Holmes, 1862, 2d Maine 
Ann. Rep. Nat. Hist, and Geol., 115. 
• Salmo namatus Holmes, 1862, 1. c. 117. 

Salmo sebago Girard, 1853, Pr. Phil. Ac, 380; Suckley, 1874, Rep. U. S. 
Fish Com., 143; Gunther, 1866, Cat., VI, 153; Jord., 1880, Man. Vert., 
272. 

B., 11 to 12 ; D., 13 to 15 ; A., 11 to 12 ; V., 9 ; P., 14 to 15 ; 
pores, 109 to 119 ; pyloric caeca, 65 ; scales, 20 to 23, 121 to 136, 
20 to 23 ; adipose fin to lateral line, 14 to 16 ; vertebrae, 60. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 67 

In large specimens of thirt}" inches or more the borly is moder- 
atel}' stout and compressed. Head four and a half times in the 
length of body and head, subconical. ^ye small, three times in 
tlie snout, nine in the head. The head of the male is three and a 
half times in the head and bod}^ without the caudal, and the eye 
four and a half times in the snout and nine and a half in the head. 
Last ray of the dorsal near the middle of the entire length. When 
spread, the caudal margin has but a shallow concavity. Ventral 
bract not half the length of the fin. Maxillary of the female 
broader beneath the eye, pointed at the end, reaching a little behind 
the eye ; in the male it is longer and bent downward below the 
orbit. In adult males the jaws are longer ; the upper becomes 
much produced and turns downward, and the lower has a promi- 
nence on the S3'mphysis that frequently turns backward as a hook. 

Specimens of twenty inches in length have the snout about two 
and a half and the head about seven times the length of the eye. 

Some are light silver}^ with few or no spots on the back and 
none on the head ; others are dark on the back and cheeks, and the 
iSanks are spotted with black ; still others, males in which the skin 
has thickened so as to hide the scales, are nearl}^ black. Parr- 
marks, ten or eleven ; the " parrs" are spotted with black and red. 
In a large series of specimens I am unable to find one possessed of 
the X-shaped marks referred to in the descriptions of the European 
examples. 

The species established for the "land-locked salmon" has in- 
sufficient foundation. The characters on which it is founded are 
possessed by the individual, before he visits the sea, and lost dur- 
ing his marine excursion. If we admit that the differences in color, 
between those that have visited the sea and those that have not, 
are of specific value, we shall be compelled to place the same indi- 
vidual in different species at different periods of his existence. 
Figure 2 represents a male of thirty-one and a half inches, figure 3 
a female of thirty-eight inches, unspotted, and figure 4 the head of 
a female with the spots on head and shoulders. 

Salmo irideus. Rainbow Trout. Fig. 5. 
Salmoiridea Gibbons, 1855, Pr. Cal. Acad., I, 36,37: Salmo irideus Gun- 
ther, 1866, Cat., VI, 119; Suckley, 1874, Rep. U. S. Fish Com., pt. 2, 129; 
Jord., 1883, Ball. 16, U. S. Miis., 312; Bean, 1884, Rep. U. S. Fish Com., 
1042: Salar iridea Girard, 1856, Pr. Phil. Ac, 220,-1858, Pacif. R. R. 
Rep., Fish, p. 321, pi. 73, f. 5, and pi. 74. 

B., 11; D., 14: A., 13 to 14; V., 10; P., 15; pores, 125; 
scales, 26, 140 to 155, 26 ; second dorsal to lateral line, 18. 

Body moderately short and compressed. Head four and a half 



68 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

times in the entire length ; arch from eye to eye medium. Eye 
less than four and a half times in the length of the head, once in 
length of snout, and one and a half times in the interorbital 
space. Snout as long as the eye, blunt. Maxillary not reaching 
behind the eye ; longer in large males. Two rays of the dorsal 
behind the middle of the entire length. Pectorals, in specimen 
figured, reaching a little more than half-way from their bases to 
those of the ventrals. Ventral bract not half the length of the fin. 
Caudal with a shallow notch. A row of about seven teeth on each 
side of the shaft of the vomer. 

Back brown, with a bluish tint, closely set with spots of brown. 
Sides and belly dark with closely-placed puncticulations of brown, 
with numerous spots of brown on the flanks. Larger spots of 
brown on head and cheeks. On the flank a series of eight parr- 
marks is included in a brick-red longitudinal band. Dorsal and 
caudal with many spots of brown. Caudal with a lighter band 
along its posterior border. The specimen figured is very dark ; 
the species varies to very light and silvery. Specimen eight 
inches long, from a lot introduced in New England by the Fish 
Commissioners. In eighteen specimens from Carissima Creek, 
Cal., I find none so dark as the above. The disposition of spots 
is similar, but in cases, those below the parr-marks are larger. 
Streams west of the Sierras, from southern California to Oregon. 
Introduced in the Eastern States. Five to six pounds. 

Salmo Gairdneri. Gairdner^s Salmon. Fig. 6. 

Salmo gairdneri Richardson, 1836, F. Bor. Araer., Ill, 221; Suckley, 
Moiiogr. Salmo, 114; Gaiither, 1866, Cat,, VI, 118; Jord., 1883, Bull. 16, 
U. S. Mus., 313: Salmo purpuratus Gunther, 1866, Cat., VI, 116: Salmo 
truncatus Suckley, 1862, Moaogr. Salmo, 3; Gunther, 1866, Cat., VI, 118. 

B., 12 to 13; D., 14 to 15; A., 13 to U ; V., 10; P., 15; 

pores, 123 to 129 ; scales, 25 to 27, 140 to 157, 25 to 28 ; adipose 
fin to lateral line, 17 ; pyloric caeca, 42 ; vertebrae, 58. 

Description from a twenty-inch specimen from the Sacramento 
River. Body moderately stout, nearly as much so as that of S, 
salar of the same size. Head rather short, four and a half to 
five times in the entire length, compressed ; crown well arched from 
eye to eye. Snout pointed, from two to two and a half times the 
eye. Maxillary curved downward below and reaching behind the 
orbit ; longer and more slender in males. Vomerine teeth in two 
series. Caudal notch very shallow, obliterated on spreading the 
fin. Ventral bract long, not half the length of the fin. Adipose 
fin rather large. In the female the caudal notch is regular ; in 
large males it appears as in Fig. 6. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 69 

Scales silvery. Back brownish (bluish in life), and, with upper 
part of flanks, the dorsals and caudal, thicklj' sprinkled with 
spots of brown. Belly yellowish or reddish. In the example fig- 
ured, a male of seventeen inches, the lower jaw is turned upward 
with a knob on the symphysis. The species reaches a weight of 
twenty pounds. It is found about the mouths of the rivers from 
the Sacramento northward. It has harder, stronger bones than 
S, tshawytscha, and spawns later. 



Salmo clarkii. Claik's Trout. Fig. 7. 

Salmo clarkii Rich., 1836, F. B. A., Ill, 225 ; Jord., 1878, Pr. U. S. Mus. 
I, 77. 

Fario stellatus Girard, 1856, Pr. Phil. Ac, 219. 

Salmo brevicauda Suckley, 18G1, Ann. N. Y. Lye, VII, 308; Gunther, 
1866, Cat., VI, 120. 

Salmo stellatus and S. gibhsi Gunther, 1866, 1. c. 117, 119. 

Salmo tsuppitch Jord., 1878, Pr. U. S. Mus., I, 72. 

Fario aurora Girard, 1856, Pr. Phil. Ac, 219. 

Salmo purpuratics Jord., 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 315. 

B., 11 to 12; D., 14 to 15; A., 14 to 15; V., 10; P., 15; 
pores, 129 ; pyloric caeca, 43 ; scales, 25, 151, 25 ; adipose fin to 
lateral line, 15. 

Moderately stout and compressed. The head and body are four 
times the length of the head. Mouth large. Maxillary bent 
downward below and reaching behind the eye in the male ; a little 
shorter and straighter in the female. E^'e small ; less than three 
times in the snout and seven and a half in the head. Snout long, 
lower jaw slightly hooked upward. Vomerine teeth in irregular 
series. Interorbital space high arched ; width about three times 
that of the eye. The middle of the dorsal is in the middle of the 
entire length. Pectorals not reaching half-way from their bases to 
those of the ventral. Ventral bracts slender, elongate. Caudal 
notch very shallow. 

Back, top of head, dorsals, and tail light brownish, spotted, more 
or less profusely, with small spots of brown. Flanks silvery, belly 
light yellowish. Varies in color from very dark, very spotted, to 
ver}^ light, silvery, with spots obsolete. Flesh white. 

In a female from Lake Bigler, Cal., the head is less than a 
fourth of head and body, and the eye is twice in the length of 
the snout. A line through the middle of the entire length cuts off 
the posterior third of the base of the dorsal. Caudal notch shallow, 
regular. Colors as in preceding. Said to reach a weight of twenty 
pounds. Species found from California northward, with its varie- 



70 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

ties ranging from California, New Mexico and Colorado north- 
^Yard. iSpecimen described seventeen inches in lenglli ; Fig. 7. 

Salmo yirginalis. Utah Trout. Fig. 8. 

Salar virginalis Girard, 1856, Pr. Phil. Ac, 220,-1858, P. R. E. Rep., X, 
p. 320, pi. 73, f. 1-4. 

Sahno virginalis Gunther, 1866, Cat., VI, p. 123. 

Salmo spilurus Cope, 1871, Hayclen's Rep., 470; Jordan, 1878, Pr. U. S. 
Mus., I, p. 74,-1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Miis., 314. 

Salmo pleuriticus Cope, 1871, Hayden's Rep., 471; Jordan, 1878, Pr. 
U. S. Mus.,I, 74; Cope, 1874, Pr. Am. Phil. Soc, 132, — Surv. W. 100th 
Merid., V, 693. 

Salmo spilurus var. pleuriticus Jord., 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 314. 

Salmo spilurus Snhsp. pleuriticus Jord., 1878, Pr. U. S. Mus., I, 74. 

B., 11 (10 to 12) ; D., 14 (14 to 15) ; A., 14 (14 to 15) ; V., 9 ; 

P., 15; pores, 126; scales, 36 to 38, 180 to 188, 38 to 42; 
adipose to lateral line, 25 to 27. 

A variet}^ of S, darkii. Specimen described twelve and a 
half inches in length. ■ Moderately stout and compressed, similar to 
^^/o?^^^«aZ^'s, perhaps a little more slender. Head well arched from 
e3"e to eye, four and a half times in the length of bod\' and head. 
ISnout blunt-pointed, near one and a half times the eye. Jaws 
about equal. Two series of vomerine teeth. Maxillary bent 
downward beneath the eye, extending behind the 63*6 near half 
the diameter of the latter. Three rays of the dorsal behind the 
middle of the entire length. Caudal notch shallow, and pedicel 
rather deep. 

Upper surface and tail brownish, flanks silvery. More or less 
thickly sprinkled with small brown spots, most numerous toward 
the tail, distinct on back and head, becoming smaller or obsolete 
toward the belly. Common in Colorado, Utah and New Mexico, 
reaching a weight of six pounds ; flesh ver}^ fine, especially so in 
the mountain streams. 

Salmo lewisi. Leiuis's Trout. Fig. 9. 

SaJar lewisi Girard, 1856, Pr. Phil. Ac, 210,-1858, Pacif. E. E. Eep., 
Fish, 318, pi. 72: Salmo lewisii Gimther, 1866, Cat., VI, 122: Sahno pur- 
puratus var. bouvieri (Bend.) Jord., 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 315, and 
var. stomias p. 316: Salmo stomias Cope, 1870, Hayden's Eep., 433; 
Jord., 1878, Hayd. Eep., 316. 

B., 10; D., 13 (13 to 14) ; A., 13 (13 to 14) ; V., 9 ; P., 14 

to 15 ; pores, 127 to 133 ; scales, 37 to 38, 197 to 210, 38 to 42 ; 
adipose to lateral line, 23. 

A specimen of eight and a half inches has the shape and propor- 
tions of S. darkii, of which it is a variet}'. The caudal notch 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 71 

is slightly deeper. The spots are more numerous, especially 
toward the tail ; apparently they are of two kinds on this specimen : 
small, very black ones on the outside, profusely scattered over 
back, flanks and fins, and larger ones that seem to lie beneath the 
scales in the skin, forming irregular series along the sides. Head 
waters of the Missouri from Colorado northward ; in the mountains 
of Dakota and Montana. 

Salmo henshawi. Henshaw's Trout, 

Sahno henshaici Jordcin, 1878, Man. Vert., 358,-1878, Pr. U. S. Mus., 
I, 75 : S. henshawi and 6'. tsuppitch Jord., 1878, Chief Eng. Kep. App. NN. 
pp. 19G, 197, tig. 

B., 11 ; D., 12 ; A., 14 ; V., 9 ; P., 14 ; pores, 127 ; pyloric cseca, 
50 to 60 ; scales, 36, 160, 38 ; adipose fin to lateral line, 23. 

Specimen described a female thirteen and a half inches long, 
from Donner Lake, Cal. Moderatel}^ slender and compressed. 
Head little less than four and a half times in the length of bod}'' 
and head ; snout short, blunt, rounded, length about one and a 
half times that of the eye. Eye rather large, six times in the 
length of the head. Maxillary long, nearly straight, extending 
behind the e}^. One or two ra^^s of the dorsal behind the middle 
of the entire length. Caudal notch shallow, posterior margin 
slightl}' concave when the fin is spread. 

Upper part of flank light reddish brown, back darker, belly 
lighter. Back, sides, head and fins with scattered spots of brown, 
the larger about an eighth of an inch in diameter, growing smaller 
toward the belly. Attains a weight of ten pounds or more. An 
excellent trout, common in the Truckee River, and the lakes, Tahoe, 
Donner and others, from which it receives its waters. 

Salmo levenensis. Loch Leven Trout. 

Salmo levenensis Walker, 1811, Wern. Mem., I, 541; Yarrell, 1839, Brit. 
Fish, ed. 1, suppl., p. 9, — ed. 2, H, 117, — ed. 3, I, 257; Guiitlier, 18G6, 
Cat., VI, 101. 

Loch Leven Trout Richardson, 1836, Fauna Bor. Amer., Pise, 143. 

D., 13 ; A., 11 ; P., 14 ; V., 9 ; lateral line, 118 ; transverse line, 
ff ; pyloric cseca, 60 to 80 ; vertebrae, 59. 

Head rather small. Body elongate. Snout of moderate length, 
conical, not much produced in the male, in which a mandibular hook 
has not been noted. Maxillary, narrow, feeble, reaching as far back 
as the eye in large specimens, or little farther. Teeth moderate. A 
series of two or three teeth across the base of the vomer. On the 
bod}" of the vomer the teeth are in a single series. Caudal emar- 
ginate, when stretched to the utmost appearing truncate. Middle 



12 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

ra3's of tail half as long as outer ones in older specimens. Hind 
part of bod}' rather slender. 

Brownish or greenish olive above ; sides of the head with round 
black spots ; sides of the body with more or less numerous X-shaped 
or rounded brown spots. Dorsal and adipose fins with numerous 
small brown spots ; end of pectoral light blackish ; dorsal and 
anal without black or yellow margin. Reaches a weight of upwards 
of four pounds. 

Found in Loch Leven and other lakes in southern Scotland and 
northern England. One of the most recent introductions in the 
United States. Not migratory. From description. 

Salmo fario. River Trout. 

Salmo fario Turton, Brit. Faun., 103; Donovan, Brit. Fish, lY, pi. 85; 
Flem., Brit. An., 181; liich., F. Bor. Amer., 144, pi. 92; Jenyns, Man. 
Vert., 424; Yarrell, Brit. Fish, ed. 2, II, 85, — ed. 3, I, 261; Day, Fish 
Brit, and Ireland, V, 95, pi. CIX, f. 3, CXIII, CXIV, CXVI, f. 1; Beau, 
1884, Rep. Fish Com., 1043. 

Salmo fario aussonii Gunther, 1866, Cat., YI, 64. 

D., 13 to 14 ; A., 10 to 11 ; V., 9 ; P., 13 ; pyloric cseca, 38 to 
50 : scales, 26, 120, 30 ; vertebrae, 56 to 58 ; adipose fin to lateral 
line, 16 rows. 

Body rather stout. Head medium. Snout somewhat produced 
in males, lower jaw hooked in very old ones. Maxillary strong, 
dilated, extending as far back as the eye in 3'oung specimens, and 
farther in those of ten inches or more ; longer in males. Teeth 
strong. Vomer with a transverse series of teeth at its base and a 
double series along its body. Fins moderate, rounded. Caudal fin 
with a shallow notch in the young, becoming truncate early in life. 

Flanks, head, back, and dorsal with spots of red and of black. 
Usually the first rays of dorsal, anal and ventrals are yellowish. 

Found in the fresh waters of Central and Northern Europe 
and England, whence it has been introduced in the United States. 
Reaches a length of thirty inches, the female, according to Dr. 
Gunther, becoming mature when not more than eight. 

Salmo salvelikus. Saelhling. 

Salmo salvelinusJAnn^, 1758, Syst., 309, — 1766, Syst., 511 ; Bloch,Fische 
Deutschl., taf. 99; Meidinger, Ic. Pise. Austr. tab. 22; Cuv. Val., 1848, 
Hist. Poiss., XXI, 246; Heckel, 1851, Sitzb. Ak. Wien, p. 89; Heck, and 
Kner., 1858, Susswasserf., 280; Siebold, 1863, Fische Europe, 280, part.; 
Gunther, 1862, Pr. Zool. Soc. Lond., 38,-1866, Cat., VI, 126; Bean, 
1884, Rep. Fish Com., p. 1042. 

Salmo umhla Agassiz, 1839, Poiss. d'eau douce, pi. 9. 

D., 12 to 14 ; A., 13 ; V., 9 ; P., 13 to 14 ; pyloric caeca, 36 ; 
vertebrse, 64 ; scales, 29, 204 to 220, 28. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 73 

Elongate and somewhat compressed. Head about four and a 
half times in the entire length. Maxillary broadening behind its 
middle, reaching as far back as the eye in small specimens, becom- 
ing longer with age. In a twelve-inch trout the eye is nearly five 
times in the length of the head, twice in the interorbital space, and 
less than twice in the length of the snout. Teeth rather weak. 
Vomerine teeth few, on the head of the bone. Fins medium. 
Ventral bract not half the length of the fin. Caudal notch deeper 
than that of S. fontinalis, not half the depth of the fin. Caudal 
pedicel slender. 

Back olii^aceous, or brownish ; flanks silvery ; bell}' j^ellowish. 
The silver}" color of the lower cheek is rather sharply limited by 
the darker color extending from the top of the head as far down as 
the eye. In the specimens before me the dark color of the back 
extends down the flank to the lateral line. In the figure given b}' 
Prof. Agassiz, it includes the entire flank. Sides sprinkled with 
spots of light color. Young with the parr-marks have a few small 
red spots in addition to these. Lower surface, orange in the 
spawning season ; lower fins with white anterior margins. Alpine 
lakes of Bavaria and Austria. Recently introduced in the United 
States. 

Salmo namaycush. Lake Trout. Figs. 10, 11. 

The Nammjcush Pennant, 1792, Introd. Arct. Zool., p. 298, — Arct. ZooL, 
II, Suppl., 139. 

Salmo namaycush Walb., 1792, Art. Gen. Pise, 68; Rich., 1836, F. Bor. 
Amer., Ill, 179, pi. 75, pi. 85, f. 1; Kirtl., 1842, Bost. Jour. N. H., IV, p. 
25, pi. 3, f. 2; Agass., 1850, Lake Superior, 331; Gunther, 1866, Cat., VI, 
123; Donnd., 1798, Zool. Beytr., Ill, 647. 

Salar namagcush C. V., 1848, Hist. Poiss., XXI, 348. 

Salmo amethystinus Mitch., 1818, Jour. Ac. Sci. Phil., 410; Dek., 1842, 
New York Fish, 240, pi. 76, f. 241; Storer, 1846, Synops., 193. 

Salmo toma Hamlin, Brochure on the Togue ; Holmes, 1862, 2d Ann. 
Rep., Maine, 109. 

Salmo confinis Dek., 1842, N. Y. Fish, 238. 

Salmo symmetrica Prescott, 1851, Am. Jour. Sci., XI. 

Cristivomer namaycush Jord., 1880, Man. Vert., 359; Goode, 1879, Game 
Fishes, p. 33, pi. 

Salvelinus namaycush Jord., 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 317; Bean, 1884, 
Fish Com. Rep., 1042. 

B., 11 to 12 ; D., 14 ; A., 13, to 14 ; V., 10 ; P., 14 to 15 ; pores, 
117 to 136; scales, 28 to 30, 185 to 210, 26 to 32; adipose fin 
to lateral line, 23. 

Rather stout, moderately compressed. Head large, about one- 
fourth of the entire length ; crown flattened ; snout broad, rounded ; 
jaws about equal. Maxillary strong, extending behind the eye, 



74 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

longer in old examples. Teeth strong, in a single series on the 
vomer. Ej-e large ; in a fourteen-inch specimen it is half the 
length of the snout, one-sixth that of the head, and half the width 
of the interorbital space. Opercles smooth. Fins medium ; caudal 
notch deep, more than half the fin. Ventral bract short. Adipose 
fin of moderate size. Head longer and jaws more crooked in old 
males. Fig. 10 twenty-four, and Fig. 11 fourteen inches. 

Grayish brown, very light to very dark, with pale spots on the 
sides, and dark marblings on the cheeks. Bell}' silvery. Dorsal and 
caudal spotted with light. Large specimens from the Lac des 
Neiges, Canada, are almost black (probably a good variety), others 
from New York are light grayish. Flesh reddish. One of the 
largest of the Salmonidce. A thirty-one inch specimen weighed 
near fifteen pounds. The great lakes and their tributaries, east- 
ward to the Atlantic, northward to Hudson's Bay. Generally not 
so fat as the variety Siscowet, of Lake Superior. 

Salmo siscowet. Siscowet. Fig. 12. 

Salmo siscoioet Agassiz, 1850, Lake Superior, p. 333, pi. I, fig. 3 ; Gunther, 
1866, Cat., VI, 124; Jordan, 1876, Man. Vert., 261 : Salmo namaycush var. 
siscoicet, Jordan, 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 318. 

B., 11 to 12; D., 14; A., 14; V., 9; P., 14; pores, 124; 
scales, 30, 200 to 207, 30 ; from adipose to lateral line, 23. 

Mbderatel}^ stout, short and deep. Head verj^ little more than 
three and a half times in the length ; without caudal ; nearly flat ; 
slightly convex between the eyes. Snout broad, rounded ; its 
length equals the width of the interorbital space. Median keel of 
skull low. Eye about twice in length of snout, and six and a half 
times in that of the head. A median series of teeth on the vomer 
anteriorl}^ Maxillarj^ of moderate width, elongate, reaching some 
distance behind the eye. When dried the opercles are seen to be 
striate, with grooves radiating from the bases of the bones. Scales 
small, with concentric striae. Caudal deeply notched, nearl}^ half 
the depth of the fin. The middle of the dorsal is about the middle 
of the entire length. Three of the posterior raj's of the dorsal 
stand over the ventral. Usually very fat. Origin allj- found in 
Lake Superior ; introduced in various waters by the Fish Com- 
missioners. Specimen figured nineteen and a half inches in length. 

Salmo oquassa. Blue Back. Fig. 13. 

Salmo oquassa Girard, 1854, Pr. Phil. Ac, 262; Holmes, 1862, 2d Ann. 
Eep. Nat. Hist, and Geol., Maine, 113; Gunther, 1866, Cat., IV, 154; 
Jord., 1876, Man. Vert., 260, and 1880, 272: Salvelinus oquassa Jord., 
1880, Man. Vert., 360,-1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 318. 



1884,1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 75 

B., 10; D., 12 to 13; A., 12; V., 9; P., 12; pores, 138 to 
140 ; pyloric caeca, 32 ; scales, 30 to 34, 202 to 214, 30 to 36 ; 
adipose fin to lateral line, 23. 

Species small, slender. Specimen described about nine and a 
half inches in length. Head rather small, about four and three- 
fourths times in the length of body and head ; arch of the 
crown between the eyes very low, the space being nearly twice the 
diameter of the eye. Snout elongate, pointed, lower jaw little the 
longer. Eye one and a half times in the length of the snout, twice 
in the interorbital space, and near six times in the length of the 
head, Maxillar}^ not reaching a vertical from the posterior border 
of the eye. Last ra}" of dorsal in the middle of the entire length. 
Ventrals short, bract not half the length of the fin. Caudal 
peduncle slender; notch deep, not half the fin; posterior margin 
sinuous. Adipose fin elongate, narrow. 

Back blue in life, olivaceous in alcohol. The sides have a rich 
reddish tint in the dark color. Scales of lower part of sides and 
of the belh' silvery. Eleven parr-marks on the side. In the 
larger specimens these marks are not distinctl}^ defined, though 
quite visible. Sides thickly sprinkled with small pale spots, red in 
life, which become smaller above the lateral line. 

Found only in Maine, in the Pangeley lakes, their tributaries 
and outlets ; Androscoggin River. 

Salmo naresii. Nares's Trout. 

Gunther, 1877, Pr. Zool. Soc. Lond., 476; Jord., 1884, Bull. 16, U. S. 
Mus., 318. 

B., 11 ; D., 13 ; A., 11 ; pyloric caeca, 28 to 42 ; vertebrae, 63 to 

Body much elongate. Head one-fourth to two-ninths of the 
total, without caudal. Snout obtuse ; forehead flat. Maxillary 
reaching hind margin of e3^e in males ; shorter in females. Teeth 
very small; vomerine on front end of vomer; a band of villiform 
teeth along the middle of the hyoid bone. The gill-cover shows 
scarcely a trace of the radiating and concentric striEe by which 
S. nitidus is characterized. Scales minute. 

Light greenish olive above ; sides silvery, with very small red 
spots ; deep reddish pink below. Dorsal and upper part of caudal 
dark; lower fins deep red, with j^ellowish white margins. Lakes 
of the Arctic regions, in the neigborhood of Discovery Bay and 
Cumberland Gulf, in depths of ten to fifteen fathoms. Largest 
example ten Inches ; others, male and female, only eight, with 
sexual organs fully developed, and the ova ready for extrusion. 
From description. 



76 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



Salmo arcturus. 

Gunther, 1877, Pr. Zool. Soc. LoncL, 294, pi. XXXII; Jord., 1884, Bull. 
16, U. S. Mas., 319. 

B., 11 ; D., 13 ; A., 12 ; pyloric caeca, 31 to 42. 

Body rather elongate. Head small, scarcely one- fifth of the total 
length, without caadal. Snout very obtuse. Maxillary reaches 
about to the hind margin of the orbit in males ; shorter in females. 
Teeth small ; vomerine limited to front end of vomer ; a band of 
villiform teeth along the middle of the hyoid bone. Caudal moder- 
ately excised. Scales minute. 

Dull brownish green above ; silver}^ or reddish below. Dorsal 
and caudal dark ; lower fins yellowish. No dots or ocelli. Young 
with numerous parr-marks. 

Specimens twelve inches long are full-grown. Victoria Lake, 
N. Lat., 82° 34' ; Floeberg Beach, N. Lat., 82° 28'. From descrip- 
tion. 

Salmo malma. 

Salmo malma Walbaum, 1792, Artedi, Gen. Pise, &&\ Jord., 1883, BulL 
16, U. S. Mus., 319 (which see for synonymy). 

B., 11; D., 14; A., 11 (12); p5doric caeca, 45 to 50; scales^ 
39, 240, 36. 

Stouter than B. fontinalis^ sub-round. Head long, less than 
four times in the length, without caudal. Snout rather pointed, more 
than twice the length of the eye, broad. Adipose fin large ; other 
fins short. Caudal with a very shallow notch. Opercles smooth. 

Olivaceous ; sides with round spots of red, smaller spots of light 
color on the back. Lower fins with a narrow light stripe, followed 
by one of dark color. Spots faint or obsolete to very distinct. 
Color var3'ing from light to very dark. Said to reach a weight of 
twelve pounds. Kamtschatka to the Northwestern United States. 
Visiting the seas. 



Salmo fontinalis. Brook Trout, Figs. 14, 15, 16. 

Salmo fontinalis Mitchill, 1815, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y., 435; 
Rich., 1836, F. B. Amer., p. 176, pi. 83, f. 1; Dek., 1842, Fish N. Y., 
235, pi. 38, f. 120; Gunther, 1866, Cat., YI, p. 152: Salvelinus fontinalis 
Jord., 1878, Pr. U. S. Mus., 82; Goode, 1879, Game Fishes, pt. 1, p. 7, 
col. plate; Jord., 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 320; Bean, 1883, Bull. 27, 
U. S. Mus., 41,-1884, Rep. U. S. Fish Com., 1041: Baione fontinalis 
Dek., 1842, Fish N. Y., 244, fig. bS, — Salmo erythrogaster Dek., 1. c. 236, 
fig. 126 : Salmo canadensis Smith, 1834, Griff. Cuvier, X, 474 : S. immacu- 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 77 

latus Storer, 1850, Bost. Jour. N. H., 364; Gunther, 1866, Cat., VI, 125 
S. hudsonicus Suckley, 1861, Ann. N. Y. Lye, 310; Gunther, 1. c. VI, 153- 
Jord., 1878, Pr. U. S. Mus., I, 81. 

B., 10 to 11 ; D., 13 to 14 ; A., 11 to 12 ; V., 8 ; P., 13 to 14 ; 
scales, 40 to 44, 200 to 240, 40 to 46 ; second dorsal to lateral 
line, 28; pores, 107 to 118. 

Body moderate, slightly compressed, stout in large specimens. 
Head medium, low arched between orbits, blunt-pointed at snout. 
In a ten-inch female the head is four and a half, and in a ten-inch 
male it is three and a half times in the total length, without caudal. 
The diameter of the eye of the female figured is less than one and 
•a half times in the length of the snout, while that of the male is 
more than twice. In the former this diameter is contained five 
and a half times, and in the latter six and a half times in the length 
■of the head. Of a twentj^-one inch female the head was less than 
the depth of the body, and but four and a half times in the entire 
length ; the eye was one and a half times in the length of the snout 
and seven in that of the head. Maxillary reaching behind the eye, 
longer and more curved in adult males. Last ray of dorsal about 
the middle of the entire length. Pectorals reaching near half way 
from their bases to those of the ventrals. Ventral bract rather 
small. 

In young ones the caudal notch is shallow. Spreading the fin 
to its utmost nearly or quite obliterates the notch in larger speci- 
mens. In that figured, fig. 16, and others from the same region, 
the upper half of the caudal is convex in its lower portion, which 
gives the margin a sinuous outline. 

Back, and top of head, brownish, more or less vermiculate and 
■spotted with darker. Dorsal and tail irregularly banded or spotted 
^ith brown. Sides sprinkled with round pale spots, red in life. A 
bridle or crescent (of brown) from one nostril to the other, convex 
forward. In the breeding season the outer border of the lower fins 
is whitish, and parallel with this, near the edge, is a dark line ; the 
males have chin, throat and lower edge of each flank more or less 
marked with dark color, and their lower surface becomes brilliant 
reddish, or orange and cream color. Reaches a weight of eight 
pounds. A fine one, sent in b}^ Commissioner Hayes, was twenty- 
one inches in length and of about four pounds weight. 

Found in the Great Lakes, their tributaries, the region eastward 
to the Atlantic and southward to Alabama. 

Figure 14 represents a ten-inch male, figure 15 a female of about 
•eleven inches, and figure 16 a female of twenty-one. The latter 
difi'ers in various respects from the others, as in the nearly uniform 
brownish of the back, shape of caudal, etc. A knowledge of 



78 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

the 3'oiinger stages from the same locality may lead to the separa- 
tion of this form. Its shape resembles that of the salmon. 

Salmo agassizii. Figs. 17, 18. 

B., 11 to 13; D., 12 to 13; A., 10 to 12; V.,8to9; P., 14 to 15 ^ 
pores, 109 to 119 ; scales, 38 to 42, 217 to 237, 38 to 42 ; second 
dorsal to lateral line, 28. 

A variety of the brook trout ; apparentlj^ restricted to the small 
lakes in the neighborhood of Dublin, New Hampshire. Compared 
with those of S. fontinalis, the young are rather* more slender, the 
caudal notch slightlj' deeper, and the sides more silvery. The 
young are much darker colored than the adults ; on both the red 
spots of the flanks are large and numerous. On the adult figured, 
fig. 18, the brown color has become so much bleached that the 
specimen is nearl}^ uniform silvery ; very faint indications of the 
red spots remain. The differences between the 3^oung of S . fontinalis: 
and those of this variety are even more marked than those between 
adults ; side by side, the clouded parr-marks or bands at once dis- 
tinguish the 3'oung of S. agassizii. Apparentl}^ it is later in attain- 
ing sexual development, and has the appearance of a deep water 
species. Fig. 17, seven and a half inches. 

Snout longer than eye ; maxillary extending behind orbit ; ia 
3'oung (fig. 17) the diameter of the eye equals the length of the 
snout, and the length of the head is one-fourth of the total, without 
caudal ; the length of the head of a twelve and a half inch speci- 
men (fig. 18) equals the depth of the bodj^ and is contained four 
and three-fourths times in the length of the body and head. 

Dublin Pond ; Lake Monadnock, Keene, N. H. ; Center Pond. 

Salmo hoodii. Hood's Trout. 
Salmo hoodii Rich., 1836, Fauna Bor. Amer., Ill, 173, pi. 83, f. 2, pL 
87, f. 1, — Ross's Yoy., Nat. Hist. App., p. 58; Gunther, 1866, Cat., VI,. 
150 : Salvelinus hoodi Jord., 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 321. 

B., 10 to 11 ; D., 12 ; A., 11 ; V., 8 to 10 ; P., 13 to 15 ; scales, 
28, 268; lateral line, 126. 

Elongate. Head little more than a sixth of the entire length. 
Maxillarj' reaching behind e3'e. The species is somewhat closely 
allied to S. fontinalis in general appearance. 

"Back and sides intermediate between olive-green and clove- 
brown, bestudded with j^ellowish-grey spots as big as a pea ; a few 

of these spots on the gill covers Dorsal and upper lobe of 

the caudal marked with smaller spots." Specimen described twenty- 
one inches long. Flesh red. 

Mingan River to Boothia Felix. From description. / 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 79 



Salmo rossii. Boss's Trout. 

Salmo rossi Kichardson, 1836, Fauna Bor. Amer., Ill, 163, pi. 80, — 
Boss's Voy., Nat. Hist. App.,p. 56; Suckley, Monogr. Salmo, 120; Jord., 
1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 321. 

B., 12 to 13 ; D., 13 ; A., 11 ; V., 10 ; P., 14 ; scales, 30, 240 ; 
lateral line, 134. 

Slender. Snout obtuse ; lower jaw very long, terminating in an 
incurved knob (in males) . Head one-fifth of the length of body and 
head. Pores on head and face very conspicuous. 

'' The back, top of head, dorsal and caudal fins, have a hue 
intermediate between oil-green and hair-brown; the cheeks are. 
nacry, and the sides pearl-gray, with a blush of lilac and a silvery 
lustre ; there are a number of scattered dots of carmine in the 
vicinit3' of the lateral line ; the color of the belly varies in difi'erent 
individuals from faded orange to tile-red and arterial blood-red." 

Sir John Richardson says of this species: — ^^ Salmo Boss ii is 
so extremely abundant in the sea, near the mouths of the rivers of 
Boothia Felix, at certain seasons, that three thousand three hun- 
dred and seventy-eight individuals were obtained at one haul of a 
small-sized seine. Thej varied in weight from two to fourteen 
pounds, and rather exceeded, in the aggregate, six tons. In some 
the color of the flesh was of a dark red, in others it was ver}' pale, 
the dark ones being the firmest and best flavored." Later writers 
have not recognized the species. 



Salmo nitidus. 

Salmo nitidus Kicbardsou, 1836, Fauna Bor. Amer., Ill, p. 171, pi. 82, 
f. 1, pi. 86, f. 2, — Nat. Hist. App., Ross's Voy., p. 57; Gunther, 1866, Cat.., 
VI, 150. 

Salvelinus 7iitidus Jord., 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. Mus., 321. 

B., 11 to 12 ; D., 14 ; A., 12 ; V., 10 ; P., 17 ; scales, 36, 270 
(215 Gunther), 42 ; lateral line, 120. 

Elongate. Head moderate, one-fifth or a little more of the entire 
length. Snout about twice the length of the eye. Maxillary straight^ 
strong, extending as far back as the eye, farther in males. Teeth 
medium. Teeth not only on the head of the vomer, but also two 
or three behind it. Caudal fin conspicuousl}^ emarginate, the mid- 
dle rays being about half as long as the longest. The orbit is one 
and a half times its length from the tip of the snout, or six times 
in the head. Opercles with radiating and concentric striae. 

" Body above the lateral line deep green, softening towards the 
belly, which is of a beautiful yellowish-red tint posterior to the pec- 
toral fins ; throat and region of the pectorals white, slightly clouded 



80 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

by 3'ellowish-red. There are several rows of ocellate red spots, 
confined principall}" to the space between the lateral line and 3'el- 
lowish-red of the belly ; they vary in size, the largest being as big 
as a pea. Dorsal fin colored like the back. Under fins duskj^-red, 
the anal paler, and the first ysljs of the pectorals, ventrals and anal 
white." Lakes in Boothia. The specimens described were twenty- 
one inches in length. From description. 



Salmo alipes. Lovg Finned Trout. 

Bichardson, 1836, Eauna Boreali Amer., Ill, p. 169, pi. 81, pi. 86, f. 1, 
and Nat. Hist. App., Koss's Voy., p. LVII; Gunther, 1866, Cat., VI, 149, 
and 1877, Pr. Zool. Soc.,4:76: S. stagnalis Jordan, 1883, Bull. 16, U. S. 
Mus.,p. 321. 

B., 11 to 12 ; D., 12 to 13 ; A., 11 ; lateral line, 210 ; pyloric 
caeca, 41. 

Elongate. Head moderate; snout elongate, pointed; lower jaw 
extending beyond upper in adults. Teeth small. Maxillary nar- 
row, reaching behind eye. Operculum and sub-operculum very con- 
spicuously and densely striated, the strise radiating from the base 
of each of the bones. Fins much developed. Pectoral reaching 
more than half the distance from its root to that of the ventral, 
which also is long. Adipose small. Caudal conspicuously emar- 
ginate, even in old examples. 

'^ Of this species two. examples were obtained, about fifteen 
inches long ; it is a well-marked species of Charr, characterized by 
the deep radiating and concentric striation of the gill covers. The 
typical specimens were obtained in Boothia Felix, so that this 
Charr has an unusually wide range. Color silvery, with scarcely 
any pinkish tinge." From description. 



Salmo stagnalis. Fig. 19. 
Salmo stagnalis Fabricius, 1780, Fauna Groenlandica, 175. 

B., 10 to 11'; D., 13 to U ; A., 12 to 13 ; V., 9 ; P., 14 ; pyloric 
caeca, 48 ; scales, 30, 200 to 204, 30 ; adipose fin to lateral line, 
25 to 27 ; pores in lateral line, 130. 

Slender, elongate. Head scarcely one-fifth of the total length, 
without caudal ; crown between orbits high, skull with a consider 
able crest. Eye small, less than half the length of the snout. 
Jaws equal. Maxillary extending very little behind the e3'e in the 
male ; shorter in the female. Pre-opercle rounded ; the lobe shown 
in the specimen drawn does not appear in the female. Bones of 



I 



o 




m 



p 





60 

o 





t ^ i ^.•' 



o ! 



^ ; O 



o o 




1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 81 

the head very thin ; opercles membranaceous. Only a very faint 
indication of striae on the opercles. Three rays of dorsal behind 
the middle of the total length. Caudal peduncle long, slender ; 
notch shallow. 

Back brownish ; sides silvery ; belly reddish ; flanks thickly 
sprinkled with light spots, orange or red in life. Specimen drawn, 
sixteen and a half inches in length, from Godthaab, Greenland. 



INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



[F.] 



LAWS AND RESOLVES, 1884. 

[Chap. 171.] 
An Act to limit the time within which Trout, Land-locked Salmon and Lake Trout 

may be taken. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Sect. 1. The time within which any person is forbidden to take, 
sell, offer or expose for sale, or to have in his possession, a trout, 
land-locked salmon or lake trout, b}^ sections fift3'-one and fifty- 
three of chapter ninety-one of the Public Statutes, shall be between 
the first day of September and the first day of April. 

Sect. 2. So much of said sections fifty-one and fifty-three as is 
Inconsistent with this act is hereby repealed. \_Approved April 19, 
1884. 



[Chap. 199.] 
An Act in addition to an act to regulate the taking of Fish in North E-iver in the 

county of Plymouth. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Sect. 1. Whoever sets a seine or combination of seines over 
three hundred and eightj^-five feet in length, or casts a mesh net 
over three hundred and fifty feet in length, in the North River in 
the county of Plymouth, shall for each offence be punished by fine 
not less than twenty-five nor more than one hundred dollars, or by 
imprisonment in the house of correction not less than one nor more 
than three months. 

Sect. 2. Section forty-one of chapter ninety-one of the Public 
Statutes shall not apply to the fisheries in said North River. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
April 30, 1884. 



[Chap. 245.] 
An Act concerning the Fisheries in waters of the county of Dukes County. 
Be it eiiacted, etc., as follows : 

Sect. 1. Section one of chapter one hundred and two of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-two is amended to 
read as follows: — Section 1. The lessees holding from the com- 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 83 

missiouers on inland fisheries a lease of any body of water in the 
count}" of Dukes County, and all other persons having the right to 
take alewives in any other waters in said county, may take alewives. 
from said waters and from the ditches connecting them with each 
other and with the ocean at all seasons of the year and without 
restriction as to day. 

Sect. 2. Section two of said chapter one hundred and two is 
amended to read as follows: — Section 2. Whoever other than 
said lessees or any other person duly authorized takes any fish, 
except eels, from any of said waters or ditches without the permis- 
sion in writing of said lessees or said person duly authorized first 
obtained, shall forfeit one dollar for each fish so taken, and shall 
also forfeit any boat, net, line, rod or other apparatus used in such 
taking, in accordance with the provisions of chapter one hundred 
and ninety-four of the Public Statutes. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take efl'ect upon its passage. [_Ap- 
proved May 20, 1884, 



[Chap. 317.] 
An Act relative to Fishing in ttie Merrimack River. 
Be it enacted, etc., as folloxos : 

Sect. 1. Section one of chapter one hundred and sixt^^-six of 
the acts of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-two is hereby 
amended by ifliserting after the word " seine " and before the word 
" after" in the fourth line thereof, the following words : *' with a 
mesh not less than two and a quarter inches." 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Ap- 
proved June 5, 1884. 



[Chap. 264.] 
An Act to protect the Fisheries of the towns of Mashpee and Barnstable. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Sect. 1. No person not an inhabitant of the town of IMashpee 
shall fish for or take from the waters within said town, except 
Hamblin's Pond and its outlet, and excepting the trout fisher}^ in 
Popponessett Bay, south of a line drawn from Gooseberry Island 
to Mashpee Neck, any fish, shell-fish or eels, without a written 
permit or lease from the selectmen of said town, stating the time^ 
place, manner and number in which the same may be taken ; nor 
shall any inhabitant of said town at any one time take more than 
thxee bushels of shell-fish for bait, or take any fish, shell-fish or eels 
for the purpose of selling the same, without a written permit from 



«4 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

said selectmon, who ma}' grant the same for such sum, to be paid 
to the use of said town, as the}' shall deem proper : provided, how- 
ever, that no seining shall be allowed in any of the waters of said 
town ; but the inhabitants of said town may take such fish, shell- 
fish and eels for famih' use without such permit, except from such 
fisheries as are lawfully leased by said town to others. 

Sect. 2. Whoever fishes for, takes or destroys any fish, shell- 
fish or eels in the waters of said town of Mashpee in violation of 
the provisions of this act, or otherwise than is specified in his per- 
mit, and whoever wilfully places any obstruction to, or otherwise 
interferes with, the free passage of fish or eels in said waters, shall 
for each offence be subject to a fine of not less than fifty nor more 
than one hundred dollars and costs of prosecution, and if he have 
a permit shall forfeit the same ; and all fines under this act shall 
be paid, one-half to the town of Mashpee and one-half to the com- 
plainant. Said fine and forfeiture imposed under this act may be 
recovered by complaint before an}' trial justice, or by indictment 
before any court of competent jurisdiction in Barnstable County. 

Sect. 3. Any constable or fishwarden of said town may, with- 
out a warrant, arrest any person whom he finds in the act of fishing 
for, taking or destroying fish, shell-fish or eels, in violation of this 
act, or in the act of carrying away fish, shell-fish or eels so taken, 
and detain him in some place of safe keeping until a warrant can 
be procured against such person upon a complaint for said oflfences, 
or either of them : provided, that such detention shall not exceed 
twenty-four hours. 

Sect. 4. Section one of chapter thirty- five of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and fifty-two is hereby amended so as to 
read as follows : — No person shall set, draw or stretch any seine 
or drag-net in Barnstable Harbor, Osterville Harbor, Popponessett 
Bay, or any of the creeks, ponds or streams within the limits of the 
town of Barnstable, under a penalty of not less than fifty nor more 
than one hundred dollars, to be recovered in any court proper to 
try the same, one-half to the use of said town and the other half to 
any person wlio shall prosecute therefor. 

Sect. 5. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith are 
hereby repealed. [Approved May 24, 1884. 



[Chap. 318.] 
Ax Act to prevent the use of Nets in Ponds. 
Be it enacted, etc., asfolknos: 

Sect. 1. Whoever draws, sets, stretches or uses a drag net, set 
net, purse net or seine in any pond in the Commonwealth, or aids 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 85- 

in so doing, shall be punished bj^ a fine of not less than twenty nor 
more than fifty dollars, one half of which shall be paid to the per- 
son making the complaint, and the other half to the county within 
which the offence was committed, and in addition shall forfeit to 
the Commonwealth all fish taken by the above means and the 
seines, boat and other apparatus used. 

Sect. 2. Trial justices, police and district courts shall have 
jurisdiction to enforce the penalties provided in section one of 
this act. 

Sect. 3. This act shall not be construed to interfere with the 
rights of lessees of great ponds in the counties of Barnstable, Dukes 
Count}^ and Nantucket, into which the usual varities of salt water 
fish are or may be admitted by natural or artificial inlets, and which 
under existing leases have been seined or which may be leased with 
permission to seine the same, nor the riparian proprietors of ponds 
mentioned in section ten of chapter ninety-one of the Public Stat- 
utes, nor with the corporate rights of any fishing company. [^/>- 
proved June 5, 1884. 



«6 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



[G.] 



LIST OF PONDS LEASED 

By the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries^ under Authority given 
by Chap. 884, Sect, 9, of the Acts of 1869* 



1870. 

Feb. 1. Waushakum Pond, in Framingham, to Sturtevant and 

others, 20 years. 
April 1. Mendon Pond, in Mendon, to Leonard T. Wilson and 

another, 20 years. 
Sept. 12. Baptist Lake, in Newton, to J. F. C. Hyde and others, 

20 years. 
Oct. 15. Archer's Pond, in Wrentham, to William E. George, 

15 years. 

1871. 

Jan. 10. Nine-Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to B. F. Bowles, 10 

years. 
30. Little Pond, in Falmouth, to F. H. Dimmick, 10 years. 
April -. Spectacle, Triangle, and Peters ponds, in Sandwich, to 

G-. L. Fessenden and another, 5 years. 

17. Long Pond, in Falmouth, to Joshua S. Bowerman and 

three others, 20 years. 
May 15. Pratt's Pond, in Upton, to D. W. Batcheller, 20 years., 

18. Little Sandy Pond, in Plymouth, to William E. Perkins 

15 years. 
Nov. 1. Punkapoag Pond, in Randolph and Canton, to Henry 
L. Pierce, 20 years. 

* We would remind lessees of ponds that they are required, by their leases, to use 
all reasonable efforts to stock their ponds, and keep accurate records of the same, 
and make returns of their doings to the Commissioners on the Isf of October, each 
year, of the number and species of fish which they have put in or removed from 
their ponds. Any failure to comply with these conditions is a breach of contract in- 
validating their lease. It is important that the State should know just what is being 
done ; and, where there appears to be mismanagement or apparent failure, the Com- 
missioners will visit the ponds, and ascertain, if possible, the cause. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 87 



1872. 



Jan. 1. Sandy Pond, Forest Lake, or Flint's Pond, in Lincoln, 
to James L. Chapin and others, 20 3'ears. 

July 20. Little Pond, in Braintree, to Eben Denton and others, 
20 years. 



1873. 



May 1 . Meeting-house Pond, in Westminster, to inhabitants of 

Westminster, 15 years. 
k Great Pond, in Weymouth, to James L. Bates and 

others, 15 years. 
July 1. Little Sandy Pond, in Pembroke, to A. C. Brigham and 

others, 16 years. 
Sept. 1. Pontoosuc Lake, in Pittsfield and Lanesborough, to E. 

H. Kellogg and others, 15 3^ears. 
Oct. 1. Farm Pond, in Sherborn, to inhabitants of Sherborn, 

15 years. 

1. Spot Pond, in Stoneham, to inhabitants of Stoneham, 

15 years. 
Nov. 1. Lake Chaubunagungamong, or Big Pond, in Webster, 

to inhabitants of Webster, 5 years. 
Dec. 1. Lake Wauban, in Needham, to Hollis Hunnewell, 20 

years. 

1874. 

Mar. 1. Walden and White ponds, in Concord, to inhabitants of 
Concord, 15 years. 

2. Upper Naumkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants 

of Ashburnham, 20 years. 
April 1. Elder's Pond, in Lakeville,to inhabitants of Lakeville, 
15 years. 
20. North and South Podunk ponds, in Brookfield, to in- 
habitants of Brookfield, 15 years. 
May 1. Maquan Pond, in Hanson, to the inhabitants of Hanson, 
15 years. 
2. Brown s Pond, in Peabod}', to John L. Shorey, 15 years. 
16. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to Lemuel Ful- 

1am, 15 years. 
20. Unchechewalom and Massapog ponds, to the inhabitants 
of Lunenburg, 20 years. 
July 1. Hardy's Pond, in Waltham, to H. E. Priest and others, 
15 years. 
1 . Hockomocko Pond, in Westborough, to L. N. Fairbanks 
and others, 15 years. 
11. Mitchell's Pond, in Boxford, to R. M. Cross and others, 
15 years. 



88 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

1874. 

July 11. Hazard's Pond, in Russell, to N. D. Parks and others, 

20 years. 
Oct. 1. East Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of 

Sterling, 20 years. 
20. Middletoii Pond, in Middleton, to inhabitants of Mid- 

dleton, 15 years. 

1875. 

Jan. 1. White and Goose ponds, in Chatham, to George W. 

Davis, 15 3"ears. 
Mar. 1. Lake Pleasant, in Montague, to inhabitants of Monta- 
gue, 10 years. 
1. Hood's Pond, in Ipswich and Topsfield, to inhabitants 
of Topsfield, 15 j^ears. 
April 1. Chauncey Pond, in Westborough, to inhabitants of 
Westborough, 15 years. 
3. West's Pond, in Bolton, to J. D. Hurlburt and others, 
15 years. 
15. Gates Pond, in Berlin, to E. H. Hartshorn and others^ 

15 years. 
24. Pleasant Pond, in Wenham, to inhabitants of Wenham, 
15 years. 
May 1. Morse's Pond, in Needham, to Edmund M. Wood, 15- 
j'^ears. 
1. Chilmark Pond, in Chilmark, to J. Nickerson and 
others, agents, 20 years. 
July 1. Winter Pond and Wedge Pond, in Winchester, to in- 
habitants of Winchester, 15 years. 
1. Raggett's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of An- 
dover, 20 years. 
Aug. 1. Oyster Pond, in Edgartown, to J. H. Smith and others, 
20 years. 
7. West Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of 

Sterling, 20 years. 
9. M^'Stic (Upper) Pond, in Winchester, Medford, and 
Arlington, to inhabitants of Winchester and Med- 
ford, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Little Chauncey and Solomon ponds, in Northborough,^ 
to inhabitants of Northborough, 15 years, 

1876. 

Feb. 1. Great Sandy Bottom Pond, in Pembroke, to Israel 

Thrasher and others, 15 3^ears. 
Mar. 1. Dennis Pond, in Yarmouth, to inhabitants of Yarmouth, 

15 years. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 89 

1876. 

Mar. 1. Crj'stal Lake, in Wakefield, to Lyman H. Tasker and 
others, 15 years. 
20. Lower Nanmkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants 

of Ashburnham, 18 years. 
28. Dennison Lake, in Winchendon, to inhabitants of Win- 

chendon, 15 j'ears. 
28. Philllpston Pond, in Phillipston, to inhabitants of Phil- 
lipston, 20 years. 
May 8. South-west Pond, in Athol, to Adin H. Smith and 

others, 15 years. 
June 1. Norwich Pond, in Huntington, to inhabitants of Hunt- 
ington, 20 years. 
10. Dug Pond, in Natick, to W. P. Bigelow and others, 15 
3'ears. 
Oct. 1. Farm and Learned's Pond, in Framingham, to inhabi- 
tants of Framingham, 15 years. 
1. Whitney's Pond, in Wrentham, to inhabitants of Wren- 

tham, 15 years. 
1. Little Pond, in Barnstable, to George H. Davis, 15 
years. 

1877. 

Mar. 1. Nine-Mile Pond, in Wilbraham. to inhabitants of Wil- 
braham, 15 j'ears. 
15. Pen tucket and Rock ponds, in Georgetown, to inhabi- 
tants of Georgetown, 15 3'ears. 

Aug. 10. Quota Lake, in Pittsfleld, to William H. Murray and 
others, 15 years. 

Oct. 1. Fort, Great Spectacle, and Little Spectacle ponds, in 
Lancaster, to inhabitants of Lancaster, 20 years. 
1. Battacook Pond, in Groton, to George S. Graves and 
others, 15 years. 

Nov. 1. Tispaquin Pond, in Middleborough, to Abishai Miller, 
15 years. 

1878. 

Jan. 1. Sniptuit, Long, Snow, and Mary's ponds, in Rochester, 
to inhabitants of Rochester, 15 years. 

Mar. 16. Asnaconcomic Pond, in Hubbardston, to Amor}^ Jewett, 
Jr., 15 3'ears. 

April 1. Dorrity Pond, in Millbury, to inhabitants of Millbury, 
10 years. 

May 1. Bear Hill Pond and Hall Pond, in Harvard, to inhabi- 
tants of Harvard, 15 years. 
5. Spectacle, Peters, and Triangle ponds, in Sandwich, to 
George L. Fessenden, 10 years. 



88 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

1874. 

July 11. Hazard's Pond, in Russell, to N. D. Parks and others, 

20 years. 
Oct. 1. East Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of 

Sterling, 20 years. 
20. Middleton Pond, in Middleton, to inhabitants of Mid- 

dleton, 15 years. 

187J>. 

Jan. 1. White and Goose ponds, in Chatham, to George W. 

Davis, 15 3'ears. 
Mar. 1. Lake Pleasant, in Montague, to inhabitants of Monta- 
gue, 10 years. 
1. Hood's Pond, in Ipswich and Topsfield, to inhabitants 
of Topsfield, 15 years. 
April 1. Chaunce}^ Pond, in Westborough, to inhabitants of 
Westborough, 15 years. 
3. West's Pond, in Bolton, to J. D. Hmiburt and others, 
15 years. 
15. Gates Pond, in Berlin, to E. H. Hartshorn and others, 

15 years. 
24. Pleasant Pond, in Wenham, to inhabitants of Wenham, 
15 3^ears. 
May 1. Morse's Pond, in Needham, to Edmund M. Wood, 15 
3^ears. 
1. Chilmark Pond, in Chilmark, to J. Nickerson and 
others, agents, 20 years. 
July 1. Winter Pond and Wedge Pond, in Winchester, to in- 
habitants of Winchester, 15 years. 
1. Haggett's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of An- 
dover, 20 years. 
Aug. 1. Oyster Pond, in Edgartown, to J. H. Smith and others, 
20 3-ears. 
7. West Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of 

Sterling, 20 years. 
9. M3'stic (Upper) Pond, in Winchester, Medford, and 
Arlington, to inhabitants of Winchester and Med- 
ford, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Little Chauncey and Solomon ponds, in Northborough^ 
to inhabitants of Northborough, 15 years. 

1876. 

Feb. 1. Great Sandy Bottom Pond, in Pembroke, to Israel 

Thrasher and others, 15 years. 
Mar. 1. Dennis Pond, in Yarmouth, to inhabitants of Yarmouth, 

15 3'ears. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 89 

1876. 

Mar. 1. Crj^stal Lake, in Wakefield, to Lyman II. Tasker and 
others, 15 years. 
20. Lower Naiimkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants 

of Ashburnham, 18 years. 
28. Dennison Lake, in Winchendon, to inhabitants of Win- 

chendon, 15 3'ears. 
28. Phillipston Pond, in Phillipston, to inhabitants of Phil- 
lipston, 20 years. 
May 8. South-west Pond, in Athol, to Adin H. Smith and 

others, 15 years. 
June 1. Norwich Pond, in Huntington, to inhabitants of Hunt- 
ington, 20 3'ears. 
10. Dug Pond, in Natick, to W. P. Bigelow and others, 15 
3'ears. 
Oct. 1. Farm and Learned's Pond, in Framingham, to inhabi- 
tants of Framingham, 15 years. 
1. Whitney's Pond, in Wrentham, to inhabitants of Wren- 

tham, 15 years. 
1. Little Pond, in Barnstable, to George H. Davis, 15 
3'ears. 

1877. 

Mar. 1. Nine-Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to inhabitants of Wil- 
braham, 15 3-ears. 
15. Pentucket and Rock ponds, in Georgetown, to inhabi- 
tants of Georgetown, 15 3^ears. 

Aug. 10. Quota Lake, in Pittsfleld, to William H. Murray and 
others, 15 years. 

Oct. 1. Fort, Great Spectacle, and Little Spectacle ponds, in 
Lancaster, to inhabitants of Lancaster, 20 years. 
1. Battacook Pond, in Groton, to George S. Graves and 
others, 15 3^ears. 

Nov. 1. Tispaquin Pond, in Middleborough, to Abishai Miller, 
15 years. 

1878. 

Jan. 1. Sniptuit, Long, Snow, and Mary's ponds, in Rochester, 
to inhabitants of Rochester, 15 years. 

Mar. 16. Asnaconcomic Pond, in Hubbardston, to Amor3^ Jewett, 
Jr., 15 3'ears. 

April 1. Dorrity Pond, in Millbury, to inhabitants of Millbury, 
10 3^ears. 

May 1. Bear Hill Pond and Hall Pond, in Harvard, to inhabi- 
tants of Harvard, 15 3'ears. 
5. Spectacle, Peters, and Triangle ponds, in Sandwich, to 
George L. Fesseuden, 10 years. 



1)0 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

187S. 

Oct. 1. Eel Pond, in Melrose, to J. A. Barrett and others, 15 
3'ears. 

1. Accord Pond, in Hingham, South Scituate, and Rock- 
land, to inhabitants of those towns, 10 ^^ears. 

1. Wright's and Ashlej^'s ponds, in Holy oke, to Henry C. 
Ewing and others, 10 j^ears. 

1. Magog Pond, in Acton and Middle ton, to inhabitants 
of Acton, 15 years. 

1879. 

Feb. 1. Lake Mahkunac and Lake Overic, in Stockbridge, to 
inhabitants of Stockbridge, 10 years. 

July 1. Silver Lake, in Wihnington, to inhabitants of Wil- 
mington, 10 years. 
1. Fresh Pond, in Falmouth, to Thomas H. Lawrence, 20 
years. 

Oct. 1. Pomp's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 
15 3'ears. 

Nov. 1. Lake Quinapowitt, in Wakefield, to inhabitants of 
Wakefield, 14 ^^ears. 

1880. 

Mar. 1. Lake Winthrop, in Holliston, to inhabitants of Hollis- 
ton, 15 3'ears. 
15. Massapoag Pond, in Sharon, to inhabitants of Sharon, 
10 3'ears. 

May 1. Tisbur3' Great Pond, in Tisbur3^, to Allen Look and 
others, 10 3^ears. 

Jane 1. Indian Pond, in Kingston, to inhabitants of Kingston, 
10 3'ears. 
1. Jordan Pond, in Shrewsbur3', to inhabitants of Shrews- 
bury, 15 3'ears. 

Jul3^ 1. Swan and Martin's ponds, in North Reading, to inhabi- 
tants of North Reading, 15 3"ears. 

Sept. 1. Herring Pond, in Eastham, to William H. Nickerson, 
10 years. 

Dec. 24. Chadwick's Pond, in Bradford and Boxford, to town of 
Bradford, 10 3'ears. 

1881. 

Jan. 1. Great and Job's Neck ponds, in Edgartown, to Amos 

Smith and others, 15 3^ears. 
Mar. 1. The Mill Ponds (three), in Brewster, to Valentine B. 

Newcomb and another, 15 3'ears. 
April 1. Long Pond, in Blandford, to Samuel A. Bartholomew 

and another, 15 years. 
Ma3' 2. Nonesuch Pond, in Weston and Natick, to W. A. Bul- 

lard and others, 15 3'ears. 



1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 91 

1883. 

Mar. 1. Blair's Pond, in Blandford, to Curtis M. Blair and 

another, 15 years. 
April 1. Ward Pond, alias Wightman Pond, in Ashburnham, to 

Herbert F. Rockwood and another, 15 3'ears. 
May 1. Horn Pond, in Woburn, to inhabitants of Woburn, 15 

3'ears. 
June 1. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to inhabitants of 

West Brookfield, 15 3'ears. 
Oct. 1. Long and Hummock ponds, in Nantucket, to Charles 

E. Snow and others, 15 3'ears. 

1883. 

Mar. 1. Halfwa3' Pond, in Plymouth, taken b3' Commissioners 

for 5 3'ears, in accordance with provisions of Chap. 

62, Acts of 1876. 
April 6. Fresh Pond, in Tisbury, to Allen Look and others, 15 

years. 
23. Keyes Pond, in Westford, to M. H. A. Evans, 15 

3'ears. 
May 7. Singletar3^ Pond, in Sutton and Millbury, to towns of 

Sutton and Millbur3", 15 years. 
7. The Great Pond, in Ashfield, to town of Ashfield, 15 

years. 
July 1. Lake Buell, in Montere3' and New Marlborough, to 

town of New Marlborough, 10 3'ears. 

1884. 

June 1. Bald Pate, Four-Mile, and Stiles ponds, in Boxford, to 

inhabitants of Boxford, 10 years. 
July 15. Asne3'bunskeit Pond, in Paxton, to inhabitants of Pax- 
ton, 10 years. 

15. Center Pond, in Dennis, to inhabitants of Becket, 10 
3'ears. 

15. Buckraaster Pond, in Dedham, to Francis Soule and 
others, 10 years. 

15. Fresh Pond, in Dennis, to inhabitants of Dennis, 10 
years. 

17. Farm Pond, in Cottage City, to John C. Hamblin and 

others, 15 3'ears. 

18. Mashpee, Creat, and Wakele3^ ponds, in Mashpee, to 

inhabitants of Mashpee, 10 3'ears. 
Aug. 30. Sand Pond, in Ayer, to inhabitants of A3'er, 15 3'ears. 
Sept. 5. Great Pond, in North Andover, to inhabitants of North 

Andover, 15 3'ears. 



[H.] 

TABLES SHOWING 

RETURNS OF WEIRS, SEINES AND GILL-NETS. 



94 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



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1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 





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1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 97 



O CO O I I I I I o >o I 

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[Dec. 



CO 



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Theodore Pierce, 
Perry G. Potter, 
Leonard M. Sanford, 
Charles A. Tripp, 
John Meadreas, 
Charles E. Snow, 

Total, . . , 


Town or Place. 


Westport, . 

South Westport, 

South Dartmouth, . 
Nantucket, 





1884.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



101 



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1884.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 103 



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104 



INLAND FISHERIES, 



[Dec, 



73 

a 
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2,251 
2,106 
4,535 
2,681 
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1,407 
3,192 


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A. H. Adams, 

Horace B. Cash, . 

Isaac P. Dunham, . 

W. I. Fisher, 

J. 0. Freeman, 

R. W. Paine & Co., 

Warren F. Ramsdell, 

Total, 


O 

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1 



1884.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



105 



Table No. IV. — Connecticut River Seines. 



Town or Place. 


PROrRIKTOR. 


Shad. 


South Hadley, 

Agawam, .... 


C. C. Smith and othere, 

A. Converse, 

Total 


1,539 

54 

1,593 



Table No. V. — Mekrimac River Seines. 



Towx Oft Place. 



North Andover, 
West Newbury, 



Provriktor. 



Eben Sutton, 
Jonathan Morrill, 
Total, . 



Shad. 



Ill 



Table No. VI. — Taunton River Seines. 



Town or Place. 


Proprietor. 


OS 


Alewives. 


1 


Raynham, 

Taunton, 
Dighton, . 

Berkley, . 

Somerset, 








J. S. Townsend & Bros., 
G.B.& E.Williams, 
John W. Hart & Co., 
0. M. & E. Buffington, 
Edmund Hathaway, . 
Charles N. Simmons, 
Isaac N. Babbitt, 
Nichols & Shove, 
W. H. Walker, . 
George H. Simmons, 
Total, . 






302 
674 
237 
400 
695 
600 
229 
600 
400 


114,100 

127,369 

59,800 

75,000 

121,076 

140,000 

66,315 

164,000 

72,000 

20,076 


429 
- 










4,037 ! 959,736 


429 



106 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



Table No.VII. — Other Fkesh-water Seines and Dip-net Fisheries. 



Town or Place. 


Propiuktor. 




i 

> 




to 






.a 
m 


< 


00 




Medford, 


Cross Bros., 


\ 


163,810 


- 


- 


Weymouth, . 


Weymouth Iron Co., 






\ 
i 


68,750 




- 


Plymouth, . 


W. 8. Hadaway, 






- 


- 


~ 


15,000 


... 


B. F. Hodges,* . 






7 


18,287 




- 


... 


Town Brook, 






- 


44,020 




- 


Yarmouth, . 


Long Pond Fishing Co., 






1 


9,630 


- 


- 


Brewster, 


Winslow & Newcomb, 






- 


130,388 




- 


Wellfleet, . 


Herring Brook, . 






- 


130,415 


~ 


- 


Mashpee, 


M. Amos, . 






- 


2,866 




- 


... 


David Lovell, . 






13 


8,148 


733 


- 


" 


W. R. Mingo, . 






- 


25,465 




- 


Westport, . 


Lysander W. White, 






- 


4,155 


6 


- 


South Westport, . 


Philip S. Tripp, . 
Total, . 






2 


4,913 


58 


- 




22 


610,847 


897 


15,000 



* One salmon. 



1884.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



107 







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PUBLIC DOCUMENT. 



No. 25, 



TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 



COMMISSIONEES 



INLAND FISHEEIES, 



Year ending December 31, 1885, 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1886. 



\ 



i» 



OOl^TENTS, 



Page 

Repokt, 5-26 

Appendix A. List of Fish Commissioners, 27 

B. List of Leased Ponds, 34 

C. Carp and Carp Ponds, 40 

D. Legislation, 65 

E. Returns of Weirs, Seines and Gill-nets, . . .69 



dl^ommottfocalt^ ai P^assac^itsetts, 



To His Excellency the Governor and Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries respectfully pre- 
sent their Twentieth Annual Report. 

FlSHWAYS. 

The fishways are in good working condition except that at 
Holyoke, which will require some repairs next spring. All 
applications for the construction of new fishways have been 
considered, and such as have been approved of have been 
built, except that at Hamblin's mill at Acushnet. By delay 
of the law, no decision has yet been reached in this case. 

Fish Seen in the Lawrence Fishway in the Year 1885. 

May 6. A few alewives and suckers, first of the season. 

7. Alewives and snckers, run small ; one lamprey. 

8. Alewives, suckers and lampreys, run small. 

9. Suckers and alewives, run small. 

10. Suckers and alewives, run small. 

11. Suckers, alewives and lampreys, run small. 

12. Suckers and alewives, run moderate; lampreys, run small. 

13. Suckers and alewives, run large ; lampreys, run moderate. 

14. Suckers and lampreys, run large ; alewives, run small. 

15. Lampreys and suckers, run large; alewives, run small. 

16. Lampreys and suckers, run large ; alewives, run small. 

17. Lampreys and suckers, run very large ; alewives run small. 

18. Lampreys and suckers, run large ; alewives, run small, 

19. Lampreys and suckers, run very large ; alewives, run mod- 

erate. 

20. Lampreys and suckers, run large ; alewives, run moderate. 

21. Lampreys, suckers, alewives and red-fin shiners, run large. 

22. Lampreys, suckers, alewives and red-fin shiners, run large. 

23. Lampreys, suckers and alewives, run large. 

24. Lampreys and suckers, run large ; alewives, run small. 

25. Lampreys and suckers, run large ; alewives, run small. 



6 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

May 26. Lamprej's and suckers, run large ; alevvives, run moderate. 

27. Lampreys, suckers and alewives, run large. 

28. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate ; alewives, run small. 

29. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate ; alewives, run small. 

30. One salmon, 10 to 12 pounds; lampreys and suckers, run 

small. 

31. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate ; alewives, run small. 
June 1. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate. 

2. Lampreys, suckers and alewives, run small. 

3. Lampreys, run moderate ; suckers, run small. 

4. Lampreys, run moderate ; suckers, run small. 

5. Lampreys, run moderate ; suckers, run small. 

6. Lampreys and suckers, run small (river high). 

7. Lampreys and suckers, run small. 

8. Alewives, run large; lampreys, run moderate; suckers, run 

small (warm day). 

9. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run small (a cold, raw day). 

10. Lampreys and suckers, run small. 

11. Lampreys and suckers, run small. 

12. One salvion, 10 pounds ; lampreys, alewives and suckers, run 

small. 

13. One salmon, 10 pounds ; lampreys, alewives and^ suckers, run 

small. 

14. One shad; lampreys, alewives and suckers, run small. 

15. 0}ie salmon, 15 pounds ; one shad ; lampreys, alewives and 

suckers, run small ; one red perch. 

16. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run small ; one large silver 

eel. 

17. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run small. 

18. Four salmon, two shad, a few lampreys, alewives and small 

silver eels. 

19. One salmon, one shad, two black bass, a few small silver eels. 

20. Two salmon, a few alewives, suckers and small silver eels. 

21. Small silver eels, run small; a few suckers and alewives. 

22. A few suckers and small silver eels. 

23. A few suckers and small silver eels, one large silver eel. 

24. A few suckers and small silver eels. 

25. A few suckers and small silver eels. 

26. A few suckers and small silver eels, two alewives. 

27. A few suckers and small silver eels. 

28. A few suckers and small silver eels. 

29. A few suckers and small silver eels, two alewives. 

30. A few suckers and small silver eels. 

July 1. One salmon, 8 to 10 pounds; a few suckers and small silver 
eels. 

2. One. black bass, a few suckers and small silver eels. 

3. A few suckers and small silver eels. 

4. One salmon, 8 pounds; one black bass, a few suckers and 

small silver eels. 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 7 

July 5. A few suckers and small silver eels. 

6. A few suckers and small silver eels. 

7. A few suckers and small silver eels. 

8. One salmon, 8 pounds ; a few suckers and small silver eels 

(River had risen this morning, effect of recent showers. 
Mr. Riddle, Fish Commissioner of New Hampshire, and a 
member of the New Hampshire Fish and Game Associa- 
tion, were present when I shut the water off at noontime 
and saw the salmon.) 
From July 9 to the end of the month nothing in the fishway 
but a few suckers, silver eels and chubs. 
Aug. 1. Suckers and small silver eels, run small. 

2. Suckers and silver eels (some small eels and some good size) 

run small. 

3. Suckers and silver eels, run small. 

4. Suckers, chubs and silver eels, run small. 

5. One black bass; suckers and silver eels, run small. 
6 Suckers and silver eels, run small. 

7. Suckers and small silver eels, run moderate. 

8. Suckers, run small ; silver eels, run moderate. 

9. One salmo7i, 10 pounds; one black bass; suckers and silver 

eels, run small. 
From Aug. 10 to Aug. 24 nothing in the fishway but suckers 
and silver eels ; river very high and muddy ; from Aug. 15 
to 21 very few fish. 

25. One black bass ; suckers, run small ; a few silver eels. 

26. 07ie black bass ; suckers, run moderate ; a few silver eels. 

27. Suckers, run moderate ; a few silver eels. 

28. Suckers and silver eels, run small. 

29. One black bass ; suckers, run moderate ; a few silver eels. 

30. Suckers and silver eels, run small. 

31. Suckers and silver eels, run small. 

From Sept. 1 to Sept. 8 nothing in the fishway but suckers, in 
moderate numbers, and a few silver eels. 
Sept. 9. One black bass ; suckers, run moderate; a few silver eels. 

During the remainder of September nothing but a few suckers 

and silver eels were in the fishway. The water was low 

the last part of the month, but it commenced to rise the 

second week in October, and the " Fall run " was as follows : 

Oct. 20. A few silver eels. 

21. Two silver eels. 

22. No fish. 

23. Suckers, run moderate. 

24. One salmon, 10 pounds ; suckers, run large. 

25. Suckers, run small, 

26. Suckers, run moderate. 

27. Suckers, run small. 

28. Suckers, run small. 

29. One salmon, 12 pounds ; suckers, run small. 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



Oct. 30. 


Suckers, run small. 


■ 31. 


Suckers, run small. 


Nov. 1. 


Suckers, run small. 


2. 


Suckers, run small. 


3. 


A very few suckers; river high, and rising. 


4. 


No fish ; river higher, and very muddy. 


5. 


No fish ; river high, and very muddy. 




T. S. HOLMES, 




In Charge of Fishway. 



Trout. (SahiiofontinaUs.) 

So far as reported, the distribution of trout fry has been 
more successful than was anticipated. The supply has been 
so limited heretofore, that the number to be distributed has 
been inadequate to the demand. 

There will be ready for delivery, next May and June, 
about two hundred and fifty thousand young trout ; nearly 
double the number we had last spring. With the present 
arrangements at Plymouth, N. H., the annual distribution 
will probably be from four to five hundred thousand, which 
will give all an ample supply. 

These are especially desirable for the western part of the 
State, where the waters are almost depleted of this valuable 
fish. From twenty to thirty thousand can be carried under 
the care of one person at a trip ; as most railroads transport 
them without charge, the expense of distributing them will 
be small. 

The following list shows the distribution for 1885 : — 



J. H. Whitcomb, . 


. Ayer, . 


. 2 cans 


J. 0. Parker, 


. Methuen, 


. 1 can. 


H. R. Peirson, 


. Pittsfield, . 


. 6 cans 


L. P. Keyes, . 


. Southfield, . 


. 2 « 


A. P. Tobey, . 


. Waquoit, 


. 2 « 


W. H. Burlen, 


. Sherborn, 


. 2 " 


G. H. Griffin, 


. Wareham, . 


. 1 can. 


A. N. Doane, 


. Harwich Port, 


. 1 " 


A. L. LoTvell, 


. Cotuit, . 


. 1 " 


Eben Sutton, 


. No. Andover, 


. 2 cans 


S. V. Gifford, 


. Duxbury, 


. 2 " 


E. H. Lathrop, 


. Springfield, . 


. 6 " 


L. A. Hunt, . 


. AVilliamstown, 


. 2 " 


John Cummins, . 


. Woburn, 


. 2 " 


Thos. Talbot, 


. No. Billerica, 


. 2 " 


E. G. Loomis, 


. Bedford, 


. 2 " 



1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



J. A. Loring, 


. Cape Cod, . 


. 2 cans 


H. R Kidder, 


. Newton Centre, . 


. 1 can. 


G. W. Morse, 


. ■ Newtonville, 


. 2 cans. 


G. M. Barnard, . 


. Cape Cod, . 


. 1 can. 


H. Nevvcomb, 


. Greenwood, . 


. 1 " 


J. B. Hull, . 


. Stockbridge, 


1 " 


J. Crane, 
M. 0. Adams, 




1 " 


. Asliburnham, 


1 " 



Landlocked Salmox. {Salmo Sebago.) 

A large number of these fish have been distributed in the 
waters of this State, many of them in ponds which were not 
suitable for them. This could not well be avoided, as the 
Commissioners could not visit many of the ponds and had to 
rely upon the statement of applicants. In some cases where 
it was evident that they would not thrive, the applicant 
insisted upon trying the experiment. 

In distributing the fish we have always stated that it would 
probably be some years after they were planted before they 
would make their appearance. In some of the ponds where 
they were first placed and applicants had given up all 
hope of seeing them, they have this year appeared in con- 
siderable numbers. 

The salmon fry, hatched from spawn received from Grand 
Lake Stream, Me., were distributed as follows : — 



James O. Parker 
J. W. Win slow, 
Chas. S. Bird, 
L. P. Keyes, . 
Thos. H. Lawrence 

A. N. Doane, 
E. G. Loomis, 

B. C. Gaboon, 
H. H. Dame, 
J. B Hull, . 
Sam'l Parker, 
A. L. Lowell, 
M. O. Adams, 

Small, , 

L W. Perham, 



Methuen, 


. . . 1 can. 


West Brewster, 


. 6 cans. 


East Walpole, 
Southbridge, 


. 6 " 
. 4 " 


Falmouth, 


. 6 " 


Harwich Port, 


. 8 " 


Bedford, 


. 1 can. 


Falmouth, . 


. 6 cans. 


North Reading, 


. 4 « 


Stockbridge, 


. « 


Wakefield, . 


. 5 " 


Cotuit, . 


. 1 can. 


Ashburnham, 


. 5 cans. 


Provincetown, 


. 2 " 


Woburn, 


. 1 can. 



The average number in a can was about 3,580 fish, and 
the number delivered to each applicant was with reference to 
the suitability of the water where they were to be pLiced. 



10 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

Salmon. (Sahno solar.) 

There has been an increased run of salmon in the Merri- 
mac the past year. During the last four years there have 
been four or five hundred thousand young salmon planted 
annually in the upper waters, and the return of these, if 
they are allowed to reach their spawning grounds, will 
largely increase the fish in this river, and will preclude the 
necessity of going elsewhere for spawn. 

A few salmon have been killed at the dams during low 
water, but the most serious depredations have been com- 
mitted near Haverhill, where, from the appearance of the 
dead salmon found below the falls, it was evident that the 
Indian spear, so commonly used in Canadian waters, was 
used at this place. This fact was not reported to the Com- 
mission until near the close of the season, when steps were 
immediately taken to arrest the parties, who escaped under 
cover of the darkness and did not again appear. The 
parties are known and will be watched. This is the only 
place on the river where such depredations can be success- 
fully carried on. 

But for the efforts in trying to- substitute the California 
for the Atlantic salmon, mainly as a matter of economy, full 
details of which have been given in former reports, and the 
destruction of several hundreds of mature salmon below 
Lawrence in 1880-1, while on their way to their spawning 
grounds, the river would now be self-sustaining. 

The Commissioners of Maine, who have given special 
attention to this subject, and whose facilities for obtaining 
spawn are better than in other States, have not only sus- 
tained their salmon fisheries, but have greatly increased 
them. The catch in their waters for the past season is 
reported to be the largest for fifty years. 

To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries for the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts. 

In Januarj', 1885, I received from the salmon-breeding estab- 
lishment at Backsport, Maine, 340,000 Penobscot salmon eggs, 
75,000 of which were given by Prof. Spencer F. Baird, U. S. 
Fish Commissioner, to New Hampshire. These, with the eggs 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 11 

taken from tbe Pemigewasset or Merrimac River salmon, were 
successfully hatched, and tbe young fry were planted in the head 
waters of the Pemigewasset River. The plant was made without 
an}' loss, although the larger part were carried twenty miles above 
Livermore P'alls. 

The salmon were more numerous in the river than last season, 
but the low water in June made it difficult for them to pass the 
falls at Amoskeag. 

During the great freshet here in August quite a large number of 
salmon went by here and over Livermore Falls, and they have 
been seen in many places above liere, as far up as the east branch 
in North Woodstock, but I have not had any report of their being 
killed. 

Had there been the usual amount of water in the river in June, 
we should have had a larger run of salmon than any year since 
this station was established. 

The young salmon have been more numerous in the river than 
usual this summer, as was expected from the large plant made in 
1883 and 1884. 

The brook-trout eggs will exceed half a million, the large 
increase coming from the trout added last year. 

The one-half of the trout eggs belonging to Massachusetts will 
be sent to you as soon as sufficiently developed to allow moving 
with safety. 

There are now about 10,000 trout, from one year old up to six, 
in the breeding-ponds. 

Respectfully^ yours, 

E. B. Hodge, 

Superintendent. 
Plymouth, N. H., Nov. 21, 1885. 



Shad Hatching on the Merrimac. 

Shad hatching was continued at North Andover during 
the past season, with good results. In order to avoid gilling 
the salmon, a net was used with a mesh of two and one- 
half inches, which not only enabled us to return the salmon 
alive to the river, .but developed the fact that the river was 
full of young male shad from one to two years old. These 
young males return with the mature females, while the 
young females do not return until they are three or four 
years old, or until they are sufficiently mature to spawn. 

The result of the prohibition of the use of small-mesh 



12 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

seines at the mouth of the river, and the two years* hatching 
at North Andover, was very marked. Often from seventy- 
tive to a hundred young shad were taken at one sweep of 
the seine. 

By enforcing the present laws and continuing the hatching, 
the shad fisheries of the Merrimac, not only below, but above 
the dams, will be restored to much of their former value. 

More shad have passed over the Lawrence fish way this 
year than in any previous year since it was built. The fish- 
ways on the Merrimac have been thoroughly tested, and the 
Commissioners of New Hampshire are satisfied that the only 
thing necessary to restock the river is to plant large 
numbers of young migratory fish in the upper waters. One 
hundred and seventy thousand shad were taken up this year 
and planted near Concord, and next year there will prob- 
ably be a much larger number at their disposal. 

We have slated in former reports that the fishway at 
Lawrence was adequate to the passage of all kinds of fish 
that frequent the river, and it stands to-day the only fishway 
over which shad are known to have passed. 

We have also stated that, owing to the present appliances 
for their capture, migratory fish could not be maintained 
except by artificial hatching. This opinion is now enter- 
tained by all intelligent fish-culturists. 

From important statistics obtained by Col. McDonald, 
Assistant U. S, Commissioner, he has been able to demon- 
strate that the commercial value of the increase, due to arti- 
ficial hatching, has been ten times greater than the sums 
spent yearly by the Fish Commissioners, upon works of 
propagation. 

Rivers where artificial hatching has been continued have 
not only maintained their fish, but have considerably increased 
their numbers ; while in others, where it has been neglected or 
temporarily abandoned, there has been an alarming decrease. 

The value of the shad fisheries on the Connecticut has fallen 
oflf more than fifty per cent, on the upper part, and on the 
lower part twenty- five per cent ; and a much larger decrease 
has taken place on the Merrimac. The first experiment, of 
only a few years, on the latter, brought the shad fisheries 
from an annual catch of only about one thousand, up to 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 13 



seventeen thousand; but the prejudice against artificial 
hatching was so great that it became necessary to keep a 
night watch, to prevent the destruction of the hatching boxes. 

The work was an experiment, and under this state of 
feeling it was thought best to temporarily suspend opera- 
tions, and await results. 

The third year after this the ciatch of shad began to fall 
off, and continued in its downward tendency unti^l last year, 
the third since hatching was resumed, when there was a 
decided change for the better. 

The prejudice has given place to a more intelligent appre- 
ciation of the work ; it is no longer an experiment, and a 
wise policy demands that the artificial hatching for the 
maintenance and increase of the shad fisheries should be 
vigorously prosecuted. The expense is small, and the results 
as certain as that of any other culture. 

To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries : 

Gentlemen, — "We respectfally submit the following report, giv- 
ing the full details of the hatching of shad at North Andover for 
the 3'ear of 1885. 

The hatcher}^ was opened June 10th, and closed July 15th. 

^Number of shad taken, 701 

returned to river alive, . . . 490 

given away, 214 

of males, 546 

of females, 158 

of salmon taken, 7 

returned to river alive, . . . . . 7 

It will be seen by this table that nearly eighty per cent, of the 
fish taken were males. Of the 158 females, 88 were in a condi- 
tion to furnish spawn. The amount of eggs was estimated to be 
fully 528,000, a yield of 6,000 per fish. This seems to be a small 
amount when we consider the fact that a full-grown female con- 
tains 40,000 eggs ; but the eggs do not all become mature at the 
same time, consequently but few are taken from each fish. 

The number of shad hatched was not far from 500,000. Of this 
number 170,000 were sent by rail to the Fish Commissioners of 
New Hampshire ; and, as I am informed by Mr. Riddle, one of the 
Commissioners, these were turned into the Merrimac near Manches- 
ter. The balance, 330,000, were turned into the Merrimac at North 
Andover. The followino^ table will show the number of fish taken 



14 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



each da}", the temperature of the water and au', the proportion of 
males to females, the time of drawing the seine ; also the number 
of fish taken at each sweep and the estimated amount of spawn 
taken each day. 



1885. 


i 

-a 

1 

d 
!25 


i 


i 


2 S 

3 p. 

<u o s 

5 3 


1 a 

a u 


Time of haul- 
ing seine, 
(p.m.) 


Fish 
per sweep. 


Estimated 
number of 
eggs taken. 


June 10, . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 




- 


11, . 


14 


11 


3 


68 


68 


7, 


8, 


3,11, 


000 


12, . 


26 


21 


5 


69 


67 


7, 


8, 9, 


5, 10, 11, 


000 


13, . 


45 


40 


5 


71 


68 


7, 


8, 


11, 34, 


000 


15, . 


18 


18 





75 


70 


6, 


9, 


2,16, 


20,000 


16, . 


42 


38 


4 


77 


72 


8, 


9, 


16, 26, 


15,000 


17, . 


64 


57 


7 


76 


63 


6, 


7, 8,9,10, 


2, 2,32,15,13, 


25,000 


18, . 


37 


26 


11 


77 


67 


8, 


9, 


17,20, 


20,000 


19, . 


44 


37 


7 


77 


68 


8, 


9, 10, 


15, 17, 12, 


20,000 


20, . 


38 


26 


12 


78 


70 


8, 


9, 


26, 12, 


10,000 


22, . 


32 


28 


4 


76 


63 


7, 


8, 9, 


20, 3, 9, 


17,000 


23, . 


9 


9 





70 


60 


8, 


9, 


1, 8, 


000 


24, . 


43 


34 


9 


72 


64 


8, 


9, 10, 


10, 18, 15, 


50,000 


25, . 


38 


30 


8 


73 


65 


8, 


9,10, 


8, 18, 12, 


40,000 


26, . 


29 


22 


7 


76 


72 


8, 


9,10. 


8,12, 9, 


35,000 


27, . 


17 


12 


5 


76 


70 


8, 


9,10, 


4, 5, 8, 


26,000 


29, . 


14 


10 


4 


75 


68 


7, 


8, 9, 


4, 1, 9, 


12,000 


30, . 


26 


20 


6 


75 


64 


8, 


9, 


6,20, 


20,000 


July 1, . 


16 


10 


6 


72 


60 


8, 


9, 


6,10, 


25,000 


2, . 


22 


14 


8 


72 


58 


8, 


9,10, 


3,12, 7, 


000 


3, . 


8 


3 


5 


72 


64 


8, 


9, 


4, 4, 


000 


6, . 


28 


18 


10 


76 


68 


8, 


9, 


15, 13, 


50,000 


7, . 


19 


14 


5 


76 


66 


7, 


8, 


10, 9, 


30,000 


8, . 


24 


21 


3 


78 


77 


8, 


9, 


15, 9, 


25,000 


9, . 


10 


7 


3 


80 


75 


8, 


9, 


3, 7, 


10,000 


10, . 


10 


6 


4 


80 


74 


9, 


10, 


7, 3, 


18,000 


11, . 


9 


5 


4 


78 


64 


8, 


9, 


8, 1, 


10,000 


13, . 


8 


4 


4 


79 


63 


8, 


9, 


4, 4, 


25,000 


14, . 


11 


5 


6 


76 


64 


7, 


8, 


8, 3, 


25,000 


15, . 


3 





3 


76 


69 


7, 


8, 


3, 0, 


000 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

The water remained high all the season, and, as was predicted 
in the last report, there was a decided increase in the run of fish. 
Many hundreds of 3^oung shad were taken. They were of two 
sizes — from one-half to one pound in weight ; they were returned 
to the river alive. 

We are confident that the enforcement of the act of the legis- 
lature in reference to the use of fine-mesh seines at the mouth of 
the river, is having a good effect ; in fact, it is the only protection 
the young fish can have. There are good reasons for anticipating 
a much larger run of fish in the Merrimac in 1886 than has been 
seen for the last fifteen years. 

The increase in the number taken in 1885, at the hatching sta- 
tion at North Andover, as compared with the number taken in 
1884, was over three hundred per cent. 
Yours truly, 



B. P. Chad WICK. 
PoBT. Elliot. 



Bradford, Aug. 20, 1885. 



The Results of Shad Propagation on the Atlantic 

Coast. 

[From « Science " of Nov. 13, 1885.] 

At a recent meetinor of the Biological society of Washing- 
ton, Col. Marshall McDonald read a paper upon the neces- 
sity of artificial propagation, in relation to the maintenance 
of the shad fisheries. He argued that the shad fisheries 
depend upon artificial production for their maintenance. 
This theory was illustrated by a comparison of statistics for 
1880 and 1885, and a consideration- of the attendant condi- 
tions. The figures for 1880 were taken from the census 
reports ; those for 1885 from a recent reconnoissance by 
experts, usually the same persons who made the census 
reports. He brought together the statistics of all the rivers 
of the Atlantic slope. The catch in each river fluctuates 
under local conditions. It is not true that shad, spawned in 
certain rivers, necessarily return to the same rivers. They 
remain, it is true, in the geographical area in which they 
were spawned, but may seek any fresh water within that 
area. It is only by taking the statistics of the rivers of the 
entire area that it could be determined whether there had 
been an actual increase or decrease. Table I. ffivino: " Com- 
parative statistics of the shad fisheries of the Atlantic rivers," 
was submitted. 



16 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



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1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



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18 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

While the commercial value of the increase was not large 
compared. with the whole, that sum was ten times as great as 
the yearly sum spent by the Fish Commission upon the work 
of propagation. 

In order to arrive at a measure of the increase or decrease 
of the shad fisheries of the Atlantic coast rivers, it is nec- 
essary to compare the aggregate catch in the principal rivers. 
Conclusions based upon the fluctuations of catch in a single 
river are necessarily fallacious, since such fluctuations are 
due to local causes. So far as the shad is concerned, all the 
rivers draining into the Atlantic between Cape Cod and the 
capes of the Chesapeake, and the submerged continental 
borders lying between the coast line and the Gulf Stream, 
constitute a single zoological province, within the limits of 
which the migrations of the shad are confined. 

In February and March, when their migrations into con- 
tinental waters begin, the direction of their movements is 
largely determined by temperature conditions existing in the 
area in which they are. The principal migration may be 
into the Chesapeake, or it maybe up the coast into the 
Delaware, the Hudson, and the Connecticut; but in either 
case the aggregate catch will furnish a just measure of 
increase or decrease. A comparison of the statistics of the 
fisheries for 1880 and 1885 (see Table I.) shows a gain of 
nearly eight per cent, in the aggregate catch. The signifi- 
cance of this, as showing the value and necessity of artificial 
propagation, will be better appreciated by considering the 
adverse conditions under which it has been accomplished : — 

1. Access to suitable spawning grounds in fresh water is 
a physiological necessity. 

2. Access in suflScient numbers to compensate by natural 
reproduction, waste by casualty or capture, is necessary to 
prevent the eventual destruction of our shad fisheries if we 
rely upon natural reproduction solely. 

3. Existing adverse conditions limit natural reproduction, 
so that we cannot depend upon it to keep up supply. 

(a) Dams in our rivers have curtailed the spawning areas 
to less than half of what they formerly were. 

(b) The spawning grounds still accessible have been 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

destroyed by the pollution of the waters, which are thus ren- 
dered unfit to sustain the delicate embryo shad. 

(c.) The change in the location of the fishing grounds, 
and the increasing proportion of shad taken year by year 
outside of the mouths of the rivers, or in the rivers before 
they have reached spawning grounds, has so reduced natural 
reproduction as to render it an insignificant factor in keeping 
up supply. 

Under such conditions, the spawning area being limited, 
and the shad excluded from fresh water, without artificial 
propagation, the shad must soon be exterminated, or there 
must at least be such reduction as to render the fisheries 
unprofitable. Such a crisis was fast approaching in 1879, 
when the Fish Commission began the work of shad propaga- 
tion. The work of artificial propagation has not only held the 
balance even, but resulted in a slight increase. 

Colonel McDonald deprecated the methods employed in 
shad fishing, especially the use of pound nets. In the Con- 
necticut River, where pound nets are used, the greater part 
of the catch is taken in salt water. In the Hudson, since 
the laws of New York do not permit fishing with pound nets, 
the river is not obstructed to the same extent as the Con- 
necticut. In the Delaware, where an increase is shown, 
there are no pound nets. In the Chesapeake and its tributa- 
ries, with a decrease of 21 per cent., 713,000 of the shad 
caught this year, or more than one-half of the whole catch, 
were caught in the salt water of the bay. The pound nets 
begin at the capes, and extend to the mouth of the Potomac. 
Prior to 1871 the shad were taken entirely in fresh water, 
but now over one-half are caught in salt water. In the 
Potomac River nearly one-half of the catch is made in water 
where the fish cannot spawn. In the Rappahannock one-half 
the catch is in brackish water. In the York River the catch 
is practically below Gloucester Point. In the James River 
there are no pound nets, and in that river is an increase in 
the catch. While the fisheries in the Chesapeake Bay and 
its tributaries, as a whole, have fallen off 21 per cent., the 
decrease in the catch in certain rivers is much greater. The 
catch in the Susquehanna in 1880 was 614,000, against 
212,000 in 1885; and in the Potomac, 552,857 in 1880, 



20 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

against 157,697 in 1885. The reason of this is obvious. 
In 1871 there were no pound nets in Chesapeake Bay, and 
no shad were taken until they entered fresh water. Gilling 
was not prosecuted so low down the river as now. In 1880 
there were in Chesapeake Bay 180 pound nets set in the 
track followed by the shad along the western shore, and 
through these the shad had to run a gauntlet up to the 
mouths of the rivers. Now there are 1,000 pound nets, 
occupying the western shores of the bay, and excluding the 
fish from the fresh water. The effect of the salt-water fishery 
is to diminish natural reproduction, and to invoke artificial 
propagation as a necessary aid to the fisheries. If all shad 
were excluded from our rivers for three or four years, with- 
out artificial propagation, the species would be exterminated. 
Taking all the facts into consideration, and the inadequacy 
of natural reproduction to supply the annual loss, we must 
credit artificial reproduction not only with having maintained 
the fisheries where they were, but with an increase which 
repays ten times the cost of the work of shad propagation, as 
carried on by the U. S. Fish Commission and those of the 
several States. 

While Col. McDonald's statistics are important, showing 
as they do the value of artificial propagation, he has proba- 
bly fallen into an error in stating that shad do not necessa- 
rily return to the rivers and streams where they are bred. 
There are no facts, that we are aware of, to sustain such an 
assertion, while on the other hand there is abundant evidence 
proving that rivers once depleted of migratory fish are never 
restocked except by artificial means. There are rivers in 
this State where migratory fish were all destroyed, and for 
forty years not a vestige of them was seen, which, however, 
were easily restocked by putting into their headwaters 
young fish, hatched from spawn taken from adult fish of other 
waters. 

To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries 

Gentlemen, — In making my report on the fisheries of the lower 
Merrimac, I have but little to sa3\ No menhaden have appeared 
in the river daring the past season, and no vessels, outside of 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 21 

Newbiiryport, have been here for bait. What the fishermen call 
sea shad were found in small numbers on the 12th of June, and 
ten days' fishing resulted in taking about sixteen hundred of thera, 
which were sold for about one hundred dollars. 

There were about one hundred and fift}' dollars worth of blue- 
fish taken in August. In September some excitement was created 
b\^ the report that there was a large school of sea shad in the river. 
These reports are periodical, and often break out without any real 
foundation, so that it is difficult to find out the facts without con- 
siderable labor. 

Although satisfied in my own mind that the report was not true, 
I went down with the fishermen, and, as directed by your Chair- 
man, allowed them to use their seines, which resulted in the taking 
of two hundred two-j^ear-old shad. As these fish, in m}^ judgment 
as well as that of the fishermen, belonged to the Merrimac, all that 
could be were returned to the water alive. 

This fact shows the importance of protecting the river ; for, had 
free fishing been carried on, as it practically was before the enforce- 
ment of the law, all the labor of restocking the river would have 
been destroyed. These young shad were undoubtedly the males 
that accompanied the females up the river in May and June. 

Less young shad have been destroyed this season, than at any 
time in m}^ memor}', and I have been familiar with the fisheries 
there from ni}^ boyhood. 

One hundred barrels of bait have been caught, mostl}^ used for 
eel-pots ; and, in addition, about fifty barrels of spirling. The 
whole amount for the fisheries for the season cannot exceed, in 
round numbers, three hundred and fifty dollars ; it will therefore be 
seen that the fishing for bait here has been almost an entire fail- 
ure. 

A portion of the fishermen appear to be satisfied with the present 
arrangements, while others would not be contented with anything 
short of the right to take everything in the river regardless of the 
consequences. 

The lobster law has been enforced on this part of tlie coast, as 
well as it could be with the limited means at mj^ disposal. Three 
persons were arrested and convicted for catching and retaining 
short lobsters at the mouth of Ipswich River, two of whom were old 
oflfenders. 

Yours truly, 

Edwin F. Hunt. 



22 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec, 



Leased Ponds. 

The last legislature repealed the authority for leasing 
ponds. Whether this was wise legislation, is a question upon 
which there is a decided difference of opinion. There are in 
this State one hundred and ninety-six thousand three hun- 
dred and forty-three acres of land covered with water, capa- 
ble of yielding an annual income of nearly a million of 
dollars. 

A question of so much importance cannot be easily laid 
aside, and, as the public become better informed in regard to 
it, will be likely to come up for further consideration. So 
far as we know the public sentiment is in favor of some regu- 
lation or protection of these waters. 

As the leased ponds are allowed fishing until the first of 
December, the returns received up to the time of going to 
press are, in many cases, estimates, and not made up from 
returns of all the permits issued. In most instances where 
intelligent control has been exercised, there appears to have 
been a decided increase of the fish. 

The lessees of Onota Lake have made the following re- 
port, which we commend to other lessees as the only way in 
which correct data can be had from year to year of the in- 
crease of the fish under their charge : — 

PiTTSFiELD, Nov. 28, 1885. 

Report of fish caught in Onota Lake for the year 1855. 

Black bass 1,500 lbs 

Pickerel, 1,000 " 

Yellow perch, 2,000 " 

Rock bass, .... .... 2,0U0 " 

Bull-heads, 200 " 

White perch (a few in number). 

Wall-eyed pike, 5| " 

Landlocked salmon (11 in number), . 25 " 

Total, . . 6,730 lbs. 

Landlocked salmon, which were introduced into this pond 
several years ago, and were reported to be an entire failure, 
have now begun to make their appearance. 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 23 



Carp Culture. 

The cultivation of carp has already, in the Southern and 
Western States, become an important industry, and an Amer- 
ican Carp- cultural Association has been formed, with a wide 
extended membership of experienced fish-culturists. 

But little has been done in this State, owing to a prevail- 
ing impression that Massachusetts is too far north for the 
successful cultivation of this fish. That this idea is errone- 
ous, is clearly shown by several large ponds in the State, 
already heavily stocked with carp, the largest, perhaps, 
being that belonging to the Green estate in Worcester, con- 
taining, as it does, nearly seventy-five acres. This pond is 
made by throwing a dam across the foot of a meadow ; there 
is no stream running into it, but it is mainly supplied by the 
water-shed, and was originally intended for a reservoir for 
supplying the insane asylum with water. 

In October, 1881, Mr. Green obtained 19 carp from the 
State hatching-house, Winchester ; and in November, from 
other sources, 47 more, making in all 66. They have grown 
and bred very rapidly, so that now the pond is full of carp 
from four to twelve, eighteen and twenty-five inches long, 
and Mr. Green is satisfied that some of the oldest will weigh 
from twelve to sixteen pounds. 

He has not, himself, marketed any, but has allowed his 
children to take out a few which they sold to a fish-dealer at 
eighteen cents per lb. 

Although this pond is not arranged as a carp pond should 
be, having none of the appliances of fish-culture, and at best 
is simply a matter of maintenance, it fully demonstrates the 
advantage that might accrue to thousands of our farmers, 
who have suitable places for the rearing of these fish. 

In order to give the best information that can be had on 
this subject, and also to answer the numerous inquiries that 
are being made, we have published, in the supplement, ex- 
tracts from the reports of the United States Commissioner, 
giving full information. 

Through the kindness of Prof. Baird, the State received, 
about the 20th of October, two thousand young carp, which 
have been distributed as follows : — 



24 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



George Sibley, . 


. 




Salem, . 








50 


Aug. Fels, . 






Lowell, 








50 


W. 0. Cutter, 






East Wareham, 








50 


W. H. P. Wright 


• 




Lawrence, . 








30 


Liberty Allen, . 






Fiskville, 








30 


E. Howe, . 






East Brookfield, . 








50 


E. Cbace, . 






Swansea, 








50 


H. W. Dudley, 






Abington, . 








30 


Eben Sutton, 






North Andover, . 








50 


S.N Small, 






South Brewster, 








50 


A. N. Doane, 






Harwich Port, 








50 


G. A. Sammet, 






Boston, 








60 


George W. Mors 


e, 




Newton, 








50 


Edward Mott, 






Taunton, 








30 


W. H. Abbott, 






South Easton, 








100 


C. H. Wise, 






Boston, 








50 


A. F. Crowell, 






North Falmouth, 








50 


E. G Elliot, 






Bradford, 








30 


A Wiggin, 






Stratham,N. H, 








30 


G. M. French, 






Holliston, . 








25 


J. D. Ellis, . 






West Dedham, 








30 


D. M. Ayer, 






Methuen, 








50 


C. A. Rowland, 






Adams, 








50 


L. Rawson, . 






Holliston, 








30 


J. Fottler, Jr., 






Boston, 








25 


M. A Herrick, 






Winchester, . 








30 


J. P. Woodworth, 




Chicopee, 








55 


F. C. Wetherhed, 




Auburn, 








50 


Tewksbury Rese 


rvoir 


> 


. 








600 



Arrangements have been made to supply all who have suit- 
able ponds and will make application for them before the 
first of September, giving full description of pond, and stat- 
ing what kinds of fish, if any, are now in them. AVhere 
parties are unknown to the Commissioners, the application 
should be endorsed by the senator or representative of the 
district where the parties belong. 

Carp can be forwarded to any part of the State by express. 
The interest in the distribution and cultivation of fish is in- 
creasing, and the demand for fry this year was greater than 
in any previous year. 

The introduction of carp alone will add considerable to 
the work of the Commission. This fish ofiers to all who have 
suitable places an easy cultivation and certain return. They 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 25 

are of especial importance to the farmer in the interior of 
the State, where fish are not readily obtained. 

Keturns of Weirs, Seines and Gill-nets. 

Returns have been received from 184 fisheries of the foU 
lowing kinds : 80 pounds or weirs, 19 sea seines, 59 gill-nets, 
1 Connecticut River seine, 2 Merrimac River seines, 10 Taun- 
ton River seines, and 13 other fresh-water seines. On com- 
parison with the season of 1884, it appears that 21 less returns 
were received this year. Five men who returned last year 
have sent word that they are no longer fishing, but these ate 
more than ofiset by seven from whom returns are received 
for the first time, so it is probable that the decrease is due 
to non-compliance with the law. It is, however, gratifying 
to note that most of the names reappear year after year, and 
that many fishermen are in sympathy with the work of the 
Commission. 

Notwithstanding the diminished number of fisheries, there 
is, as compared with 1884, a gain in the catch of shad, ale- 
wives, sea-herring, mackerel, tautog and flatfish, and a loss 
in the catch of menhaden, striped bass, scup, squeteague, 
Spanish mackerel, bluefish and eels. 

The increase of 7,648 in the shad caught, is due to a 
marked increase in the number taken in pounds and weirs, 
but the river fisheries also report more than last year.* The 
decrease in the catch of bluefish seems to be general and not 
confined to any particular method of fishing, so that it is 
probable that this fish was less abundant than in recent years. 
Among the returns under the heading of " other edible fish" 
a decided increase in the catch of shore cod is noted. On 
the 14th of May one salmon, and on the 29th, two salmon, 
were caught in weirs at Provincetown. 

E. A. BRACKETT. 

F. W. PUTNAM. 
E. H. LATHROP. 



* Of the 1,718 shad caught in the Connecticut at South Hadley, 150 are set down 
as " small shad." 



26 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec.'85. 



EXPENSES OF COMMISSION. 



Salary, 

Travelling expenses . 






• 






$1,685 00 
264 66 




Ge> 


ERAL 


Expenses. 




Expenses Joint Hatchery 


at Lit 


ermore 


Falls, N. H. 


E. B. Hodge, services, 

Services of Assistant. 

Fish meat, . 

Rent of cottage, 

Expressage, 

Salmon, 

House, 














$450 00 

134 25 

39 50 

37 50 

7 43 

8 62 
961 59 


Expenses 


at Lawrence. 


Fishw 


ay. 


Thomas S. Holmes, service 
Lumber and labor, 


s, 










170 00 
28 00 



$1,949 66 



f 1,638 89 



$98 00 



Expenses Shad Hatching Establishrnenf, North Andover. 



E. F. Hunt, services, 
expenses, 
John L. Murphy, services 
E. S. Robinson, ser\'ices, 
Patrick Barrett, services, 
Robert Elliot, services, 
B P. Chad wick, services, 
expenses, 



$252 00 
49 73 
31 00 
31 00 
31 00 
62 00 
82 50 
17 06 



hatching. 



Daniel T. Devoll, legal services, 
A. B. Coffin, legal services, 
Jennie Smith, clerical services. 
Rent of land at Winchester for fish 

Web, 

Printing, 

Plans of Fishway at Yarmouth, 

North Harwich .... 
Subscription to Fund of Penobscot Salmon Breeding Estab 

lishment, 1885-6, 

Expressage, 

J. C. Walker, labor at Winchester hatching house, . 
Subscription to Fund of Schoodic Salmon Breeeding Estab 

lishment, 1885-6, 

Tin pails for carp, 



1556 29 


50 00 


30 00 


20 00 


50 00 


8 93 


11 79 


5 00 


5 00 


600 00 


45 28 


20 00 


300 00 


17 00 



$5,405 84 



APPENDIX 



28 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



[A.] 



LIST OF FISH COMMISSIONERS. 

[From " Forest and Stream."] 

Dominion of Canada. 

[We cannot learn that any appointment has been madu to the office vaca- 
ted by Mr. W. F. Whitcher two years ago.] 

Province of New Brunswick. 
W. H Venning, Inspector of Fisheries, . St. John. 

Province of Nova Scotia. 
W. H. Rogers, Inspector, . . . Amherst. 

Province of Prince Edward Island. 
J. H. Davar, Inspector, .... Alberton. 

Province of British Columbia. 
A. C. Anderson, ..... Victoria. 

The United States. 



Prof. Spencer F. Baird, 



Col. D. R.Hundley, . 
Hon. Charles S. G. Doster, 



Washington, D. C. 



Alabama. 



Arizona 



J. J. Gosper, .... 
Richard Rule, .... 
J. H. Taggart, Business Manager, 



Arkansas. 



James H. Hornibrook, 
H. H. Rottaken, 



Huntsville. 
Prattville. 



Prescott. 

Tombstone. 

Yuma. 



Little Rock. 
Little- Rock. 



1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



29 



California, 

R. H. Buckingham, President, . . . Washington. 

A. B. Dibble, Secretary and Treasurer, . Grass Valley. 

J. D. Redding, ...... San Francisco. 



John Pierce, 



Colorado. 



Denver 



Dr. Wm. M. Hudson, 
Robert G. Pike, 
James A. Bill, . 



Connecticut. 



Hartford. 

Middletown. 

L^^me. 



Delaware. 
Enoch Moore, ...... Wilmington. 

Georgia. 

Hon. J. T. Henderson, Commissioner of 

Agriculture, Atlanta. 

Dr. H. H. Cary, Superintendent of Fish- 
eries, ....... LaGrange. 

Under the laws of tiae State these two consti- 
tute the Board of Fish Commissioners. 

Illinois. 

N. K. Fairbank, President, . . . Chicago. 
S. P. Bartlett, Secretar}', .... Quincy. 
Maj. Geo. Brenning, .... Centralia. 



Enos B. Reed, 



Indiana. 



Iowa. 



A. W. Aldrich, 

A. A. Mosher, ..... 



Indianapolis, 



. Anamosa. 
. Spirit Lake. 



S. Fee, 



Kansas. 



Wamego. 



30 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



Kentucky 



Wm. Griffith, President, 
P. H. Darby, . 
John B. Walker, 
Hon. C. J. Walton, . 
Hon. John A. Steele, 
W. C. Price, . 
Dr. W. Van Antwerp, 
Hon. J. M. Chambers, 
A. H. Goble, . 
J. H. Mallory, . 



. Louisville. 
. Princeton. 
Madison. 
. Munfordville. 
. Versailles. 
. Danville. 
• . Mt. Sterling. 
Independence, Kenton Co. 
. Catlettsburg. 
. Bowling Green. 



Maine. 



E. M. Stilwell, Commissioner of Fish and 

Game, ...... Bangor. 

Henry O. Stanle\% Commissioner of Fish 

and Game, ..... Dixfield. 

B. W. Counce, Commissioner of Sea and 

Shore Fisheries, . . . . . Thomaston. 



G. W. Delawder, 

Dr. E. W. Humphries. 



E. A. Brackett, 

F. W. Putnam, 
E. H. Lathrop, 



Maryland. 



Massachusetts. 



Michigan. 



Dr. J. C. Parker, 

John H. Bissell, 

Herschel Whitaker, . 

(W. D. Marks, Superintendent, 

(A. .J. Kellogg, Secretary, 



Oakland. 
Salisbury. 



Winchester. 
Cambridge. 
Springfield. 



Grand Rapids. 

Detroit. 

Detroit. 

Paris.) 

Detroit.) 



Minnesota. 

1st District — Daniel Cameron, . . La Crescent. 

2d District — Wm. M. Sweney, M. D., . Red Wing. 
3d District — Robt. Ormsby Sweem^ Presi- 
dent, . . . . . . .St. Paul. 

(S. S. Watkins, Superintendent, . . Red Wing.) 



1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



31 



J. G. W. Steedman, 
John Reid, 
Vacancj\ 

W. L. May, 

R. R. Livingston, 

B. E. B. Kennedy, 



Missouri. 



2803 Pine Street, St. Louis. 
. Lexington. 



Nebraska. 



Fremont. 
Plattsmouth, 
. Omalia. 



Nevada. 



Hon. Hubb G. Parker, 



Carson City. 



New Hampshire. 

George W. Riddle, Manchester. 

Luther Ha3^es, Milton. 

E. B. Hodge, . . . . . . Plymouth. 

(E. B. Hodge, Superintendent.) 



New Jersey. 



Richard S. Jenkins, 
William Wright, 
F. M. Ward, . 



Camden. 
Newark. 
Newton. 



New York. 



Hon. R. Barnwell Roosevelt, Pres., 17 Nashua St., New York. 
Gen. Richard U. Sherman, Secretary, New Hartford, Oneida Co. 
Eugene G. Blackford, . . 809 Bedford Ave., Brooklyn. 



William H. Bowman, 
Seth Green, Superintendent, 
Fred Mather, Superintendent, . 
Monroe A. Green, Superintendent, 
F. A. Walters, Superintendent, 



. Rochester. 
. Rochester. 
. Cold Spring Harbor. 
Mumford, Monroe Co. 
Bloomingdale, Essex Co. 



North Carolina. 



M. McGehee, 


. Raleigh . 


Logan Terrell, Assistant, . 


. Raleigh. 


Ohio. 




Col. L. A. Harris, President, 


. Cincinnati. 


George Daniels, .... 


. Sandusky. 


Tames Dority , . . . 


. Toledo. 


(Henry Douglass, Superintendent, . 


. Sandusky.) 



32 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



Pennsylvania. 

John Gay, President, . . . . Greensburg. 

H. H. DeiT, Secretary, . . . . Wilkesbarre. 

Artlmr Maginnis, . . . . Swift Water, Monroe Co. 

A. M. Spangler, Corresponding Secretary, Philadelphia. 

Aug. Duncan, Treasurer, .... Chambersburg. 

Charles Porter, Corry. 



John H. Barden, 
Henry T. Root, 
Col. Amos Sherman. 



Rhode Island. 



Rockland. 
Providence. 
Woon socket. 



South Carolina. 

Hon. A. P. Butler, Commissioner of Agri- 
culture, Columbia. 

C. J. Huske, Superintendent of Fisheries, . Columbia. 
These two constitute the Fish Commission. 



W. W. McDowell, 
H. H. Sneed, . 
Edward D. Hicks, 



Tennessee. 



Memphis. 

Chattanooga. 

Nashville. 



Hiram A. Cutting, 
Herbert Brainerd, 



Vermont. 



Lunenburgh. 
St. Albans. 



Virginia. 



Col. Marshall McDonald, . 



Berry ville. 



West Virginia. 



C. S. White, President, 
N. M. Lowry, Secretary, . 
F. J. Baxter, Treasurer, . 



. Romney. 
Hinton. 
Braxton Court House. 



1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



33 



Wisconsin. 
The Governor, ex officio. 

Philo Dunniog, President, . . . Madison. 

C. L. Valentine, Secretary and Treasurer, . Janesville. 

J. y. Jones, ...... Oshkosh. 

A. V. H. Carpenter, ..... Milwaukee. 

Mark Douglass, ..... Melrose. 

C. Hutchinson, ...... Beetown. 

(James Nevin, Superintendent, . . . Madison.) 



Wyoming Territory. 



Dr. M. C. Barkwell, Chairman, 

Otto Gramm, Secretary, 

N. L. Andrews, 

E. W. Bennett, 

P. J. Downs, 

T. W. Quinn, . . . 



. Cheyenne. 

Laramie. 

. Buffalo, Johnson Co. 

Warm Springs, Carbon Co. 

. Evanston, Uinta Co. 

Lander, Sweetwater Co. 



34 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



[B.] 



LIST OF PONDS LEASED 

By the Commissioners on lydand Fisheries^ under Authority given 
by Chap. 384, Sect. 9. of the Acts of 1869.* 



1870. 

Feb. 1. Waushakum Pond, in Framingham, to Sturtevant and 

others, 20 years. 
April 1. Mendon Pond, in Mendon, to Leonard T. Wilson and 

another, 20 years. 
Sept. 12. Baptist Lake, in Newton, to J. F. C. H3^de and others, 

20 years. 

1871- 

April 17. Long Pond, in Falmouth, to Joshua S. Bowerman and 

tliree others, 20 years. 
May 15. Pratt's Pond, in Upton, to D. W. Batcheller, 20 years. 
18. Little Sandy Pond, in Plymouth, to William E. Perkins, 

15 3'ears. 
Nov. 1. Punkapoag Pond, in Randolph and Canton, to Henry 

L. Pierce, 20 3^ears. 

1872. 

Jan. 1. Sandy Pond, Forest Lake, or Flint's Pond, in Lincoln, 
to James L. Chapin and others, 20 3^ears. 

July 20. Litlle Pond, in Braintree, to Eben Denton and others, 
20 3^ears. 

* We would remind lessees of ponds that they are required, by their leases, to use 
all reasonable elfurts to stock their ponds, and keep accurate records of the same, 
and make returns of their doings to the Commissioners on the 1st of October, each 
year, of the number and species of fish which they have put in or removed from 
their ponds. Any failure to comply with these conditions is a breach of contract in- 
validating their lease. It is important that the State should know just what is being 
done ; and, where there appears to be mismanagement or apparent failure, the Com- 
missioners will visit the ponds, and ascertain, if possible, the cause. 



1885.] PUBLIC document—No. 25. 35 

1873. 

May 1. Meeting-house Pond, in Westminster, to inhabitants of 

Westminster, 15 years. 
1. Great Pond, in Weymouth, to James L. Bates and 

others, 15 years. 
July 1. Little Sandy Pond, in Pembroke, to A. C. Brigham and 

others, 16 years. 
Sept. 1. Pontoosuc Lake, in Pittsfield and Lanesborough, to E. 

H. Kellogg and others, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Farm Pond, in Sherborn, to inhabitants of Sherborn, 

15 years. 

1. Spot Pond, in Stoneham, to inhabitants of Stoneham, 

15 years. 
Dec. 1. Lake Wauban, in Needham, to Hollis Hunnewell, 20 
years. 

1874. 

Mar. 1. Walden and White ponds, in Concord, to inhabitants of 
Concord, 15 years. 

2. Upper Naumkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants 

of Ashburnham, 20 years. 
April 1. Elder's Pond, in Lakeville, to inhabitants of Lakeville, 
15 years. 
20. North and South Podunk ponds, in Brookfield, to in- 
habitants of Brookfield, 15 years. 
May 1. Maquan Pond, in Hanson, to the inhabitants of Hanson, 
15 years. 
2. Brown's Pond, in Peabody, to John L. Shorey, 15 years. 
16. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to Lemuel Ful- 

1am, 15 years. 
20. Unchechewalom and Massapog ponds, to the inhabitants 
of Lunenburg, 20 years. 
July 1. Hardy's Pond, in Waltham, to H. E. Priest and others, 
15 years. 
1. Hockomocko Pond, in Westborough, to L. N. Fairbanks 
and others, 15 years. 
11. Mitchell's Pond, in Boxford, to R. M. Cross and others, 

15 years. 
11. Hazard's Pond, in Russell, to N. D. Parks and others, 
20 years. 
Oct. 1. East Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of 
Sterling, 20 years. 
20. Middleton Pond, in Middleton, to inhabitants of Mid- 
dleton, 15 years. 



36 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

1875. 

Jan. 1. White and Goose ponds, in Chatham, to George W. 

Davis, 15 years. 
Mar. 1. Hood's Pond, in Ipswich and Topsfield, to inhabitants 

of Topsfield, 15 j-ears. 
April 1. Chaunce}" Pond, in Westborough, to inhabitants of 
Westborough, 15 years. 
3. West's Pond, in Bolton, to J. D. Hurlburt and others, 

15 years. 
15. Gates Pond, in Berlin, to E. H. Hartshorn and others, 

15 years. 
24. Pleasant Pond, in Wenham, to inhabitants of Wenham, 
15 years. 
May 1. Morse's Pond, in Needham, to Edmund M. Wood, 15 
years. 
1. Chilmark Pond, in Chilmark, to J. Nickerson and 
others, agents, 20 years. 
Jul}^ 1. Winter Pond and Wedge Pond, in Winchester, to in- 
habitants of Winchester, 15 years. 
1. Haggett's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of An- 
dover, 20 years. 
Aug. 1. Oyster Pond, in Edgartown, to J. H. Smith and others, 
20 years. 
7. West Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of 

Sterling, 20 years. 
9. Mystic (Upper) Pond, in Winchester, Medford, and 
Arlington, to inhabitants of Winchester and Med- 
ford, 15 3'ears. 
Oct. 1. Little Chauncy and Solomon ponds, in Northborough, 
to inhabitants of Northborough, 15 years. 

1876. 

Feb. 1. Great Sand}' Bottom Pond, in Pembroke, to Israel 

Thrasher and others, 15 years. 
Mar. 1. Dennis Pond, in Yarmouth, to inhabitants of Yarmouth, 

15 years. 
Mar. 1. Cr3^stal Lake, in Wakefield, to Lyman H. Tasker and 
others, 15 ^^ears. 
20. Lower Naumkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants 

of Ashburnham, 18 years. 
28. Dennison Lake, in Winchendon, to inhabitants of Win- 

chendon, 15 years. 
28. Phillipston Pond, in Phillipston, to inhabitants of Phil- 
lipston, 20 years. 



1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



37 



1876. 

May 8. 


June 


1. 




10. 


Oct. 


1. 




1. 




1. 


1877 

Mar. 


1. 




15. 


Aug. 


10. 


Oct. 


1. 


Nov. 


1. 


187S 

Jan. 


i. 
1. 


Mar. 


16. 


April 


1. 


May 


1. 




5. 


Oct. 


1. 




1. 




1. 




1. 



South-west Pond, in Athol, to Adin H. Smith and 
others, 15 years. 

Norwich Pond, in Huntington, to inhabitants of Hunt- 
ington, 20 years. 

Dug Pond, in Natick, to W. P. Bigelow and others, 15 
years. 

Farm and Learned's Pond, in Framingham, to inhabi- 
tants of Framingham, 15 j^ears. 

Whitney's Pond, in Wrentham, to inhabitants of Wren- 
tham, 15 years. 

Little Pond, in Barnstable, to G-eorge H. Davis, 15 
3^ears. 

Nine-Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to inhabitants of Wil- 
braham, 15 years. 

Pentucket and Rock ponds, in Georgetown, to inhabi- 
tants of Georgetown, 15 years. 

Onota Lake, in Pittsfield, to William H. Murray and 
others, 15 years. 

Fort, Great Spectacle, and Little Spectacle ponds, in 
Lancaster, to inhabitants of Lancaster, 20 3'ears. 

Tispaquin Pond, in Middleborough, to Abishai Miller, 
15 years. 

Sniptuit, Long, Snow, and Mary's ponds, in Rochester, 
to inhabitants of Rochester, 15 3'ears. 

Asnaconcomic Pond, in Hubbardston, to Amory Jewett, 
Jr., 15 years. 

Dorrity Pond, in Millbury, to inhabitants of Millbury, 
10 years. 

Bear Hill Pond and Hall Pond, in Harvard, to inhabi- 
tants of Harvard, 15 ^^ears. 

Spectacle, Peters, and Triangle ponds, in Sandwich, to 
George L. Fessenden, 10 years. 

Eel Pond, in Melrose, to J. A. Barrett and others, 15 
years. 

Accord Pond, in Hingham, South Scituate, and Rock- 
land, to inhabitants of those towns, 10 years. 

Wright's and Ashley's ponds, in Holyoke, to Henry C. 
Ewing and others, 10 years. 

Magog Pond, in Acton and Middleton, to inhabitants 
of Acton, 15 years. 



38 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

1879. 

Feb. 1. Lake Mahkunac and Lake Overic, in Stockbridge, to 
inhabitants of Stockbridge, 10 years. 

July 1. Silver Lake, in Wilmington, to inhabitants of Wil- 
mington, 10 years. 
1. Fresh Pond, in Falmouth, to Thomas H. Lawrence, 20 
3'ears. 

Oct. 1. Pomp's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 
15 years. 

Nov. 1. Lake Quinapowitt, in Wakefield, to inhabitants of 
Wakefield, 14 years. 

1880. 

Mar. 1. Lake Winthrop, in Holliston, to inhabitants of HoUis- 
ton, 15 3^ears. 
15. Massapoag Pond, in Sharon, to inhabitants of Sharon, 
10 years. 

May 1. Tisbury Great Pond, in Tisbury, to Allen Look and 
others, 10 years. 

June 1. Indian Pond, in Kingston, to inhabitants of Kingston, 
10 years. 
1. Jordan Pond, in Shrewsbury, to inhabitants of Shrews- 
bury, 15 years. 

July 1. Swan and Martin's ponds, in North Reading, to inhabi- 
tants of North Reading, 15 years. 

Sept. 1. Herring Pond, in Eastham, to William H. Nickerson, 
10 years. 

Dec. 24. Chadwick's Pond, in Bradford and Boxford, to town of 
Bradford, 10 years. 

1881. 

Jan. 1. Great and Job's Neck ponds, in Edgartown, to Amoz 
Smith and others, 15 years. 

Mar. 1. The Mill Ponds (three), in Brewster, to Valentine B. 
Newcomb and another, 15 3'ears. 

April 1. Long Pond, in Blandford, to Samuel A. Bartholomew 
and another, 15 3'ears. 

Ma}' 2. Nonesuch Pond, in Weston and Natick, to W. A. Bal- 
lard and others, 15 years. 

1882. 

Mar. 1. Blair's Pond, in Blandford, to Curtis M. Blair and 

another, 15 3'ears. 
April 1. Ward Pond, alias Wightman Pond, in Ashburnham, to 

Herbert F. Rockwood and another, 15 years. 
May 1. Horn Pond, in Woburn, to inhabitants of Woburn, 15 

years. 
June 1. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to inhabitants of 

West Brookfield, 15 years. 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 39 

1883. 

Mar. 1. Halfway Pond in Plymouth, taken by Commissioners 

for 5 years, in accordance with provisions of Chap. 

62, Acts of 1876. 
April 6. Fresh Pond, in Tisburj^ to Allen Look and others, 15 

years. 
23. Keyes Pond, in Westford, to M. H. A. Evans, 15 

years. 
May 7. Singletary Pond, in Sutton and Millbur}', to towns of 

Sutton and Millburj^ 15 years. 
7. The Great Pond, in Ashfield, to town of Ashfield, 15 

years. 
July 1. Lake Buell, in Monterey and New Marlborough, to 

town of New Marlborough, 10 3'ears. 

1884. 

June 1. Bald Pate, Four-Mile, and Stiles ponds, in Boxford, to 

inhabitants of Boxford, 10 3^ears. 
July 15. Asneybunskeit Pond, in Paxton, to inhabitants of Pax- 
ton, 10 years. 
15. Center Pond, in Dennis, to inhabitants of Becket, 10 

years. 
15. Buckraaster Pond, in Dedham, to Francis Soule and 

others, 10 years. 
15. Fresh Pond, in Dennis, to inhabitants of Dennis, 10 
years. 

17. Farm Pond, in Cottage Cit}', to John C. Hamblin and 

others, 15 j^ears. 

18. Mashpee, Great, and Wakeley ponds, in Mashpee, to 

inhabitants of Mashpee, 10 years. 
Aug. 30. Sand Pond, in Ayer, to inhabitants of Ayer, 15 years. 
Sept. 5. Great Pond, in North Andover, to inhabitants of North 

Andover, 15 years. 



40 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



[C] 
CARP AND CARP PONDS: 

ANSWERS TO 118 QUESTIONS RELATIVE TO GERMAN CARP. 



BY CHARLES ^\ . SMILEY.* 



During the past fifteen months the correspondence of the United 
States Fish Commission has included a great number of letters of 
inquiry- concerning the German carp. The 118 questions here con- 
sidered have all been taken from letters received during that period, 
and most of the questions have been asked over and over again. 
As they cover considerable of the practical information required, it 
is hoped that the answers here given will be valuable. Fuller in- 
formation upon man)' of the points may be obtained from published 
documents of the Commission. I am indebted to Col. M. McDon- 
ald for assistance in preparing some of the answers. 

The questions and replies are classified under sixteen heads, so 
that one can easily find any information he is seeking. 

I. — General Inquiries. 

1. Is carp a pond fish? A. Yes; pre-eminently so. It is 
especiall}' adapted to small bodies of still water, and the water need 
not be free from mud and sediment. 

2. Is carp a game fish? A. Not properly so, though some 
correspondents report that they consider it to have game qualities. 

3. What time of year do carp appear after hibernation? A. 
As soon as the spring fairly sets in, vrhich differs much in the dif- 
ferent parts of the United States. It is probable that the carp will 
not hibernate at all in Southern Texas. 

4. Can small carp be wintered in a cellar? A. Yes, if pro- 
vided with proper food, change of water, &c. 

5. Will young fry swim on top of water? A. No. What is 
sometimes mistaken for 3^oung carp is the top minnow (Zygonectes) . 

6. Do carp live a long time out of vrater? A. They are quite 
hardy, and can be kept alive out of water, if in moss, twenty-four 
hours. * * * 

* In Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission, Sept. 3, 1883. 



1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25, 



41 



II. — Varieties of Carp. 

8. Are scale and leather carp different varieties? A. Yes. 

9. Do carp have scales all over? A. Scale carp do, and 
leather carp do not. 




10. What is the best breed of carp? A. Scale carp are the 
most prolific, the leather carp grow the fastest, and the mirror is 
intermediate between them. 



42 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



III. — Carp as a Food-Fish. 

11. What kind of food-fish is carp ? A. Equal or superior to 
catfish, suckers, perch, and all our common native varieties. Many 
correspondents declare them equal to trout, bass, and shad, but 
this is not claimed for them b}' the Fish Commission. 

12. At what age are carp suitable for table use? A. When 
small the bones are troublesome, but the flavor is the same. When 
the}' weigh 4 pounds or more the bones can be easily removed. 

13. What season of the 3'ear are carp fit for the table? A. 
From October to May. During and for several months after spawn- 
ing the flesh is soft. No fish is in good condition to eat for some- 
time after its spawning time. * * * 

lY. — PoxDS and Tanks. 

15. How large a pond is necessarj^ for carp? A. . Larger the 
better, but a small one of a few j^ards square will answer for a few 
fish. 

16. How should one prepare a carp pond? A. This is an- 
swered at length in articles on the subject published by the Fish 
Commission. 

17. Is it absolutely necessary to be able to drain ponds to the 
bottom? A. No ; but very desirable, so as to remove other fish, 
enemies of the carp, &c. 

18. What kind of soil is best adapted for carp? A. Loamy 
or muddy soil. The carp roots about in it for grubs, worms, larvae. 
&c. 

19. Is it best to make the border of the pond sloping or verti- 
cal? A. It is easiest to let it slope, and there is usually no par 
ticular advantage in making it vertical. 

20. What is the best way to construct a dam? A. See plans 
and descriptions published by the Fish Commission. 

21. What is the best material for constructing a dam? A. 
Stone and earth. 

22. What is the best plan of an escape way? A. See plans 
of ponds by Fish Commission. 

23. How should one prevent fish escaping from the pond? A. 
Make the dam secure, and put wire cloth over the outlet. 

24. Will carp leave a pond when it overflows? A. Not if the 
superfluous water is colder than the bottom water, as is often the 
case in floods. 

25. How should one prevent carp leaving pond at overflow? 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 43 

A. Arrange wire sieves for the overflow to pass through. Avoid 
overflow if possible by regulating the amount of water flowing in by 
means of a waste weir. 

26. Will carp do well in ditches of cranberry bogs? A. Yes ; 
if free from other fish, turtles, snakes, &c. 

27. Will carp live in ornamental fish tank ? A. Yes. 

y. — Water for Carp. 

28. What kind of water is adapted to carp? A. Warm water. 
They grow very slowly in cold water. 

29. Will carp live in shallow water? A. Yes; even if so 
shallow that their backs sometimes protrude from the water, but 
there should be one deep spot for them to go to in winter. 

30. Is shallow or deep Vater best for carp? A. Shallow water 
is usually warmer, and hence better for carp. Better have both, if 
possible. 

31. What temperature of water is best adapted to carp ? A 
High temperatures. They can live in cold water, but do not grow 
much. They thrive in warm water. 

32. Is slow-running water suitable for carp? A. They are 
sluggish and care nothing about running water. 

33. Will carp live if water is not running through pond? A. 
Yes ; all the better. 

34. Will carp live in reservoirs of rain water in Texas? A. 
The rain water might become too stagnant and injure them, but if 
kept sweet the carp could live. However, no more food should be 
put in than they can eat. 

35. Will muddj" water hurt carp? A. No. It is their delight. 
The}' can usualh^ get food from it. 

36. Is well or spring water best adapted to carp? A. It makes 
no diff'erence. Neither is desirable. 

37. Are streams suitable for trout good for carp ? A. No. Trout 
require clear, cold water ; carp, warm water, and it need not be 
clear. 

38. Are mineral waters bad for carp? A. Cannot tell without 
knowing more about the mineral water. Brackish water is not 
injurious. 

39. Will carp live in Rocky Mountain waters? A. Probably 
live, but not grow much, because the water is too cold. 

40. Will carp do well in limestone water? A. Yes. 

41. Is alkali water detrimental to carp? A. Unknown. 



44 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 



VI. — Plants for Carp Ponds. 

42. AYhat plants are best for carp? A. Crowfoots, cowslips, 
water-milfoil, bladderwort, hornwort, cress, water-rice, water-mace, 
water-oats, Indian rice, water-lilies, — especially the last six. 

43. Is grass in pond injurious to carp? A. Not injurious. 

44. Can water-cresses be too thick in a carp pond? A. Yes. 
The pond must not be allowed to entirel)" grow up to vegetation. 

YII.— The Care of Carp. 

45. Would carp succeed if placed in a common pond and left 
to take care of themselves ? A. About the same as when chickens 
and pigs are left to take care of themselves. 

46. Can carp be placed in a pond at any season of the year? 
A. Yes ; but do not transfer them suddenly from warm to cold or 
cold to warm w^ater. 

47. What is the best time of day to deposit carp ? A. When 
3'ou can avoid a violent change in temperature. 

48. Will horses going to water interfere with eggs? A. No. 

49. Will it harm carp to cut ice in the pond where they are? 
A. No. They will be so' fast asleep in the mud the}' will not care. 

VIII. — Food for Carp. 

50. Do carp need feeding ? A. Yes, to grow fast. They can, 
howcA^er, pick for themselves just as chickens can. 

51. What is best food for carp? A. Cooked cereals and veg- 
etables, such as corn, wheat, rye, potatoes, cabbage, turnip, let- 
tuce, pumpkins, melons, &c. 

52. How often should carp be fed? A. As often as convenient, 
if food does not accumulate in their pond. You can habituate 
them to come to a place for food just the same as other animals. 
Better feed them morning and night, one or both. 

53. Are boiled rice and corn bread suitable diet for carp? A. 
Yes ;, excellent. 

54. Is brewer's grain suitable feed for carp? A. Yes. 

55. Is it best to feed salad food to carp? A. No harm. 

56. Will kitchen scraps kill carp? A. Not unless salt, pepper 
and mineral substances are mixed in. Salt mackerel, salt meat, 
&c., should be excluded. Potatoes, corn, cabbage, lettuce, and 
other vegetables are suitable. 

57. Are water-cresses essential for carp food? A. Not essen- 
tial, but desirable. 

58. Will carp eat tadpoles? A. No. 



I 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 45 



IX. GrROWTH OF CaRP. 

59. How large do carp grow? A. Sometimes to 50 or 75 
pounds. 

60. How long does it take carp to grow? A. It depends en- 
tirely on the temperature of the water and amount of food. 

61. How much will a carp three years old weigh? A. If in 
Pennsylvania, four or five pounds ; if in Georgia, six to eight 
pounds. They can be forced to much greater weights by feeding. 

62. What climate is best adapted to the carp? A. Warm cli- 
mate. 

X. — Spawning of Carp. 

63. At what age and time of year do carp spawn? A. Usu- 
ally at the age of three years ; often at two ; sometimes at one in 
southern climates, when fed well. The month of spawning varies in 
different latitudes, but it usually occurs in May in the South and 
in June in the North. In cold water it ma}, be protracted into 
July. 

64. Will carp two years old spawn? A. That depends on 
climate, food, &c. 

^ 65. At what age will the male carp vivify the eggs ? A. Prob- 
ably younger than that at which the female deposits eggs. 

6Q. How can one tell male from female? A. It is impossible 
until about spawning time, unless you cut them open. 

67. Which is the larger, male or female carp ? A. The female. 

68. Do size of scales on carp indicate sex? A No. 

69. Are carp prolific? A. Yes; if properly cared for. A 
five-year-old carp ought to contain 500,000 eggs. 

70. How many young will a pair of carp produce annually? 
A. Very few, if left to themselves ; a great number, if properly 
cared for — say 50,000. 

71. What arrangements are to be made at spawning time? A. 
Put the spawners by themselves till the eggs are deposited, and 
then protect the eggs from other animals. A good way is to put 
hemlock boughs in the pond to receive the eggs. These can be 
taken out covered with eggs and placed in water to hatch, where 
the eggs will not be eaten or destroyed. Keep the young out of 
the way of enemies. 

72. Is it best to remove old fish from pond at spawning time? 
A. It is a good idea. See answer to last question. 

73. How long should young carp be kept in small pond before 
turning into larger pond with other fish? A. Till large enough 
to defend themselves. Say till they weigh a pound each. 



4() INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

74. How distinguish carp spawn from frog or other spawn? 
A. Carp spawn is deposited singly on branches, grasses, &c.,and 
is about the size of number 8 shot. Frog spawn is deposited in 
a jellj'-like mass. 

75. Do young carp resemble tadpoles ? A. No. 

XI. — Enemies op Carp. 

76. Will carp destroy their young? A. Not if they can get 
any other food. 

77. Will carp destroy other fish? A. No. The carp does 
not injure any other fish, but is injured by many kinds. 

78. Will dace hurt carp? A. The minnows will eat the carp 
eggs. 

79. Do frogs destroy the spawn of fish? A. Yes; they eat 
both spawn and young fishes. 

80. Will goldfish destroy carp, and vice versa? A. Yes; 
besides they will mix — hybridize. 

81. Will green frogs destroy carp? A. Yes; they eat eggs 
and 3^oung carp. 

82. Will minks destroy carp? A. Yes; they will exter- 
minate them. 

83. Will mud-cat injure carp? A. They will eat the eggs and 
young carp. 

84. Will mud-turtles eat carp ? A. Yes, to extermination. 

85. Will roaches feed on the carp spawn? A. Yes. 

86. Do snakes eat carp? A. Yes. 

87. Will suckers injure carp? A. Yes. 

88. Will trout destroy carp ? A. Yes. 

89. How can one guard carp from frogs, tadpoles, water-rats, 
and turtles? A. Kill the frogs, tadpoles, rats and turtles. 

90. How can I get tadpoles out of the pond? A. Drain the 
pond. 

91. How get rid of cat-fish in carp ponds? A. Drain the 
pond, 

92. What varieties of fish can carp associate with without det- 
riment ? A. There is no kind of fish that will not eat carp eggs 
and the young carp when they get the chance. Keep carp by 
themselves. 

93. What varieties of fish are detrimental to carp culture? A. 
See previous question and answer. 

94. Will mountain and lake trout, salmon and carp thrive in 
the same pond? A. No. Trout and salmon require cold, run- 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 47 

ning water, and would eat carp eggs and young. The carp re- 
quire warm, still water, and to be by themselves. 

95. Will gum in holly trees in pond injure carp? A. No. 

96. Will mulberry trees around a pond hurt the lish? A. No. 

97. Will vegetable matter covered by water decompose and 
hurt the carp ? A. Yes ; if in great quantities. 

XII. — Diseases of Carp. 

98. What is the cause of fungus on carp? A. The cause is 
not known, but it results from a weak condition of the carp and 
from getting hurt. 

99. What is the cure of fungus on carp? A. Prevention is 
possible, as shown by answer to previous question. No cure is yet 
known. 

100. What is the cause of mouldy appearance of carp? A. 
This is the fungus spoken of in the two previous questions. 

XIII. — How Carp can be Caught. 

101. How are carp caught? A. Best by a dip-net. They 
can be enticed by food into shallow water and then taken by a 
dipper, rake, or even by the hands. 

102. Can carp be caught with hook and line? A. Not very 
readily. They are shy biters, but a number have reported taking 
them with hooks baited with meat. 

103. What bait is best to catch carp? A. Teach them to 
come to a shallow spot or to a plank a few inches under water, by 
feeding them at such a place, and while they are eating they can be 
taken in the hands full as readily as chickens are. They are very 
tame and will eat out of the hand. 

XIV. — The Distribution of Carp. 

104. How can Gscvp be obtained? A. By filling out blank 
application to United States Fish Commission and sending through 
a United States Senator or Representative to Prof. S. F. Baird.* 

105. Who can indorse carp applications? A. Members of 
Congress and Senators of the United States. 

106. What time of the year do 3'^ou distribute carp? A. 
From October to April. 

107. How old are carp distributed? A. Three to nine months. 

108. Are carp distributed according to population of each 
State, or according to number of applications? A. According 
to number of applications. 

* Or to the State Commissioners. 



48 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec, 

109. How mail}' fish per acre are required to stock a pond? 
A. That depends on the amount of food available. A small 
pond may be made to produce thousands of carp. A pond one 
acre can be made to sustain 500 one-pound carp. 

XV. — The Transportation of Carp. 

110. During transportation of fish, will moss in the water pre* 
vent their being bruised ? A. Water-moss may be used to advan- 
tage, as it helps keep the water pure. 

111. Is it safe to ship carp by stage? A. They have been 
sent safely in a quart pail by all sorts of conveyances. It is essen- 
tial that water enough remain in the pail to cover the carp. 

112. Can young carp be carried on horseback? A. Yes; by 
keeping them covered with water. 

XVI. — Financial Inquiries. 

113. What will carp cost ? A. The United States Fish Com- 
mission distributes ♦them free. The recipient pays only the cost of 
transportation from Washington, or from such centres of supply 
as it establishes. 

114. What are young carp worth per thousand? A. The 
Government does not sell smj. Private parties sometimes sell 
them at So per pair. A New Jersey carp-culturist advertises 
" selected minor carp at $85 per hundred, and selected scale carp 
at $80 per hundred ; no orders filled for less than $25." 

115. Can I raise 100 pounds carp cheaper than 100 pounds 
chicken? A. Yes; as cheapl}^ again. 

116. How many pounds of carp per annum will a pond one 
acre square produce? A. Very few if neglected; very many if 
wisely cared for. Five hundred one-pound carp ought to weigh 
1,500 pounds the second year, and 2,500 pounds the third year. 

117. Are carp knowm among fish dealers? A. They are a 
ver}" important item with dealers in Europe. They were intro- 
duced into the United States so recently that but verj^ few get 
into the markets yet. A correspondent in Saline County, Mis- 
souri, recently wrote that ''large numbers of young carp, a foot 
long, are being taken from the Missouri River and sold in the 
market." 

118. What are carp worth per pound in the market? A. 
Very few have yet reached the markets in the United States. 

United States Fish Commission, 

Washington, D. C, Aug. 8, 1883. 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 49 



DIRECTIONS CONCERNING THE CONSTRUCTION OF CARP PONDS. 



[Condensed from the report of the Maryland Fish Commission for 1880.*] 



I 



The cultivation of carp is of sufficient importance to fully war- 
rant the construction of ponds for the purpose. But there alreadj^ 
exist in many places ponds used for the collection of ice, or for 
supplying water to live stock, which could be converted into carp 
ponds at a comparatively small cost. There are also many depres- 
sions of surface in the lands which could be filled with water with 
but little labor, and made to answer the purpose admirably. 

It is very desirable, on several accounts, that the ponds should 
be so constructed as to permit the water to be drawn ofi". The fish 
can then be captured and assorted, when those intended for breed- 
ing can be returned to the pond and the remainder placed in tanks 
from which to be taken, by the aid of dip-nets, as required for 
market or for food. Drawing off the water is also desirable for de- 
stroying such enemies of the fish as may be therein. 

In the case of ponds supplied by the inflow of tide-water, eggs 
of other fishes are often wafted in, and the fish thus produced may 
consume the food, eggs, and young of the carp. By draining the 
ponds once or twice a year these intruders can be readily removed. 

To utilize an ice pond for carp is very simple. It is not necessary 
that the drainage from the surrounding fields should be diverted, 
except when excessive in quantity or liable to become so after a 
heavy fall of rain. A certain amount of such drainage often 
proves beneficial, as considerable quantities of food are thus con- 
veyed into the ponds. If admitted, an " overflow " must be pro- 
vided, which should be well protected by wire-cloth screens to 
prevent the escape of the fish. This overflow constitutes the most 
important feature in the construction of a pond. 

For illustration, Fig. 1 is a pond located in a meadow, through 
which flows a small stream. The pond is formed upon two sides 
by embankments of earth obtained by the removal of a portion of 
the soil from the inclosed space. The water may be supplied either 
by introducing it from the rivulet itself at some higher point, or, 
as in this illustration, from a spring in the adjacent meadow, sup- 
plemented by the surface, drainage from the surrounding high land. 
A small tributary of the rivulet is utilized in this instance to carry 
* From the Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission, Sept. 3, 1883. 



50 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec, 




Fig. 1. — a carp pond built in a meadow 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 51 

off the surplus water, which is allowed to escape from the pond 
through the overflow O. A is the apparatus for emptying the pond- 
B is a frame inclosing the end of the discharge pipe leading from 
the pond, and provided with the screens s s s. C is the " collector," 
into which the fish are drawn by the lowering of the water 
in the pond, and c a valve which controls the flow of the water 
through the discharge pipe m. D is a wide, shallow drain, having 
branches, d d d d, by means of which all of the water is led into 
the collector when the pond is being emptied. E represents the 
embankments, which are about 6 feet in height at the angle of the 
pond in the lowest part of the meadow. 

In Fig. 2 the upper portion presents a longitudinal section of 
the pond. The lower part shows a portion of the same section 
enlarged, so that the arrangement of the pond is clearly illustrated. 
The fish are readily drawn into the collector C. A hook for 
removing the planks g g g is shown at h. 

The "overflow" indicated at O is very important, and especial 
attention is directed to its construction. This outlet is located in 
the solid ground at the side of the pond rather than in any part of 
the embankment, which might be weakened by its presence ; and is 
protected by three wire-cloth screens of var3ing texture, the coarser 
mesh being placed farthest in the pond in order to collect all drift, 
and thus prevent the clogging of the second and third screens, the 
' meshes of which should be fine enough to preclude the escape of the 
smallest fish. The screens are so placed as to present a considerable 
surface below the water-level, to insure them against being clogged 
by drift. This arrangement will always afl'ord a free exit to the 
water beneath the mass of rubbish. 

The general details of the outlet A are indicated in the views 
given. The screens s s s, as well as those of the '^ overflow," are 
disposed in a frame-work, and should slide easil}^ in their grooves, 
so that they may be removed and cleaned. An additional set of 
such grooves, are provided at this outlet, and these which are the 
innermost are furnished, instead of screens, with solid planks g g g 
the edges of which are neatty fitted to each other so as to render 
their joints water-tight. The upper edge of each plank is provided 
with staples or eyes ///, through which the hook h may be passed 
to lift the plank from the frame. When the planks are in position 
these eyes are received into slots nnin the lower edge of the planks 
above them, so as to allow them to fit closely together. 

The purpose of this fourth, and solid^ screen is to lower the water 
in the pond by drawing it from either the surface or the bottom, as 
ma}^ be deemed most advisable. To draw it from the surface onlj^ 
it will simply be necessary to open the valve c; and to remove the 
planks in succession as the water subsides, while to draw from the 



52 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



bottom will require all the planks to be first removed ; and the 
valve to be opened when this has been done. 




Fig. 2. — Sectional view of the dam of carp pond. 

In addition to the valve c, the drain-pipe P may be provided at 
m with a clog or strainer, to guard it against the accumulation of 



1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



53 



rubbish. The collector C should be placed at the lowest point in 
the pond, and, unless excavated in hard clay, should be floored and 
faced with plank, cement, or other hard material. Carp have a 
strong tendenc}^ to bury themselves in the mud, not only during 
hibernation, but whenever alarmed or pursued. If the collector 
has been constructed as suggested, and the fish gradually drawn 
into it, danger of loss on this account will be obviated. 

The details of the "overflow," "outlet," '' collector," &c., may 
be varied, according to the circumstances ; but the general require- 
ments of a pond so located as to receive its supply of water at one 
end and to discharge it at the other are here indicated. 




Fia. 3. 



Ponds should not be less than three feet in depth at their deepest 
part — to insure the fish against being frozen in severely cold 
weather — and should gradually lessen to a depth of one or two 
inches to provide the shoals required for spawning. Small knolls 
and islands should be removed, as they generally afford harbor for 
the enemies of carp. 

For Ponds in Tidal Regions. — The collector and drain 
ditches should be constructed and arranged as above, the collector 
being formed at the lowest point within the embankment. The 
" overflow " maybe omitted, as the " flume " can be readily adapted 
to the purposes of carrying off any surplus water. As the flume 



54 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec, 



requires constant attention to insure its operation, the " overflow" 
should be retained, if practicable, and be placed in firm ground. 

Fig. 3 represents a vertical section, and corresponding horizon- 
tal projection of the embankment B, showing the position of the 
flume F, and its controlling valves, d d, together with that of the 
crib-work " C C C," which is construed on the pond side, and is 
designed to support the screens. 

The flume is placed, as before, on a level with the bottom of the 
collector, and the valves are arranged for drawing the water from 




Fig. 4. 



the pond, at ebb tide. The inner valve has been slightly raised by 
sliding upward its support g through the grooved trunnion a ^ and 
the pressure of the water flowing through the flame, in the direc- 
tion of the arrow, serves to siving open the outer valve, and to 
keep it open until the pond is emptied or the tide turns. In the 
latter event the outer valve closes automatically until the level of 
the water without again falls below that of the water remaining in 
the pond when its operation is resumed. 

Should it be desired, on the other hand, to admit water from the 
river into the pond — at the proper levels — the relative positions 
and operations of the valves would, of course, be reversed. The 
outer valve should then be raised so as to allow the water to enter 
the flume from the river ; and the inner valve should be lowered, 



1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25, 



55 



in turn, to permit it to swing with the current, and to close auto- 
raaticall}' with the cessation of its flow. 

Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7 represent portions of the above considerably 
enlarged for the purposes of a more detailed description. The flap- 
valve d, which is here represented as being forced slightly open bj' 
the presence of the inflowing current, is attached to the lower ex- 
tremities of the long strips or pieces gg g, arranged to slide upward 
through mortises in the beam a. The latter, in turn, is provided 
at each end with trunnions fitting loosely into corresponding sock- 
ets in the uprights p p, b}' which means the beam and its depend- 




FiG. 5. 



ent parts are allowed to swing readily in place, as indicated by the 
positions of the gate or valve in the several diagrams. 

Another and fixed beam, indicated at /, serves as an additional 
support to the uprights p p, and as the fulcrum of a ]ever by 
means of which the gate may be raised or lowered. '' C C C " 
represent crib-work, filled with stones, and sustaining in position 
the screens s s and o o, which are arranged to slide in their respect- 
ive grooves, similarly to those already described. 

Fig. 7 is a flume or trunk of simpler design, which ma}' be con- 
structed by hollowing out one side of a stout log, for nearly its en- 
lire length, and covering the groove thus formed with pieces of 
thick plank. The bark should be allowed to remain undisturbed, 
where practicable, for a protection to the wood. The general ar-. 
rangement of the flume and its valves is indicated in the dingram 



56 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



As the valves do not work automatically, such a " plug- trunk" — 
as it is called — would appear to be better adapted for ponds 
located in other than tidal reo:ions. 




So much of the wood- work, in all these constructions, as is ex- 
posed to the air, and particularly such parts as are subject to the 




Fig. 7. 



alternate action of the air and water, are liable to decay, and should 
be protected by thick coatings of paint, or other preservative mate- 
rial. Such parts as are imbedded in the earth will last for years. 



1885] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 57 



TAKING THE FISH FROM THE PONDS. 



[Extract from Report of Rudolph Hessel, superintendent of the United States 
carp ponds at Washington, D. C.*"] 



I 



The emptying out of ponds demands the greatest caution and 
attention. The water must be made to flow off very gradually 
through the several outlets, all of which are to be kept open at the 
same time ; it requires frequently from ten to eighteen days to draw 
off the water. The fishes are driven carefully and slowly with boats 
into the principal ditches. They must not be chased on any 
account, or they will bury themselves in the mud ; occasionally 
many thousands will do so within a few moments, and will remain 
there, pressed together closely, and so perish through suffocation. 
This is recorded as having occurred from time to time, when during 
the process of driving them into the ditches the fishes were startled 
by some unknown cause and all sank into the mud instantaneously. 
Through the impossibility of extricating them speedily enough, 
many hundreds and even thousands perished, the owner sustaining 
heav}^ losses in consequence. To guard against such an emer- 
gency, preparations should be made for an immediate supply of 
water in similar cases, in order to save the fishes. If the fishing- 
out progresses in the regular manner, the fishes will b}- degrees draw 
off from the ditches into the collector. The collecting takes from 
five to six days in large ponds, containing frequently 100-400 tons 
of fishes. Care should be taken, that crowding them together may 
be avoided. On the evening before the fishing-out, when the water 
of the pond has been diminished to the depth of half a foot, those 
fishes which have been collected are shut off from the pond by a 
large net, and in the early morning, at the dawn of day they are 
caught. As so large a number of fishes cannot be disposed of at 
once they are transferred to the so-called market-ponds, from which 
thej are sold by degrees to fish-dealers. These market-ponds are 
quite small, capable of holding from 2,000 to 3,000 pounds of fish 
only, and are supplied with running water. 

Those who never saw the fishing-out of a carp pond can scarcely 
imagine the beautiful sight of so many thousand fine fishes, fat and 
well fed, raising their high broad backs and thick, puffy lips above 
the water, their heads side by side, all being nearly of the same 

* From Report of U. S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries. 



58 INLAND FISHEEIES. [Dec. 

size, weighing from four to five pounds, their bodies closely press- 
ing against each other, looking like an immense herd of sheep, 
imprisoned in one large net upon a circumference of 3,000 to 4,000 
feet. Closer and closer the circle is drawn around them, until its 
extent measures onl}^ about two acres, when they are caught by 
thousands, weighed in lots of 100 pounds, and then they are placed 
in the market-ponds. The pikes, which have reached an almost 
equal weight, are put into pike-ponds. It requires often two or 
three days to weigh the fishes, ponds of 1,000 or 2,000 acres area 
containing on an average 200 tons of carp and 20 tons of pike, 
tench and other fishes not included. 

I assisted once at the fishing-out of one of these ponds, which 
took place in the neighborhood of the town of Guben Pleitz, prov- 
ince of Brandenburg, German}^ The pond was the property of a 
competent culturist and valued friend, Mr. Thomas Berger, of 
Georgenhof, near Cottbus-Peitz. The ponds in which this gentle- 
man carries on carp culture exceed the extent of 6,000 Prussian 
acres. The pond which was fished out at the time I speak of was 
but a small one, not more than 200 acres in size, yet to my surprise 
I found that the greater number of the fishes were fine specimens 
of about 3 pounds weight, though the}^ were but in their second 
year, having weighed no more than 1^ pounds five short months 
before (the fishing-out took place at the beginning of October), 
and they had attained to this great weight in a comparatively very 
limited space of time. Several establishments of this kind are 
located in that district, and they commonly belong to some large 
princely domain (crown property). They are, like all large fish- 
eries, admirably managed, and the results are most satisfactory. 

6, — Mixed Carp- culture. 

We have so far spoken of carp-culture, according to the different 
age of these fish, in special ponds (hatching, breeding, and carp 
ponds), termed *' class culture" in Central Europe. We must now 
speak of another method, pursued in so-called *' mixed ponds," in 
which there are fish of all ages, from 1 year to 8 to 10 j^ears. 

Not much can be said regarding this method, as there are no 
hatching and breeding ponds, but only one pond, which, however, 
must combine all the characteristics of the class-ponds. It must 
therefore have shallow places, overgrown with grass or aquatic 
plants {Festuca Jluitans and Phellandrium) , for the spawners and 
the young fish, and also places, 8 to 10 feet deep, for the larger 
fish. If such a pond is to yield some profit, it must also be partic- 
ularly rich in food. A natural pond may be used, or, if such a one 
is not found, it may be artificially constructed. It is indispensable, 



1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



59 



however, that such a pond should have the same depth of water all 
the 3'ear round, and it should be so arranged that even the last 
drop of water can be let off, as occasionally even the smallest fish, 
measuring only 2 to 3 inches in length, must be taken out. Such 
" mixed ponds " must likewise have " collectors " and " collector- 
ditches." It will also be found ver}^ useful to construct a sort of 
hatching-place, on some flat and sunny place, near the bank, ^. e., a 
so-called cut in the bank, measuring 40 to 100 feet in length and 
30 to 50 feet in breadth, and having a depth of 5 inches to 1^ feet. 
This cut should be thickly planted with the above-mentioned 
aquatic plants, and ought, so to speak, to be the only place in the 
pond where carp can ascend from the depth in order to deposit 
their eggs conveniently and engage in the spawning process. 

As soon as this has taken place, the entrance to this cut is closed 
with a net, so the eggs cannot be eaten bj' the fish. This net may 
be removed when the young fish have come out of the eggs, but it 
is preferable to leave it in its place for some days, that the young 
fish may be able to feed for some time undisturbedly. 



Fig 1. 










Explanation of diagram. — A is the pond, B the cut which, 
though directly connected with the pond, is in reality nothing but 
a hatching-pond, such as has been described above. In order to 
have a complete system of ponds, nothing would be required but a 
" breeding-pond." 

In Europe this method was generally adopted by beginners in 
carp-culture, commencing with a mixed pond, and gradually pro- 
ceeding to the small "hatching-pond," and finallj^ to the "breed- 
ing-pond," as the great advantage of separate ponds for the differ- 
ent ages of fish over the " mixed-pond " sj^stem soon became 
evident. 

In such a " mixed pond" no pike must be kept for regulating 



60 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

the stock, as may be done in a class-pond, for all the small fish 
would then soon be devoured. It must be made a strict rule that, 
with the exception of the tench (Cyprinus tinea) ^ no other kind of 
fish, however harmless, is allowed in the pond. The tench is 
related to the carp, but it spawns 4 to 5 weeks later, so there can 
be no danger of cross-breeds. 

Great care should be taken that no goldfish (Cyprmus carpio 
aurattis) or bream (brama) get in the pond, for these fish would 
soon mix with the carp and tend to degenerate the breed. Such 
fish should therefore be removed or killed at once. The goldfish, 
especially the milter, swims in spawning-schools like the carp, and 
at the very same season. It thus spoils the eggs of the carp, as 
all eggs which it impregnates will produce spotted fish, having at 
least a silver}' streak J to ^ inch long and ^ inch broad, between 
the caudal and the dorsal fin. Such bastards (the cross-breeds of 
goldfish and Carassius also resemble them) do not grow larger 
than goldfish, and have as many bones. They are unfit for table 
use and entirelj^ unsuited for ornament, as they are neither genuine 
carp nor goldfish, and are disagreeable objects in the eyes of the 
scientist or connoisseur. If such fish are not removed immediatel}^ 
the consequence will be another cross-breed during the next spawn- 
ing season, for such a hybrid spawns, like the goldfish, when it is 
a year oM, and the breed of carps would degenerate still more. It 
is best to kill such worthless cross-breeds at once, as they are apt 
to give great trouble. 

I would embrace this opportunity to impress upon every carp- 
culturist who intends to make breeding experiments with any carp 
procured through the United States Fish Commission, the impor- 
tance of having if possible only one of three above-mentioned kinds 
of carp, unless he can have every kind in a separate pond. Thus, 
the common carp (Cyprinus carpio communis) should never be 
placed in the same pond with the "mirror carp" or the leather 
or naked carp*' {Cyx)rinus carpio alepidotus coriaceus vel nuclus), 
nor should the two last-mentioned varieties ever be in the same 
pond. Cross-breeds would invariably be produced, and in such a 
manner that one would have neither genuine common carps nor 
genuine mirror or leather carps, but a cross-breed of all the three 
varieties. Not even when quite young and not yet capable of 
spawning should these varieties be put together, because even if 
they are kept strictty separate during the spawning process, the 
young fish would never have the sharply-marked characteristics of 
their variety as regards form and color, but would approach nearer 
to the " mirror carp" and the " common carp." The carp has a 
striking tendency, when living with other varieties, to approach the 



\ 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— -No. 25. 61 

primitive form of the common carp, and finally to be merged in it. 
These beautiful varieties should therefore be kept strictly separate ; 
lack of ponds or any other reason should never induce people to 
mix them. 

If the breeding experiments are to be accompanied by good re- 
sults, a pure variety should be selected, and the finest and best 
milters and spawners, showing strongly all the characteristics of 
their variety should be procured, and the experiments will be 
crowned with success. 

I must return to the so-called "mixed culture," by mentioning 
that it is not to be recommended. In Central Europe it is never 
practised by scientific pisciculturists but only by small operators 
mostly in so-called " peasants' ponds." This method does never 
yield a certain and truly profitable result. 

7. — Feeding the Carp. 

In conclusion I will make some remarks on the feeding of carp 
in close ponds. It is not every natural pond which is a good pond, 
having the essentials of a good soil at the bottom and capable of 
producing suflficient food for the fish. If these conditions are 
wanting, the fish must be fed. This is as a general rule only neces- 
sary in ponds with sandy bottom without any clay. As I have 
said before, I am not in favor of feeding fish, as my standpoint is 
that of the rational culturist sharing the opinion with most of the 
prominent pisciculturists of the Old World, that the carp should 
find its own food in the ponds. 

If, however, the nature of the bottom demands artificial feeding 
or if suitable food can be had at a remarkably cheap price, the 
feeding should be done with great caution. Never feed in one and 
the same place ; even if the pond be very large, distribute the 
food in different places near the banks. If the food is always put 
in one place or even if it is distributed over two places, the carp 
will stay in the neighborhood of these places, will become languid, 
and instead of scouring the other parts of the pond in search of 
food, will remain at the bottom. It will, even if surrounded by 
the richest food, grow fat, but never have any firm flesh ; nor will 
it ever grow much in length, as the somewhat phlegmatic fish does 
not get the exercise which favors its growth. 

Never give them much food at one time, but by degrees, in small 
quantities, never during the day but either early in the morning or in 
the evening. During the hot season only feed them late at night, 
because the carp, if it has eaten sufficiently in the morning, will 



C2 INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

remain at the bottom all da}', while during the higher temperature 
of the water it is necessary for its health that it should swim round 
and get a change of water.' It is therefore useful to place in ponds 
containing large carps a limited number of pike, which however, 
must be smaller than the carp. The carp fears the pike and flies 
from it. * If there are pike in the pond, the carp will get more ex- 
ercise and will seek natural feeding places, whither, on account of 
its innate sluggishness, it would never have gone. 

Pond-carp are accustomed to other food than the river-carp. The 
former confine themslves to worms, larvae, and plants, w4iile those 
liAdng in streams find all sorts of animal and vegetable refuse ; 
these latter can also stand a greater amount of food, as the current 
naturall}' makes them take more exercise, thus increasing their ap- 
petite. It is different with the pond-carp ; if you give it too much 
food, it will not take any more than is necessarj^ to satisfy its hun- 
ger ; the remnants wall remain at the bottom, and if their quantit}^ 
be considerable, the}^ will spoil the water. If these remnants are 
chiefly animal refuse, as flesh or blood, fungi will grow on them, 
and will then produce, as with the salmon and trout, diseases of the 
skin, the gills, and in the case of the carp, sometimes internal 
diseases. 

The writer once had the following experience : During his ab- 
sence a number of large carp were fed on coagulated blood which 
had begun to putrefy ; the fish devoured it eagerly, got sick, and 
most of them died in a few da3's from an inflammation of the intes- 
tines. Spoilt food should never be given to fish. If slaughter- 
house or kitchen refuse can be had, give these, chopped up small 
about the size of peas. Never give so much that remnants remain 
for any length of time in the water and begin to putrefy. Let no 
one be induced bj^ the circumstance that the carps like to eat the 
dung of hogs, sheep and cows, to feed them on an}^ putrefying mat- 
ter. There are instances on record that thereby epidemics, partic- 
ularly diseases of the scales have originated. 

The carp likes above everything else vegetable matter, such as 
cabbage, lettuce, boiled potatoes, corn, turnips, pumpkins, melons, 
&c. The refuse of malt from breweries and distilleries, is also 
very good food for carp ; and wherever such refuse can be had, it 
should be given to the fish. 

The small pisciculturist, having a pond of perhaps 1-2 acres near 
bis house, will often be able to feed his fish on refuse, as he will 
alwa^'s have it fresh from the kitchen and stable. 

In conclusion, I earnestly recommend the culture of the carp to 
all pisciculturists. If the value of the carp for table use has once 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 63 

been recognized, it will become a bigbh^ esteemed fish, especially 
in the neighborhood of large and populous cities, and its culture 
will yield a larger and more certain profit, than the expensive 
trout. 

8. — Extent of Carp-culture in Europe. 

In Europe many thousand acres of artificial waters are to be 
found. In these enormous quantities of carp are bred. Some of 
these ponds, or rather lakes, have an extent of about 1,000 to 
2,000 acres. They are provided with gigantic dams, man}^ of them 
60 feet high. By these the water is closed in into broad vallej^s, 
containing no other fishes than carps from 4 to 5 pounds in weight. 
If we consider the size of these lake-like ponds, surrounded by 
enormous dams which are overgrown with oak-trees 100 to 300 
years old, series of three and more of these lakes being not uncom- 
mon, then we can form some idea as to the remunerativeness of 
these establishments, -particularly in Bohemia. 

The standard establishment with regard to the most extensive 
business transactions is found in Austria. The Prince of Schwarz-, 
enberg, of whom I have spoken previously, possesses more than 250 
ponds of large size, the smallest having about 10 acres, the 
largest 2,000 acres water extent. 

We find many villages where ponds of 50 to 200 and more acres 
are maintained at the expense of the community. 

9. — The Table Qualities. 

If the carp were a fish of inferior quality, like the buffalo-fish, 
for instance, its sale would doubtless be limited to the seaport 
towns of Northern Germany and the principal cities of Central 
Europe, as Vienna, Berlin and Paris. In the latter city, in spite 
of an abundant supply of salt-water and difi^erent kinds of fresh- 
water fish, the carp is ever preferred to these, and with the excep- 
tion of trout and salmon, it frequently commands a price three 
times as high as that of all the rest. 

I maintain my assertion that the carp, whether it be scale, mir- 
ror, or leather carp, is one of the most excellent fresh-water fishes, 
and its introduction will be of great value in point of national econ- 
omy, especially on account of the facility of its culture and the 
enormous extent to which this may be carried on. 

The carp and its value as a fish of culture will before long be 
fully appreciated, so that we may be enabled favorably to compare 
the results of its culture in America, as also the extent attained to, 
with any other country, to our complete satisfaction. 



64 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



Fig. 3. — Plan of a natural carp-pond. 




^i^M^^K 



Pond P is a natural body of water. Its extent is about one hundred 
and fifty to two hundred acres. It is formed by a dam, D, about seven 
to eight feet high, crossing the valley and thus collecting the water of a 
run flowing there. Before i) is a deepening, C, the collector. In the 
dam D there is an outlet leading to another deepening — the so-called 
outlet collector OG. The purpose of this collector is to keep back 
fishes that may have passed the outlet when opened. It is provided 
with a screen or netting. CD, upon the bottom of pond P, is the col- 
lector-ditch, which conducts the fishes to C when the water is let out, 
and thus prevents them being caught in the mud. R is the run of 
water which, to prevent overflow, has to be conducted around the pond 
in a separate ditch, leaving an inlet at J, protected by a sluice with 
screens. 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 65 



LAWS AND RESOLVES, 1885. 

[Chap. 109.] 
An Act relating to the Leasing of Great Ponds. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. So mach of chapter ninety-one of the Public 
Statutes, relating to inland fisheries, as authorizes the commis- 
sioners on inland fisheries to lease great ponds, is hereby repealed. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take eflfect upon its passage. \_Approved 
March 27, 1885. 

[Chap. 209.] 

An Act confirming the acts of the fish committee of the towns of Dennis and Yar- 
mouth relating to the regulations of the Fisheries in Bass River. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. The acts of the committee of the town of Dennis and 
the committee of the town of Yarmouth, acting as a fish committee 
under chapter thirty-seven of the acts of the year one thousand 
eight hundred and fortj^-nine, are hereby made valid and confirmed 
to the same extent as though the committee of the town of Dennis 
had been chosen annually instead of for the term of three years, 
and the said committee as now constituted shall continue to exercise 
the powers offish committee under said chapter until their successors 
are chosen at the next annual town meetings in said respective 
towns. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 

May 1, 1885. 

• ■ — - 

[Chap. 220.] 
An Act relating to licenses to plant, grow and dig Oysters, and to the taking of 

Scallops. 
Be it enacted, etc., asfolloios : 

Section 1. No license shall be granted to plant, grow and dig 
oysters under sections ninety-seven, ninety-eight, ninety-nine, one 
hundred and one hundred and one of chapter ninety-one of the 
Public Statutes, and chapter two hundred and eighty-four of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-four, without a public 



QQ INLAND FISHERIES. [Dec. 

hearing upon the matter, due notice of which shall be given in writ- 
ing, to be posted in three or more public places in the town in 
which the premises lie, at least seven dsijs before the time fixed for 
such hearing. 

Sect. 2. In case any person to whom such license shall be 
granted fails for two years thereafter to plant and grow oysters in 
the waters described in said license, the same shall be revoked by 
the officers who granted it, which revocation shall be recorded as 
provided in said section ninety-eight. 

Sect. 3. Whoever takes in any one day, between sunrise and 
sunset, more than twenty-five bushels of scallops, including the 
shells, for each boat actually employed by him in taking the same, 
shall be punished bj^ a fine not exceeding twenty dollars for each 
offence. 

Sect. 4. Any person who at any time between the fifteenth day 
of April and the first day of September shall take scallops from 
any of the waters of the state by dredging, or by nets of any kind, 
or shall expose any scallops for s.ale within the state, or shall ex- 
port the same, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding twenty 
dollars for each offence. 

Sect. 5. Whoever works a dredge, 03^ster tongs or rakes, or 
any other implement for the taking of shell fish of an\^ description, 
upon any oyster grounds or beds, other than public grounds or 
beds, without the consent of the licensee, lessee or owner thereof, 
or who shall, while upon or sailing over any such grounds or beds, 
cast, haul, or have overboard any such dredge, tongs, rake or other 
implement for the taking of shell fish of any description, under 
any pretence or for any purpose whatever, without the consent of 
the licensee, lessee, or owner, shall for the first oflfence be punished 
by a fine not exceeding twenty dollars or by imprisonment in jail 
not exceeding thirty days, and for every subsequent offence shall 
be punished by a fine not exceeding fifty dollars, or b}^ imprison- 
ment in the house of correction or jail not exceeding six months. 

Sect. 6. The selectmen of any town or mayor and aldermen of 
any city may designate one or more constables for the detection and 
prosecution of any violation of the laws of the state relating to shell 
fisheries, within their respective jurisdictions. Each of said con- 
stables so designated may without warrant arrest any person found 
violating any of said laws, and detain him for prosecution not ex- 
ceeding twenty-four hours, and may seize any boat or vessel used 
in such violation, together with her tackle, apparel and furniture, 
with all implements belonging thereto, which shall be forfeited to 
the use of the town or city in which such seizure is made. [-4P" 
proved May 11, 1885. 



1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 67 



[Chap. 245.] 
An Act to amend tlie charter of the Lagoon Pond Company in Dukes County. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. The Lagoon Pond Company in Dukes County, incor- 
porated by chapter eighty-seven of the acts of the 3'ear eighteen 
hundred and fiftj-seven for the purpose of creating a herring and 
perch fishery, is hereby authorized to use the pond above the dam 
at Long Point for the purpose of storing tlierein food fishes. 

Sect. 2. Said corporation shall during the occupancy of said 
pond for storing food fishes be required to post notices of the fact 
of such occupanc}' on the shores of said pond ; and dnring such 
occupanc}' said corporation and its agents shall have the exclusive 
right to take fish therefrom, except that any person may spear eels 
or dig clams therefrom. 

Sect. 3. Whoever without leave from said corporation, during 
the occupanc}' of said pond for storing food fishes, takes fish there- 
from, except as provided in section two of this act, shall be pun- 
ished b}' a fine of not less than five nor more fift}' dollars. 

Sect. 4. Trial justices may enforce the penalties provided by 
this act. [Approved May 21, 1885. 



[Chap. 247.] 
An Act to repeal An Act for the protection of Striped Bass and Bluefish in the waters 

of Edgar town. 
Be it enacted, etc., as folloics: 

Section 1. Chapter sixty-five of the acts of the jeav eighteen 
hundred and eighty-two is hereby repealed and no penalty shall 
hereafter be enforced for its violation. 

Sect, 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Approved 

May 22, 1885, 



[Chap. 256.J ,^ 

An Act providing for the enforcement of an act for the protection of Lobsters. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. For the purpose of enforcing the provisions of chapter 
two hundred and twelve of the acts of the year eighteen hundred 
and eighty-four, relative to the protection of lobsters, either of the 
commissioners on inland fisheries, personally or by deput}", or any 
member of the district police detailed by the governor as provided 
in said chapter, ma}^ search in suspected places for, seize and re- 
move, lobsters taken, held or offered for sale in violation of the 
provisions of said chapter. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Approved 
May 22, 1885. 



[E.] 



TABLES SEOWING 



EETUENS OF WEIKS, SEINES AND GILL-NETS. 



70 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



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1885 ] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



71 





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72 



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1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



73 





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74 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



CO 

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429,472 

54,322 

6,139 

42,650 

137,331 

7,150 

2,500 

84,700 

19,300 

8,450 

3,733 

109 
3,695 




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W. S. Hadaway, . 

T. L. Mayo & Co., . 

E. C. MaUhews, 

Nobscussott Fish Wier Co., . 

Aiilhony T. Chase, . 

Nels Nelson, .... 

J. H. liorton 

Isaac B. Lewis, 

Philip Smith, .... 

0. W. Horton 

James Savage, .... 
Prince M. Stuart, . 
Waite & Smith, 
William W. Whalon, . 
Obed S. Daggett, . 


1 

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Plymouth, . 
Sandwich, . 
Dennis, 

East Dennis, 
Brewster, . 
Wellfleet, . 
Provincetown, 
Eastham, . 

Falmouth, . 
Dartmouth, 
Westport, . 
Tisbury, . 



1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



75 



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144 

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85 
147 

28 
1,229 
4,782 


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20,325- 

1,197 

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7,239 
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5,682 
7,535 
3,367 
2,556 
0,771 
2,682 
7,588 
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....... 11 


Charles A. Caswell, 
David S. Baker, . 
Hirnm E. Baker, . 
Sylvester Baker, . 
Horatio Howes, . 
David Loveli, 
Samuel G. Allen, . 
Perry Kirby, . 
J. T. Lawton, 
T. B. Pierce, . 
Lysander W. White, 
C. F. Hitt, . 
Leonard M. Sauford, 
Charles A. Tripp, . 
Philip S. Tripp, . 
John Medreass, 
David Rogers, 
H. & J. Crosby & Co., 
E. E. Hammond, . 

Total, . 


Town or Place, 


Newburyport, 
South Yarmouth, . 
II <i 

West Dennis, 
Chatham, 
Mashpee, 
Wcstport, 

i< 
II 

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Osterville, . 
Marion, . 


1 



76 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



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1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



77 



I I I I I I I I I I I I 



I I I I I i I I I 



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78 



INLAND FISHERIES, 



[Dec. 



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1885.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



79 





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80 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Dec. 



Table IV. — Connecticut River Seines. 



Town ok Place. 


Proprietor. 


Shad. 


South Hadley, 


C, C. Smith and others, 

Total 


1,718 




1,718 





Table V. — Merrimac River Seines. 



Town or Place. 


Proprietor. 


Shad. 


Amesbury, .... 
North Andover, 


Jonathan Morrill, 

Eben Sutton 

Total, 


86 
44 




130 



Table VI. — Taunton River Seines. 



Town or Place. 



Proprietor. 



Raynham, 
DightoD, . 



Taunton, 
Berkley, 



Somereet, 



Gustavus King, 
G. B. & E. Williams, 
Charles N. Simmons, 
E. & O. Buffinton, . 
J. W. Hart & Co., . 
Isaac N. Babbitt, . 
Edmund Hathaway, 
William H. Walker, 
Nichols & Shove, . 
George H. Simmons, 
Total, 



80- 
400 
365 
571 
540 
400 
450 
1 



183,241 
196,740 
150,000 

80,000 
101,535 
125,323 
153,088 

90,000 
170,000 

17,552 



4,964 



1,267,479 



15 



1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



81 



Table VII. — Other Fresh- water Seines and Dip-net Fisheries. 



Town or Place. 


Proprietor. 


1 


1 

a) 
< 




1 
1 


West Medford, 
Weymouth, . 
Hingham, 
Kingston, 
Plymouth, 

Yarmouth, . 
West Brewster, 
Wellfleet, . 
Wareham, . 
Mattapoisett, 
Marion and Roch 
Chilmark, 


38ter, 


Cross Bros., 
Weymouth Iron Co., 
Thomas Weston, 
Philander Cobb, 
E. & J. C. Barnes, . 
Rogers & Phinney, . 
Long Pond Fishing Co., 
J. Howard Winslow, 
Winslow Paine, 
George Sanford, 

A. H. Shurtleff, 
Estate H. M. Smith, 
Total, . 






_ 

3 

- 
_ 


170,100 

75,275 

3,008 

10,500 

58,832 

14,279 

15,194 

129,082 

26r,018 

279,600 

275,937 
4,624 


- 


- 
_ 

_ 






3 


1,296,449 


- 


- 



82 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



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1885.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25, 



83 





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PUBLIC DOCUMENT. 



No. 25. 



REPORT 



Fish and Game Commssioners 



MASSACHUSETTS 



For the Year ending December 31, 1886. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS 

18 Post Office Square. 

1887. 



\ 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

Report 5 

Appendix A. List of Fish Commissioners 41 

B. List of Leased Ponds 50 

C. Extract from Report of 1878 56 

I)- Account of a large Water-bug (Belostoma), an 

enemy to Young Carp 67 

E. Legislation 75 

F. Returns of Pounds, Weirs, Seines and Gill-nets . 81 



Commoitfomltl^ of P^assat^srfts. 



To His Excellency the Governor and Honorable Council. 

The Fish and Game Commissioners respectfully present 
their Twenty-first Annual Report : — 

Fish WAYS. 

There have been no complaints as to the working of the 
fishways, and only two applications for the construction of 
new ones. 

Below will be found Mr. Holmes's report on the Lawrence 
fish way : — 

Lawrence, Nov. 23, 1886. 
E. A. Brackett, Commissioner on Fisheries. 

Dear Sir : — I enclose my report of the Lawrence fish way for this 
year. I do not think that the run of salmon has been as large as 
was expected, although they showed up very well in the fall, and 
very late too. 

The run of lamper eels was the largest I have seen since the 
fishway came under my charge. I do not think the alewives came 
up to last year. Perhaps if screens could be put in at the head of 
the canals, so that salmon and alewives could not get into them, it 
would be an advantage. As the river is now, when the water is 
low the fish are disposed to follow the current down the canal, and 
in ascending in the spring are attracted by the outflow at the foot 
of the canal, and sometimes in the sw'ift current dash themselves 
against the sides of the wheel-pit. The time ma}^ come when it 
would be desirable to adopt some means for keeping the fish out of 
these places. I have heard of two or three salmon being killed in 
the wheel-pits after the mills were shut down. 



6 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

If Andover, or some other town, could be induced to put ale- 
wives into a large pond connected with the river, not only would 
the alewives be increased, but the fisheries of the pond would be 
benefited. Raggett's would be a good one for that purpose. 

Mr. Knowles repaired the fish way this season, and it is in better 
condition to stand the spring freshets than it has ever been. 

Yours truly, Thomas S. Holmes. 

Fish in the Lawrence FiSHvy^AY in 1886. 

May 1. A few lampreys and alewives. 

2. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run small. 

3. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run small. 

4. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run small. 

5. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run small. 

6. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run small. 

7. Lampreys, run moderate ; alewives and suckers, run small, 

8. Lampreys, run moderate ; alewives and suckers, run small. 

9. Lampreys, run moderate; alewives and suckers, run small. 

10. Lampreys, run small ; a few alewives and suckers. 

11. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run small. 

12. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run small. 

13. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run small. 

14. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run moderate. 
16. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run moderate. 

16. Lampreys, run moderate ; alewives, run small. 

17. Lampreys, run moderate ; alewives and suckers, run small. 

18. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate ; alewives, run small, 

19. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run moderate. 

20. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate ; alewives, run small. 

21. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate ; alewives, run small. 

22. Lampreys, alewives and suckers, run moderate. 

23. Lampreys, run large ; alewives and suckers, run moderate. 

24. Lampreys, run very large ; alewives and suckers, run large. 

25. Lampreys, run very large; alewives, suckers and redfin 

shiners, run large. 

26. Lampreys, run very large ; suckers and alewives, run mod- 

erate. 

27. Lampreys, run large ; alewives and suckers, run moderate. 

28. Lampreys, run large ; alewives and suckers, run moderate. 

29. Lampreys, run moderate ; alewives and suckers, run small. 

30. Lampreys, run large ; suckers, run moderate ; alewives, run 

small. 

31. Lampreys and suckers, run large ; alewives, run small. 
June 1 . Lampreys, run large ; suckers, run moderate ; alewives, run 

small. 

2. Lampreys, run very large ; suckers, run moderate ; alewives, 

run small. 

3. Lampreys and suckers, run large ; alewives, run small. 



1886.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



June 4. Lampreys, run large ; suckers, run moderate ; alewives, run 
small. 

5. Lampreys, run large ; suckers and alewives, run small. 

6. Lampreys, run large ; suckers, run moderate; alewives, run 

small. 

7. Lampreys, run large ; suckers and alewives, run small. 

8. Lampreys, run moderate ; suckers and alewives, run small. 

9. Lampreys, run moderate ; suckers and alewives, run small. 

10. One salmon, 12 pounds ; lampreys and suckers, run mod- 

erate ; alewives, run small. 

11. Lampreys, run moderate ; suckers and alewives, run small. 

12. Lampreys, run moderate ; suckers, run small. 

13. Lampreys, run moderate ; suckers and alewives, run small. 

14. Lampreys, run moderate ; suckers, run small. 

15. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate. 

16. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate. 

17. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate. 

18. Lampreys, run moderate ; suckers and alewives, run small. 

19. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate; alewives, run small. 

20. Two salmon, 10 to 12 pounds ; lampreys and suckers, run 

moderate. 

21. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate; alewives, run small. 

22. Two salmon, 12 to 14 pounds ; lampreys and suckers, run 

moderate. 

23. Lampi'eys and suckers, run moderate ; a few alewives. 

24. Two salmon, 10 to 12 pounds ; lampreys and suckers, run 

small. 

25. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate. 

26. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate. 

27. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate. 

28. Lampreys and suckers, run small. 

29. Lampreys and suckers, run moderate. 

30. Lampreys and suckers, run small. 

The water kept getting lower every day after the 1st of July, 
and the fish seen were less and less, and on July 12 I 
shut the water out of the fish way, as there was no water 
running over the dam, and only a few suckers in the way. 
The water was low all through the latter part of July, the 
month of August and half of September ; water shut out of 
fishway nearly all the time, except Sundays. The fish seen 
were a few suckers and small silver eels in August and 
September. The river commenced to rise about September 
17, and I let the water into the fishway on the 18th. 
Suckers appeared on the 19th, and I saw salmon as 
below : — 
Sept. 21. One salmon, 8 pounds. 

26. Two salmon, 8 to 12 pounds. 
28. One salmon, 14 pounds. 



8 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Oct. 5. Two salmon, 6 to 8 pounds. 

Water was shut out of fishway again from October 10 to 
October 31, and on November 4 I saw one salmon, 8 
pounds, since which time I have seen no fish. 

Yours respectfully, Thomas S. Holmes. 

The Lower Part of the Merrimac. 

What is knowQ by the fishermen at Newbaryport as bait, 
coDsisting mainly of blue-backs and menhaden, have become 
very scarce at the mouth of the Merrimac. The menhaden, 
which were so plenty in our bays years ago, appear in many 
cases to have entirely deserted them. 

The theory that no amount of fishing could materially 
lessen the deep-sea fisheries appears to be losing ground, 
and the intelligent fishermen are earnestly struggling for a 
law to protect the mackerel during their spawning season. 
With the driving away or destruction of the menhaden, the 
blue-fish are decreasing on our coast. 

If the New England States had combined and protected 
the menhaden in their bays and estuaries they would prob- 
ably have added millions of dollars to the value of our in- 
shore fisheries. They furnished an immense amount of food 
to more valuable fish, for where their food is will be found 
all animal life. 

In no other industry has there been such a reckless dis- 
regard of common sense as has marked the course of most 
of our fishermen, and it is gratifying to know that a de- 
cided change for the better is taking place among many of 
them. 

The misfortune is that they do not awaken to the danger 
that threatens them until the injury is done. The most 
ignorant farmer knows that there is a limit to the production 
of his farm, no matter how many acres he may possess ; and 
with the improved methods of fishing there is a limit to 
the catch of fish, no matter how large the feeding grounds 
may be. 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25, 



Newburtport, Mass., Nov. 22d, 1886. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — I have the pleasure herewith to submit to you my 
report for the present season : — 

Fish called bait have been very scarce in the Merrimac this 
■season, not more than thirty-five barrels having been taken ; it is 
at least twentj^-flve years since they have been so scarce. 

In regard to dead salmon, I would sa}^ that in my rounds- during 
the season I have seen but one, and that on the river near 
Haverhill. 

In the matter of violation of the law in relation to lobsters, I 
desire to say that warrants have been issued against the following : 
John Low of Haverhill, Mass., who disappeared before the warrant 
oould be served, and who has not since been seen ; also, Ambrose 
A. Pike of Newburyport and Albert Reed of Haverhill ; Pike and 
Reed were both arraigned, found guilty and fined in the police 
court at Newburyport. Their oflfence consisted in the following : 
Reed, for catching at Ipswich ; Pike, for having in his possession 
at Salisbury Point ; and Low, for selling at Haverhill. 

In regard to game, gunners appear to be well pleased with the 
appointment of a game warden. A larger number of quail have 
been seen this year than for several years past. It is the opinion 
of gunners hereabouts, as well as my opinion, that the law relating 
to quail and partridge should come into operation at the same time, 
as tending to prevent the present confusion of dates and accidental 
violation of the law, which it is plain may naturall/ and honestlj^ 
occur by lapse of memory and otherwise. 

I have the pleasure, gentlemen, to remain your obedient servant, 
Edwin F. Hunt, Deputy Commissioner. 

Shad Hatching on the Merrimac. 

Shad hatching was continued at North Andover during the 
past season with satisfactory results, and if it can be still 
continued and present regulations maintained along the 
river, especially at the mouth, success is certain, for artifi- 
cial hatching as a means of restoring the fish to a river is no 
longer an experiment. 

The repeated assertions that the impurities of the 
water of the Merrimac are destructive to the fish have little 
foundation in fact, but there can be no question that the 
use of small mesh-nets on the lower part of the river had 



10 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

much to do with the depletion of the fisheries. Even the 
present arrangements, which were a compromise, destroy 
many immature shad. 

Hut little was done on the lower part of the river, and the 
fishermen on the upper part generally abstained from fishing, 
thereby aiding the Commissioners in their efforts to re-stock 
the river. 

To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — We respectfully submit the following report^ 
giving the full details of the work of hatching shad at North An^ 
dover during the season of 1886. The hatchery was opened June 
7, and closed July 14. 



r of large shad taken, . 


. 644 


of small shad taken, . 


. 1,030 


of shad returned to river alive, . 


. 1,469 


of shad given away, 


. 205 


of salmon taken, .... 


6 


of salmon returned to river alive, 


6 



Of the 644 large shad taken, 205 male and female fish were 
used for spawning. The estimated amount of spawn taken was 
695,000.* The number of shad hatched was fully 600,000 ; these 
were turned into the river at North Andover as soon as hatched. 

There was ^ decided increase in the run of fish this season, a& 
will be seen by the table, — 40 full-grown shad were taken at one 
sweep on the evening of June 9 ; the oldest fishermen here said 
they had seen nothing like that for fifteen years. The run of fish 
continued up to Jul}^ 8. Only 6 salmon were taken ; these were 
returned to the river. The taking of so few salmon was accounted 
for by the fishermen from the fact that the river was high in the 
month of June, and the salmon found no difficulty in going over the 
falls. 

The following table will show the number of large shad taken 
each day, the proportion of males to females, the temperature of 
the water and air at 7 o'clock p. m., the time of drawing the seine, 
also the number of fish taken at each sweep. 

* This estimate is too low; a full-size female shad will give from 30,000 ta 
40,000 eggs. Allowing one-third of the fish to have been females, the estimate 
should not have heen less than two millions. 



1886.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



11 



1886. 


o 

Is 

"A 


i 


a 




Temperature 

of 

Air at 7 p. m. 




No, of Fish per 
per Sweep. 














p. M. 




June 7, . 


3 





3 


70 


68 


8, 9, 


0, 3 


8, . 






12 


8 


4 


70 


69 


7, 8, 


0, 12 


9, . 






40 


30 


10 


70 


72 


7, 8, 


0, 40 


10, . 






61 


51 


10 


72 


70 


7, 8, 


30, 31 


11, . 






32 


24 


8 


73 


68 


8, 9, 


7, 25 


12, . 






32 


19 


13 


70 


68 


8, 9, 


20, 12 


14, . 






17 


10 


7 


68 


60 


8, 9, 


7, 10 


15, . 






15 


8 


7 


66 


60 


8, 9, 


7, 8 


16, . • 






25 


16 


9 


68 


68 


7, 8, 


15, 10 


17, . 






14 


8 


6 


70 


70 


8, 9, 


14, 


18, . 






37 


33 


4 


70 


55 


8, 9, 


\b, 22 


19, . 






15 


8 


7 


70 


64 


8, 9, 


6, 9 


21, . 






28 


20 


8 


72 


66 


7, 8, 


12, 1& 


22, . 






32 


23 


9 


74 


64 


8, 9, 


15, 17 


23, . 






26 


18 


8 


71 


65 


8, 9, 


15, 11 


24, . 






10 


5 


5 


72 


68 


7, 8, 


4, 6 


25, . 






28 


18 


10 


73 


69 


8, 9, 


10, 18 


26, . 






3 


3 





71 


67 


8, 9, 


3, 


28, . 






27 


18 


9 


72 


64 


7, 8, 


15, 12 


29, . 






23 


15 


8 


74 


66 


8, 9, 


15, 8 


30, . 






24 


17 


7 


74 


58 


9,10, 


12, 12 


July 1, . 






27 


15 


12 


75 


62 


8, 9, 


12, 15 


2, . 






15 


5 


10 


75 


68 


9,10, 


4, 11 


3, . 






12 


8 


4 


76 


68 


9,10, 


8, 4 


6, . 






20 


5 


15 


78 


70 


9,10, 


8, 12 


7, . 






19 


7 


12 


78 


78 


8, 9, 


10, 9 


8, . 






16 


5 


11 


80 


70 


9,10, 


6, 10 


9, . 






13 


5 


8 


82 


68 


9,10, 


5, 8 


10, . 






3 





3 


78 


66 


8, 9, 


0, 3 


12, . 






10 





10 


77 


58 


9,10, 


9, 1 


13, . 






1 





1 


74 


60 


8,10, 


1, 


14, . 






4 





4 


73 


60 


9,10, 


2, 2 



When we consider the low state to which the shad fisheries of 
the Merrimac had been reduced in 1881, our expectations from the 
results of hatching shad have thus far been fully realized, and 
there are good reasons for expecting a much larger increase of fish 
in 1887. One of the great evils to the propagation of shad in the 
Merrimac has been effectually stopped, which was the using of so 
many fine mesh seines at the mouth of the river. There are other 
obstacles, however, which seem to be beyond our control ; the river 
is actually swarming with minnows, red perch, chubbs, frogs and 
suckers, all of which feed upon the spawn of fish in the spawning 
season. The suckers would gather around the hatching boxes, turn 
upon their backs and suck the spawn through the wire. This trouble 



12 



FISH AND GAME, 



[Dec. 



can be avoided b}' placing an extra wire two inches below the wire 
on the bottom of the hatching boxes. During the fishing season, 
hundreds of suckers were taken and destroyed, and yet at the close 
of the season the}' seemed to be just as numerous. 

Respectfull}^ yours, B. P. Chad wick. 

RoBT. Elliot. 

Trout. (Salmo fontinalis.) 

We received from the works at Plymouth, N. H., last 
year, 250,000* eggs of these fish, which was double the 
number received in 1885, and this year there will be some- 
thing over 350,000. 

These eggs were hatched with only about two per cent, 
loss, and were distributed approximately as follows : — 



E. G. Loomis, 


. Bedford, . . 


. 5,000 


Chas. M. Jenks, 


. Bedford, 


. 5,000 


G. W. Morse, . 


. Newton, . 


. 5,000 


Chas. N. Foote, 


. Lee, 


. 10,000 


J. B. Peck, . 


. North Attleborougt 


1, . 5,000 


N. D. Gay, . 


. Springfield, . 


. 5,000 


W. H. Abbott, 


. South Easton, 


. 5,000 


r. L. Cushman, 


. Springfield, . 


. 5,000 


Miles Sampson, 


. Pembroke, 


. 5,000 


O. F. Hoyle, . 


. Worcester, 


. 5,000 


Daniel Gay, . 


. Great Harrington, 


. 5,000 


E. H. Lathrop, 


. Springfield, . 


. 25,000 


Eben Sutton, . 


. North Andover, 


. 5,000 


John H. Sutton, 


. North Andover, 


. 5,000 


R. E. Bemus, . 


. Chicopee, 


. 5,000 


B. T. Hillman, 


. Edgartown, . 


. 5,000 


Amoz Smith, . 


. Edgartown, . 


. 5,000 


W.H. Little, . 


. Sheffield, 


. 5,000 


H. Everett Lake, . 


. Topsfield, 


. 5,000 


John B. Loring, 


. Cape Cod, 


. 10,000 


A. L. Plymptox, . . 


. Roxbury, 


. 5,000 


A. G. Sharp, . 


. Richmond, 


. 5,000 


.John E. Sawyer, . 


. Methuen, 


. 3,000 


Wm. Ticknor (for Club) 


. Great Barrington, 


. 10,000 


Henry R. Peirson, . 


. Pittsfield, 


. 5,000 


C V. Dudley, . 


. Whitinsville, . 


. ■ . 6,000 


N. F. Mayo, . 


. Cliftondale, . 


. 3,500 


Parker D. Hubbard, 


. Sunderland, . 


. 5,000 


W. H. Tobey, 


. Brockton, 


. 5,000 


L. Hardy, 


. Worcester, 


. 5,000 



* This estimate was found to be considerably below the number of eggs received. 



1886.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



13 



A. E. Alden, . 


. Stoneham, 






2,000 


B. C. Gaboon, 


. East Falmouth, 




5,000 


Allen Webster, 


. Springfield, . 




5,000 


A. P. Tobey, . 


. Waquoit, 






5,000 


A. 0. Thrasher, 


. Hampden, 






5,000 


Geo. Huey, 


. Springfield, 






5,000 


C. A. Howland, 


. Adams, . 






5,000 


Wm. Houston, 


. Wakefield, 






1,000 


G. C. Bridges, 


. Warren, . 






5,000 


Richard Pinksohn, . 


. Boston, . 






5,000 


J. S. O^erhiser, 


. Foxborough, 






5,000 


Appleton & Litchfield, 


. Boston, . 






5,000 


C. C. Merritt, . 


. Springfield, 






5,000 


A. E. Scott, . 


. Lexington, 






5,000 


C. S. Wheeler, 


. Williamsburg, 






5,000 


Frank Brooks, 


. Medford, 






1,000 


0. Hanscom, . 


. Stoneham, 






1,000 


John Cunamings, 


. Woburn, 






5,000 


Wm. H. Mears, 


. Tewksbury, 






5,000 



Trout require some one to take charge of them in trans- 
portation ; and applicants in distant parts of the State would 
save expense if they could unite and engage one person to 
look after several lots of fish, meeting him at the different 
stations on the route. One competent man can take charge 
of thirty or forty thousand. 

Blanks will be forwarded next year to parties who have 
received trout fry, and a full report of results required. 
This would have been done before, but the number of young 
fry at our disposal was so small that it was thought best to 
wait until a larger and wider distribution over different parts 
of the State could be secured. 

The supply of 350,000 for next April, and the probability 
of nearly double that amount for the year after, will furnish 
sufficient data for intelligent reports. The breeding trout 
now on hand should, when mature, give a million eggs, 
and that amount is required to supply the demand. The 
limited number given two and three years ago have been in 
most cases remarkably successful. 

The Commissioners should have authority to close, at 
their discretion, streams which are stocked by the co-opera- 
tion of the State, for a period of two or three years, and 
there should be a general law prohibiting the taking of trout 
below a certain size. 



14 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec, 



Landlocked Salmon. (Sahno solar ^ var.) 
The distribution of these fish for 1886 was as follows : 



G. W. Morse, 


for 


ponds in Newtonville, 




A. E. Hemphill Chase 


), 


Holyoke, 


B. C. Cahoon, 




" East Falmouth, . 


T. H. Lawrence, 




Falmouth, . 


I. W. Adams, 




" Ashburnham, 


E. J. Kenny son, 




" Haverhill, 


E. £. Dewy, 




" Western part of State 


John E. Sawyer, for 


pond 


in Methuen, 


N. S.True, 


" 


Lancaster, 


. 


H. H. Dame, 


" 


North Reading, 




J. F. Wright, 




Newton, 




C. H. Gary, 


It 


Pembroke, 




M.V. A.Evans, 


" 


Graniteville, . 




Wm. Houston, 


" 


Wakefield, 


. 


E. G. Loomis, 


(( 


Bedford, . 


. 



3,000 

14,500 

20,000 

12,000 

10,000 

6,000 

4,000 

5,000 

3,500 

5,000 

5,000 

3,500 

3,000 

2,000 

4,000 



As we have stated in previous years, all applications for 
these fish should be sent before April 1. 



Salmon in the Mekrimac. (Salmo solar,) 

The run of salmon in the spring was smaller than usual, 
and led to the conclusion that this was an off year for these 
fish. The fall run, however, was the largest that has oc- 
curred at that season. 

Late in the summer a communication was received stating 
that in the spring large numbers of smolts (young salmon), 
on their way to the sea, entered the canal at Lawrence, and 
were destroyed passing through the wheels at Russell's paper 
mills. A reply was sent at once, asking the writer if he 
would appear at a meeting of the Commissioners at Law- 
rence, and give them what' information he possessed. To 
this no reply was made. The complaint was the basis of 
an application for salmon fry to be placed below the dam. 
A partial investigation was made without eliciting any reli- 
able facts sustaining the charge. As the young salmon run 
down mostly in the spring, at high water, further effort to 
ascertain the truth of this statement was postponed until 
that time, when the Commissioners of New Hampshire and 
Massachusetts will give it their attention. 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

We append the Annual Report of E. B. Hodge, Superin- 
tendent of the Hatching Works at Plymouth, N. H. 

To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries for the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts. 

Gentlemen: — In January, 1886, I received from Bucksport, 
Me., 550,000 Penobscot salmon eggs, which with the eggs taken 
from the Merrimac River salmon at Plymouth, 60,000 in all, were 
hatched with but little loss, and in May the young fry were planted 
in the Pemigewasset River. The plant was made at various points 
from one to twenty miles above the falls. The young fry were 
strong and health3% and no loss was incurred in transferring them 
from the hatchery to the waters of the river. At the time the plant 
was made the water in the river was within one or two degrees of 
the same temperature as that in the troughs from which the fry 
were removed. 

The number of brook-trout eggs taken was 500,000, of which 
one-half (250,000) were sent to Mr. Brackett at Winchester in 
February and .March. There are now over 700,000 eggs of the 
brook trout in the hatcher}^, and the number will reach 750,000, 
one-half of which will be seut to Winchester as soon as they are 
sufficiently developed. 

The breeding trout in the ponds and tanks have been very 
healthy, no loss has been incurred, either from disease, mink or 
other enemies. There are now about 10,000 brook trout from four 
inches in length to three pounds in weight in the breeding ponds, 
and as many of them are from six to ten inches in length, a large 
increase of eggs ma}^ be expected in 1887. 

A new floor has been laid in tlie hatchery, with new flooring 
timbers, the old one having become unsafe. A two-inch pipe has 
been laid from the new spring to the house ; the distance was onl}' 
fifty feet and the expense small. All necessary repairs have been 
made, and the station is in good condition. I would recommend 
that 300 of the large male trout be sold and the proceeds used in 
the purchase of small brook-trout from one to two years old. 

E. B. Hodge, Superintendent. 

PLTMorxH, N. H., Nov. 17, 1886. 

LOBSTEES. 

The rapid decrease in the number and size of the lobsters, 
notwithstanding that the law has been fairly and in some 
cases vigorously enforced, has created a strong feeling in 
favor of a closed season. 



16 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Lobsters ten and one-half inches long, if they breed at 
all, are not sufficiently mature to cast any considerable amount 
of spawn. The ten and a half inch law, while it regulates 
the lobster to a marketable size, does not provide for any 
increase in number. 

A good many arrests have been made, developing the fact 
that there is sufficient interest in the unlawful traffic to raise 
funds to carry one case to the Supreme Court on points of 
law, where it is now pending. 

Whatever may be the decision of the court, some change 
in the law, increasing the size, and making a closed season 
for one or two months, is absolutely necessary, if we are to 
protect this valuable crustacean. 

It is a simple common-sense matter in which the Legisla- 
ture should not allow any prejudice or local interest to inter- 
fere to prevent the passage of a law which will be for the 
public good. 

Mr. r. R. Shattuck of Boston has given raiich attention 
to the enforcement of the law, and his report is herewith 
submitted in full. If all the deputies had been as active as 
he has been, the traffic in short lobsters would have been 
speedily ended. 

For the information of those who are heartily interested 
in the preservation of fish, game, and insectivorous birds, 
we would state that chap. 91, sect. 3, Public Statutes, 
gives the right to the Commissioners to appoint deputies to 
enforce all laws protecting them. 

It is desirable to have such deputies in difierent parts of 
the State; but as there is, at present,, only a small appro- 
priation that can be used to pay such deputies, the work 
necessarily must be, to a considerable extent, a labor of love. 

It was under this authority that Mr. Shattuck's vigorous 
work was accomplished. 

Boston, Nov. 29, 1886. 

E. A. Brackett,Esq., Chairman of the Boat'd of Inland Fisheries, State 

of Massachusetts. 

Dear Sir : — Since my appointment as deputy on lobsters, June 
19, 1885, I have sought in a measure to fulfil the duties pertain- 
ing to the office, with what result I herewith submit. 

To my surprise, I found the lobster had no friends ; on the con- 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 17 

trary, man}^ enemies. The supply was handled as though inex- 
haustible, although the decreasing size, weight and numbers plainly 
told the tale of a rapid extinction. A lobster weighing four 
pounds was the exception, and several barrels would be ransacked 
before one could be found. To be sure, now and then a very 
large one could be found, but they were of rare occurrence. 

The lobster is of slow growth and has many natural enemies 
besides man, and, as stated by our best naturalists, is five years, 
in arriving at the procreative age, and is then barely lOJ- 
inches in length, — the minimum of size. If this lOJ-inch law 
could be rigidly enforced, together with a close season of six weeks 
(the same as Maine has on its statutes), say, from August 15 
until October 1, we might again find the lobster comparatively 
plentiful along our coast. During the time mentioned for a close 
season the lobster is shedding his shell and recovering from the 
consequent exhaustion ; is very much like a moulting fowl, unfit for 
food, sick and of little commercial value. I think a majority of 
the dealers are in favor of a close season, but what time of the j^ear 
that season should be is a mooted question with them. 

The value of the lobster commercially considered is about 
$300,000 in Boston alone annually, and about $75,000 in the State 
outside of Boston, — say, $375,000 in the Commonwealth. This 
suggests that the crustacean is of consequence enough for 
some special protection. Furthermore, should the wanton de- 
struction of the past few years continue, there will be but few 
remaining to protect, and within ten years this once cheap, ready- 
to-hand cooked dish for the poor man can only be had at a high 
price and brought from a distance beyond this Commonwealth, 
obtainable only as a luxury. I would suggest the legal length of 
the lobster be made 11 inches, for the lobster of 10^ inches, weigh- 
ing, say, three-quarters of a pound, will upon shedding its shell that 
season increase in most instances to the length of 11^ to 12 inches 
— sometimes more — and almost double its weight. Most of the 
spawning lobsters are 11 inches and over in length, very few as 
short as 10|- inches ; one more season would almost double the 
value of the lobster individually and give a larger number for 
spawning purposes. 

I think the inclination of the fishermen is for observance of the 
laws, but so long as they are enforced by no one it is perfectly 
natural they should become careless, bold and finally defiant. The 
past year, through my instrumentality there have been 12 arrests 
for non-observance of the laws and all brought to trial. Two pled 
guilty (one to two offences) , and paid their fines ; nine were found 
guilty after trials in the lower court, and appealing to the upper 



18 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

court, one then pai(^ fine rather than stand trial. Another case Was 
won and has gone to the Supreme Court on questions of law ; the 
other cases being continued, awaiting final decision in this case. 
I append printed report. 

[From the Boston Evening Transcript.] 
Defendant's Counsel Interposes a Novel Motion. 

Complaints made by Capt. F. R. Shattuck, deputy fish commissioner, 
against numerous parties having in their possession lobsters less than 
the length prescribed by chapter 212 of the Acts of 1884, have been 
reached in the Superior Criminal Court. The statute reads as follows: 

Section eighty-four of chapter ninety-one of the Public Statutes is 
amended so as to read as follows : " Whoever sells or offers for sale, or 
has in his possession, a lobster less than ten and one-half inches in 
length, measuring from one extreme of the body extended to the other, 
exclusive of claws or feelers, shall forfeit five dollars for every such 
lobster ; and in all prosecutions under this section the possession of any 
lobster not of the required length shall be prima-facie evidence to con- 
vict." 

One of the cases coming up on Tuesday, Mr. Augustus Russ moved 
to quash the complaint, on the ground that the statute was absurd and 
nonsensical, and that it was evidently one of those pieces of legislation 
enacted without scrutiny of the language necessary to carry out the in- 
tent. Mr. Russ further argued that the provision that possession shall 
be prima-facie evidence for conviction could not be maintained, and 
cited the decision of the Supreme Court, where that court held that Hall 
& Whipple could not be convicted of having in their possession wood- 
cock killed in Pennsylvania, although the statute under which that com- 
plaint was made set out that possession was priina-facie, evidence for 
conviction. 

Judge Hammond said that he was of the opinion that the act was 
nonsensical, and if the government had the right of appeal he would 
sustain the motion to quash ; but as the government had not that right 
he would overrule the motion and let the case go to the Supreme Court, 
which alone could settle the matter. 

[From the Boston Herald.] 

The Short Lobster Cases going to the Supreme Court on Law 

Questions. 

The cases of William A. Barber, Andrew Ferry, alias Ferra, William 
James, James Mariano, Daniel MacDonald and Andrew F. Pope, for a 
violation of the statute in taking short lobsters, less than 10| inches 
in length, came up before Judge Hammond in the Superior Criminal 
Court yesterday afternoon, Augustus Russ appearing for the defend- 
ants and T. J. Dacey for the prosecution. Barber pleaded nolo con- 
tendere^ and Mr. Russ filed a motion to quash the complaints for the 
reason that they did not set out any offence with reasonable or substan- 
tial certainty, and for the further reasons that the provisions of the 



rl886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

-statute on which the complaints are founded are repugnant to each other 
and void. The court overruled the motion to quash, and the case will 
go to the Supreme Court on questions of law, the other cases being con- 
« -tinued to await a final decision in Barber's case. 

I would suo^sfest the convening of Commissioners from all the 
New England States to formulate uniform laws for the protection 
of the lobster along our entire coasts and a concerted action for 
the enforcement of laws so enacted. Until this is done we shall 
•see this valuable crustacean, gradually in some places, rapidh' in 
others, pass from our tables and sight, but never from the memory 
-of those who appreciate them as the}' should be appreciated. 
Yours very truly, F. R. Shattuck. 

I)e2)uty Fish Comviissioner, Slate of Massachusetts. 

Boston, Nov. 4, 1886. 
'M.v. E. A Brackett, Chairman of Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 
Dear Sir : — The limited time (since my appointment as 
"deputy" by you, June 1, 1886) I have had to attend to the 
•observance of the laws in my district, covering Dartmouth and 
towns adjoining, satisfied me that there is a general disposition to 
accept the situation without any unusual pressure on the part of 
the deputy. 

The liberal distribution of printed matter by the Massachusetts 
Fish and Game Commission has instructed the country- people in a 
way they have not been before on these points ; and where before 
the}^ Ignorantly evaded the laws relative to taking of fish, etc., 
the}' now are well-informed, and seem desirous to conform to same. 
I have had frequent applications for interpretations of the law, so 
that the applicant would not infringe same. 

The selectmen of the adjoining town of Westport have appointed 
Mr. Wm. Valentine as town deput}', and he has been interested 
and zealous in bringing any trespassers against the laws to my 
attention. I am convinced the work being done at this time by the 
Massachusetts Fish and Game Association, and in the way it is 
done, reaching those who would not in any ordinary way be 
informed as to the laws, and would not interest themselves par- 
ticularly to know. This kind of work requires more of a personal 
attention than the usual course of distribution, which seldom 
reaches those whom it is most desirable to furnish with information 
bearing on this subject. 

Yours respectful 1}^, W. F. Aljit, 

Deputy for Dartmouth and adjoining Towns, 



20 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



United States Cojimission, Fish and Fisheries, 

Washington, Dec. 4, 1873. 

Messrs. Stilwell and Stanley, Fish Commissioners of Maine. 

Gentlemen : — M}' attention has been especiallj^ directed the past 
season to the subject of the lobsters on the New England coasts 
and I have received from numerous parties the assurance that un- 
less something be done to regulate this branch of industry, it will 
before long become practically worthless. I have been told by 
many reliable persons that, not only has the size greatly diminished^ 
but that the numbers taken are much fewer than formerly. In view' 
of the extension of the lobster fisheries within a few j^ears past, 
principally for the purpose of canning, this result was not unex- 
pected, although it seems to have come at an earlier period thaa 
was anticipated. 

With a view of securing for you the most reliable information in 
regard to this species, I beg to append herewith a paper written at 
my request b}^ Mr. Sidne}^ I. Smith of Yale College, New Haven^ 
who is our best specialist in reference to the American crustaceans, 
and who speaks quite by authority in all that he states. 

It is for yourself to judge how far the reasoning therein pre- 
sented will render special legislation expedient for the State of 
Maine. 

At present there appears to be no possible remedy beyond that 
of restricting the catch for a greater or less period of time ; and 
unless this be done, it is most probable that the diminution will 
continue at an alarming rate. 

The most simple law would be one absolutely prohibiting for a. 
certain time the capture of lobsters, whether for immediate sale or 
for canning, making the penaltj' sufficiently severe to deter those 
who may be so inclined from violating it. If the months of July 
and August were named as this period of prohibition, it would go 
far to secure the needed protection, and perhaps cover the most 
critical portion of the spawning season. 

It is not sufficient simpl}^ to protect the female, or those that 
have eggs, but the prohibition of capture should extend to both 
sexes. For the better understanding of the differences between the 
male and female lobster, referred to by Mr. Smith, I have caused 
some figures to be engraved, of which I beg your acceptance. 
Very respectfully, 
(Signed) Spencer F. Baird, Fish Commissioner^ 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 21 



Note on the Natural History of the Lobster, 
by prof. sidney i. smith. 

The American lobster is found upon the Atlantic coast, from 
New Jersey to Labrador, and yet almost nothing has been pub- 
lished in regard to its traits and local distribution. It lives upon 
rocky, gravelly and sandj^ bottom, from low water down to twent}" 
or thirt}" fathoms and perhaps deeper, but not probably at great 
depths. It feeds upon any kind of animal matter, either fresh or 
decaying, which it can discover. 

In Long Island Sound the lobster fishing begins late in March 
or early in April, and continues till late in the fall, although the 
greater part are taken in May and June. On the coast of northern 
Massachusetts and Maine, whence the winter supply comes, they 
may be taken nearly all the year round. Captain N. E. Atwood, 
writing in 1866, says they do not come into shallow water about 
Provincetown, Mass., till June, and remain till October, when the}^ 
•disappear from near the shore. He also saj^s that north of Cape 
Ood the male lobsters are more abundant than the female, while 
south of the Cape the reverse is true. As far, however, as I have 
myself observed along Long Island Sound and Vinej^ard Sound, at 
Portland and Eastport, Me., the sexes are taken in about equal 
numbers. As this is a question of considerable interest, it may be 
remarked that the sexes can be readily distinguished b}' the little 
appendages upon the under side of first ring of the tail. These are 
stout, stiff, horn}- and grooved on the inside towards the tips in 
the male, while in the female the}^ are smaller, slender, soft and 
flexible ; moreover, the genital orifices in the male are on the inside 
of the basal joint of each of the hind pair of body legs, while in the 
females they are situated in similar places Upon the third pair, or 
hinder of the pincher-like legs. 

In attempting to suggest means for preventing the exhaustion of 
the lobster fisheries, the time of spawning and the development of 
the .young become matters of great importance. The time at which 
the females carry eggs varies veiy much on different parts of the 
€oast, being later and later as we go further north. South of Cape 
Cod, in Long Island and Vineyard Sounds, thej are found carry- 
ing eggs from the first of April till late in June. At Portland, 
Me., they were carrying eggs till the middle of August, while in 
the Bay of Fundy they are found with ego^s from midsummer till 
September. More exact information on this point is very desirable, 
although this is enough to show that the period of carrying eggs 
covers the time during which a great part of the lobsters are taken 
for the market. 



22 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Soon after the hatching, the j^oung leave their parent and live 
for a considerable period a very different life from the adult. At 
jSrst they are not more than a third of an inch long, and have 
scarcely any resemblance to a lobster. They are furnished with 
long swimming branches to the legs and swim about freely in the 
water, living most of the time near the surface of the water, like 
many kinds of free-swimming shrimps. With each change of the 
skin they become more and more lobster like, until when a little 
more than half an inch long they appear like veritable little lobsters, 
but still have the free-swimming habits of the earlier stages. Dur- 
ing this period, which must be several weeks, they are constantly 
exposed to the attacks of fishes and all sorts of marine animals, 
while they themselves pursue and feed upon still smaller fry. Any 
attempt to rear great numbers through these stages in confined 
areas would probably prove unsuccessful, as the young at this time 
require a great amount of pure sea-water and peculiar food, found 
only where minute, free-swimming animals congregate. 

After they become a few inches long, the growth of lobsters is 
very slow. They increase in size onty at the times of shedding the 
shell, which probably takes place only once a year for those of 
ordinar}^ size, and the increase at each of these changes is very 
small, as may be seen by comparing the size of the cast shell with 
the lobster a few days after leaving it. In lobsters of very large 
size the shell is not alwaj^s changed even as often as once a year. 

How early they begin to breed is somewhat uncertain. Females 
not more than half a pound in weight are, howcA^er, found carrjing 
eggs, but in these small females the eggs are comparatively few in 
number. The average weight of lobsters sold in New Haven 
market is about two pounds. 

It will readily be seen that any close time which should cover 
the entire period of spawning would stop the lobster fishing during 
the height of the season, when nearly all the profit is derived from 
the business. During the hottest weather of midsummer, vast 
numbers die while being marketed. Preventing their capture at 
this time would undoubtedly, after a few years, have a marked 
eflject upon the supply during other parts of the season. 

Carp. 

In the fall of 1880 we received from Professor Baird, 
U. S. Commissioner, about two thousand young carp. 

After supplying all applicants, there were about four hun- 
dred left, which we placed in the reservoir at the Tewksbury 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 23- 

Almshouse, with the understanding that if wanted for breed- 
ing purposes they could be taken out. 

As the reservoir furnished little or no natural food for them, 
they had to be fed. This was done by using the refuse and 
stale bread from the Almshouse. The water was too deep 
and cold for successful culture, and the spawn and young fry 
were evidently eaten up by their enemies, which were found 
to be numerous in the reservoir. 

Finding that the carp did not increase in numbers we made 
strenuous efforts to find a suitable breeding pond. Many 
places were found, but when it was known that the State 
wanted them, the demand for rent was so exorbitant that we 
refused to have anything to do with them. 

One man, for a worthless piece of pasture land, wanted 
one hundred dollars annually for the flowage of about one 
acre. 

On the 10th of last May, a small pond on the farm of 
Wm. H. Mears, in Tewksbury, two miles below the Alms- 
house, was secured and steps taken to enlarge it by the con- 
struction of a new dam, and so far completed that on the 11th 
of June fourteen large carp were placed in it. These were 
removed from the reservoir by means of a sweep seine ; but 
the reservoir was so constructed, being partially walled up 
with stone, that all further efforts to obtain carp from it 
with the seine were useless. 

As the reservoir had not been cleaned for some years, Dr. 
Fisher decided that it might as well be done then as later in 
the season, and on the 20th of June the water was sufficiently 
low to enable us to remove to the new pond sixty more 
large fish, weighing from two and a half to six pounds. They 
were taken from the reservoir and put into the cans by hand, 
and in the excitement, the men, often catching them by the 
gills, injured a number. Twelve died the day after they 
were placed in the new pond, leaving sixty -two large carp 
there at the present time. 

We are under obligations to Dr. Fisher, the able Superin- 
tendent of the Almshouse, who rendered us all the assistance 
in his power in taking and removing the fish to their new 
quarters. 

As soon as the new pond was flowed, it was taken posses- 



24 



FISH AND GAME, 



[Dec. 



sion of by a great number of frogs and turtles ; the former 
were caught with hook and line, the hook being baited with 
red flannel, and the latter were shot with a Flobert rifle. 
These reptiles would not have injured the old fish, but to the 
spawn and young fry they would have proved fatal. 

An examination of the carp showed that many of them had 
deposited their eggs before being removed to their new quar- 
ters ; the remainder commenced spawning a few hours after 
they were put into the pond. 

The spawn hatched well and the young fish were of good 
size for distribution in the fall, enabling us to liberally fill all 
orders, except two or three which were mislaid ; these will be 
attended to in the spring. 

There are several thousand young fish left in the pond, and 
the applicants for next year will doubtless receive all that 
are necessary for stocking their waters. 

We have been obliged to refuse parties who have asked 
for carp to put into streams and ponds full of carnivorous 
fish, for they do not thrive well among their enemies ; at any 
rate, it would be useless to put them in such places in small 
numbers. We expect in the future to have sufficient stock 
to allow parties to try the experiment, if they choose to do so. 

Carp can be sent by express to any part of the State. 
Applicants for these fish, as well as for all others distributed 
by the State, must, when not known to the Commissioners, 
obtain the endorsement of either the senator or represent- 
ative of their district. 



Carp distributed October, 1886. 



J. C. Delney, Gill. 
Wm. N. Stone, Wellfleet. 
Calvin Stone, So. Lancaster. 
H. E. Snow, Hopkinton. 
Wm. J. Wright, Duxbury 
H. Loomis, West Springfield. 
D. L. Shaw, Chicopee. 
C. H. Bemus, Granby. 
J. C. Young, Wellfleet. 



M. V. A. Evans, Graniteville. 
C. F. Avery, NewtonvUle. 
H. H. Patten, Springfield. 
J. B. Feck, North Attleborough. 

F. Cass, HoUiston. 

C. C. Hitchcock, Ware. 

D. B. Holcomb, Chester. 
Oscar IMppig, Lawrence. 

G. C. Cannon, Lawrence. 



Most of the applicants received sixty fish each. 
Mr. Mears, who constructed the pond and has had charge 
of the fish, has done his work faithfully and liberally. 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 25 

The cultivation of carp is rapidly increasing. There are 
at the present time nearly thirty thousand persons in the 
United States engaged in this work. 



Connecticut River. 

The last Legislature passed resolutions in regard to the 
fisheries of the Connecticut River, which were forwarded by 
the Governor of this State to the Governor of Connecticut. 

It appears that these resolutions were referred to their 
Fish Commissioners to investigate and report to the next 
Oeneral Assembly. 

Their report, which at first glance seems to be a fair 
answer to a part of the resolutions, is nevertheless so at 
variance with the real cause of complaint, that we have 
thought best to give it in full. 

A Communication from the State of Massachusetts relat- 
ing TO THE Enfield Dam. 

In the month of April your Commissioners received from the 
Secretarj^ of State a letter enclosing a resolution of the Legisla- 
ture of Massachusetts. The preamble complains that the Enfield 
dam is an obstruction to the passage of shad, and the resolution 
suggests that mutual measures be taken by the two States for the 
restoration of shad to the river. 

The letter of the Secretary of State is to the effect that the reso- 
ution was, b}^ the General Assembl}' of Connecticut, referred Xo the 
Fish Commissioners to investigate and report to the next General 
Assembly. 

The letter and resolutions are given in full : 

State of Connecticut, 

Office of Secretary of State, 

Hartford, April, 1886. 

Dear Sir : — The accompanying is a copy of a preamble and resolu- 
tion of the General Assembly of the State of Massachusetts referred by 
the General Assembly of this State to the Fish Commissioners, to inves- 
tigate and report to the next General Assembly. Truly yours, 

Charles A. Russell, Secretary. 



26 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

In the year One Thousand Eight Hundred and Eighty-six. 

Besolution concerning the obstruction to the passage of Shad in the Con- 
necticut River. 

Whereas, it appears that by the maintaining a dam across the Con- 
necticut River at Enfield, in the State of Connecticut, by parties in the 
jurisdiction of the State of Connecticut, the shad fisheries of the citizens 
of Massachusetts are practically destroyed, because of the obstruction 
of said dam to the run of the shad up the river. 

And whereas, the dam is almost an impassable barrier to the passage 
of the fish, and Massachusetts citizens being thus deprived of the shad, 
there is little inducement for Massachusetts to continue the artificial 
propagation and cultivation of the shad in that river. 

And whereas, if the obstruction of the dam was modified, as it might 
be, to allow the passage of the fish, Massachusetts would gladly, in con- 
nection with Connecticut, re-establish the hatchery at South Hadley ; as 
the artificial cultivation and propagation of shad is now so well under- 
stood and is so successful that the Connecticut River can be stocked with 
shad plentifully and cheaply to the great benefit of the people of both 
States, therefore. 

Resolved, That the Commonwealth of Massachusetts respectfully 
suggests to the State of Connecticut that mutual measures be taken by 
the said States for the restoration of the shad to the river. 

That a copy hereof be transmitted by His Excellency the Governor 
to His Excellency the Governor of Connecticut. 

House or Representatives, April 7, 1886. 

Adopted. Sent up for concurrence. 

Edward A. McLaughlin, Clerk. 

Senate, April 9, 1886. 
Concurred. 

S. N. GiFFORD, Clerk. 

Secretary's Department, April 10, 1886. 
A true copy, witness the seal of the Commonwealth. 

Henry B. Peirce, Secretary of the Commonwealth. 

State of Connecticut, ss. 

Office of Secretary of State. 
I hereby certify that the foregoing is a true copy of record in this office. 
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and affixed the seal of said 
State, at Hartford, this 15th day of April, A. D. 1886. 

Charles A. Russell, Secretary of State. 

That the matter in question may be thoroughly understood, and 
the actual facts be stated at the outset, your Commissioners have 
prepared a table, made up from the reports of the Massachusetts 



1886.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



2Y 



Fish Commissioners, showing the number of shad caught each year 
from 1869 to 1885 inclusive. The first column gives the number of 
shad caught at the South Hadley Falls fishing place, and the 
second column gives the number of shad taken at all the fishing 
places between Holyoke Dam and the Connecticnt boundary line. 







Shad caught at all places 






in Massachusetts be- 


YEARS. 


Sliad caught at 


tween Holyoke Dam 




South Haiiley Falls, 


and 

line. 


State boundary 


1 

1869, 8,807 






1870, 












779 






1871, 












None reported. 






1872, 












4,822 






1873, 












3,598 






1874, 












3,016 






1875, 












None reported. 






1876, 












10,741 




12,792 


1877, 












3,412 




6,503 


1878, 












8,169 




17,790 


1879, 












6,296 




13,40^ 


1880, 












4,698 




7,727 


1881, 












18,196 




38,382 


1882, 












None reported. 




2,770 


1883, 












3,099 




3,591 


1884, 












1,539 




1,593 


1885, 












1,718 




1,718 



It will be noticed that 1,718 shad were taken at South Hadley 
Falls in 1885, the last season before the passage of the resolution. 
It does not seem possible that so many shad could pass over an 
impassable dam. If nearly two thousand shad could pass over 
the dam, five thousand or ten thousand could do the same, and 
doubtless would do so if they should succeed in ascending the river 
to that point. This fact alone demonstrates that the Enfield dam 
is not an obstruction to the passage of shad. The cause of the 
diminution in the number of shad at South Hadley Falls must be 
sought for elsewhere. A few facts may furnish a clue to the real 
cause. From 1869 to 1881, the laws of the two States in refer- 
ence to fishing in the Connecticut River were similar. In the later 
years of the period, the season for taking shad expired on the 20th 
of June, and the fishermen of both States were required to use a 
mesh of five inches for their nets, thus allowing the small shad to 
escape. The Massachusetts fishermen, however, frequently made 
complaint that their brothers of Connecticut were catching more 
than their share of the fish, and insisting that the pounds near the 
mouth of the River should be abolished, and three days of the 



2^ FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

week observed as close time, during which no shad should be taken 
in Connecticut. Finall}', in 1880, threats were made that if Con- 
necticut would not do what was fair, some radical step would be 
taken by Massachusetts to force the desired result. Accordingly, 
earh^ in 1881, before the opening of the fishing season, the Legisla- 
ture of Massachusetts passed an act, to take effect from its pas- 
sage, allowing the fishermen to take shad until the first da}^ of 
July, and permitting the use of a two-inch mesh, thus insuring the 
capture of the baby shad with the larger ones. A cop}' of the act 
mentioned is here given. 

An Act to amend the law regulating fishing in Connecticut Paver and its 

Tributaries. 

Section 1. Any person who shall take or aid or assist in taking 
from the Connecticut River or any of its tributaries, within the limits of 
this Commonwealth, any shad or alewives at any other time than be- 
tween the fifteenth day of March and the first day of July in each year, 
shall forfeit and pay for each offence the sum of one hundred dollars. 

Sect. 2. Section three of chapter seventy-six of the Acts of eighteen 
hundred and sixty-nine is hereby amended by striking out the words 
" fifteenth day of June in each year, the meshes whereof are less than 
five " in the eighteenth and nineteenth lines, and inserting the words, 
" first day of July in each year, the meshes whereof are less than two ' ' 
in place thereof. 

Sect. 3. Chapter three hundred and sixty-nine of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and seventy, and all acts and parts of acts in- 
consistent with this act, are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. \_Approved 
March 2, 1881. 

By referring to the above-mentioned table, it will be seen what 
the practical effect of this measure was. It must be recollected 
that the act took effect previous to the fishing season of 1881. 

In the 3^ear 1880, 4,698 shad were taken at South Hadley Falls, 
and 7,727 in the waters of the Connecticut River within the State 
of Massachusetts. 

In 1881, 18,196 shad were taken at South Hadley Falls, and 
38,832 in the Connecticut River in the State of Massachusetts, 
nearly five times as many as the previous year. The fine mesh of 
the nets enabled the fishermen to capture shad of all sizes, and it 
was pitiful to see the number of young shad no larger than ale- 
wives. Is it any wonder that they killed the goose that laid the 
golden eggs ? The effect of the proceeding, as might have been 
expected, was to ruin their own fisheries by nearly exterminating 
the breeding fish. As the fishery at South Hadley FaUs is the last 
fishery before reaching the Holyoke dam, the destruction of the 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 29 

mature shad would be much more serious at that point than any 
other, for the reason that the ova are more advanced and nearer 
the time of deposit than in any other part of the river. Then the 
eleven days from the 20th of June to July 1, after the open sea- 
son has closed in Connecticut, are much more destructive to the 
shad than any previous time, from the fact that the water has be- 
come so warm that the shad ova mature more rapidly than when 
the water is colder. There is no doubt that the amount of fishing 
in the Connecticut River, and the waters adjacent to its mouth, is 
too great for the shad to withstand without artificial aid, and this 
suggests the words of the resolution relating to mutual measures of 
the two States for the restoration of shad to the river. 

It may be stated that from 1869 to the present time the Com- 
missioners of Connecticut have annually (with one or two excep- 
tions, when short of funds) hatched and placed in the Connecti- 
cut River as many young shad as could be obtained for the money 
at their disposal, and have never received any financial assistance 
from Massachusetts. All the expenses of the shad-hatching oper- 
ations on the Connecticut River from 1869 to date have been 
defrayed b}^ the State of Connecticut, with the exception of one 
or two years, when a portion of them was paid by the U. S. Fish 
Commissioner, Prof. S. F. Baird. 

In the year 1883, one of your Commissioners called upon one of 
the Massachusetts Commissioners and proposed that each con- 
tribute a given sum towards propagating shad at South Hadley 
Falls. The off'er was declined with an allusion to the unfair laws 
of Connecticut, and the subject was dropped. Since that time, 
shad-hatching operations have been successful^ carried on below 
the Birmingham dam on the Housatonic River, and millions of 
young shad hatched there have been placed in the Connecticut 
River, within the boundaries of Connecticut. Up to the present 
time, the location at Birmingham has seemed so well adapted to 
the work that the Commissioners would hesitate before deciding 
upon a change, especially as there are hardty shad enough in the 
upper waters of the Connecticut River to warrant operations upon 
a large scale. Any propositions, however, from the Massachu- 
setts Commissioners upon this subject or any other would meet 
with respectful attention and careful consideration. 

Your Commissioners did not counsel the adoption or 
sending of resolutions. On the contrary, the Chairman 
distinctly stated to the Committee on Fish and Game, that, 
in bis judgment, any action of this kind was a waste of 



30 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

time ; that the experience of the Commissioners with the 
State of Connecticut had been of such a nature as to forbid 
any further overtures on our part ; * that the resolutions 
were misleading, and did not touch the real cause of the 
decline of the fisheries ; and that the only way that this 
question could be fairly settled would be by an act of Con- 
gress regulating the fisheries of rivers running through more 
than one State. 

The Committee and Legislature thought differently. 

Considering this movement, therefore, in the light of a 
separate action for which we were not responsible, we might 
with propriety rest the matter here, were it not that the 
interest of fish culture and fair play between two States 
demand that some of the statements in the Connecticut re- 
port be set right. 

It is certain that the dam at Enfield is an obstruction to 
the passage of shad, and consequently injurious to the fish- 
eries of the river. 

The evidence before the Legislative Committee showed 
that the fish could not make their way over the dam at low 
water, but congregated in the pools below and were caught 
out. Could all fishing be prohibited for a reasonable distance 
below, better results would follow. With these exceptions, 
we agree with their report so far as it relates to the dam ; and 
had the Connecticut Commissioners confined themselves to 
the resolutions, and not gone outside of them, dragging in 
issues which were entirely uncalled-for by the action of this 
State, there could have been no serious objection to their 
report by any one understanding the facts ; but when they 
state that the real cause of the diminution in the number of 
shad is due to the act passed by this State in 1881, we beg 
leave to differ, and to express our surprise that any one at 
all conversant with the history of the fisheries of this river 
could have seriously made such a statement. While said 
act ma}' have been unwise, and perhaps prompted by a 
feeling of retaliation on the part of the fishermen for the 
injuries done them, and for which they saw no hope of 
redress, we see no reason why it should be used to divert 
attention from the well-known cause of the scarcity of shad 
in the river. 

* See Appendix C. 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 31 

Heretofore there has been no difference of opinion between 
the Commissioners of the two States upon this point. 

In 1879, through the success of artificial hatching, the 
oatch on the lower part of the river reached 436,981 shad. 
The catch in Massachusetts for the same season was only 
13,409. 

Against this unequal distribution of the products of the 
river the fishermen of this State naturall}^ complained, and 
your Commissioners urged upon the State of Connecticut 
some regulations by which this State should receive its share 
of the fish. The Commissioners of Connecticut acknowl- 
edged the justice of the claim, but confessed themselves 
powerless to remedy the evil. In one of their reports they 
say: — 

"As the shad gained in numbers and size, the fishermen multi- 
plied in proportion ;, and seines, gill-nets, and pounds were con- 
structed with such vigor, that soon it seemed wonderful that any 
shad succeeded in passing up the river to their spawning grounds. 
Laws to restrict the fishing on certain days of the week could not 
be enforced by any power in the hands of the Commission, be- 
cause the public sentiment of the people of the neighboring towns 
was in sj^mpathy with the fishermen." 

We might make many quotations from the reports of the 
Commissioners of both States all to the same point ; but no 
language can add force to this simple statement of facts, 
rendering it unnecessary to go elsewhere for either the cause 
of complaint of the fishermen of this State, or the depletion 
of the shad fisheries of the Connecticut River. 

The statement that *'from 1869 to the present time the 
Commissioners of Connecticut have annually (with one or 
two exceptions, when short of funds) hatched and placed in 
the Connecticut River as many young shad as could be ob- 
tained for the money at their disposal, and have never 
received any financial assistance from Massachusetts," is so 
worded as to convey a wrong impression. 

The reader would naturally draw the conclusion from this 
paragraph that the Commissioners of Connecticut had been 
active during most of this time in hatching shad for the 
benefit of this State as well as for their own. The record 
^hows that in 1867 and 1868 the two States co-operated at 



32 FISH AND GAME. [Dec 

South Had ley, each bearing its proportion of the expense. 
From 1870 to 1873, inclusive, the Commissioners of Con- 
necticut continued the work. In 1874 Professor Baird,. 
U. S. Commissioner, joined with them, paying an equal 
share of the expense, Massachusetts furnishing apparatus, 
and paying $29.43. For the years 1875, 1876 and 1877, 
Professor Baird carried on the hatching, one-half of the 
product being put into the Connecticut River. 

Thus it appears that the Connecticut Commissioners car- 
ried on the hatching at South Hadley, — two years in con- 
nection with Massachusetts, one year with Professor Baird 
and ^ve years of the eighteen alone ; and this constitutes 
all the hatching that they have done which could in any way 
benefit this State. In all cases Massachusetts has furnished 
the hatching apparatus, which cost, with the right to us^ it, 
several hundred dollars ; and as the catch on the river in 
this State has been something less than four per cent, of the 
whole catch on the river, it is a question whether Massachu- 
setts did not pay her full proportion of the expenses. In 
view of these facts, it is difficult to understand their state- 
ment of continuous hatching, and that they '^have never 
received any financial assistance from Massachusetts." 

This State has always been ready and willing to enter into 
any reasonable arrangements for re-stocking and maintain- 
ing the fisheries of the river ; but with fifty-eight pounds 
and weirs, four sweep-seines and fifty-five gill-nets, in Con- 
necticut water, and running night and day, with no let-up or 
regulations to control them, is it any wonder that we declined 
to contribute to this wholesale destruction, or that we 
agreed with the Connecticut Commissioners that '' it seemed 
wonderful that any shad succeeded in passing up the 
river to their spawning grounds." 

The position of Massachusetts is clearly stated in the fol- 
lowing extract from our report of 1880 : — 

Connecticut River. 

Beyond placing a superintendent over the fishway at Holyoke, 
no expense has been incurred and nothing done toward Increasing 
the fish in the river. 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 3S 

The reasons for this have been so fully explained in previous^ 
reports, that it seems useless to rehearse them here. Neither the 
views of the fishermen, nor the opinions of those whose sense of 
duty should lead them to see that justice was done to a sister State, 
have changed for the better. On the contrary, counter-charges have 
been made that the fishway at Holyoke was defective, if not entirely^ 
useless, and that the shad were destroyed on their spawning grounds. 
Even the Commissioners of Connecticut have published in their 
report statements which, upon more careful investigation, might 
have been shown to be unreliable. 

They seem to be unmindful of the fact that the flsliioay at Holy- 
oTce was the result of the joint action of the Commissioners of the 
four States interested^ — viz., Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut, — and that the present able Commissioners 
of the last-named State were as much responsible for it as were 
those of Massachusetts. Certainly, no formal demand has been 
made by them to change it. There can be no question that, had 
Connecticut shown any disposition to deal fairly in this matter, the 
Massachusetts Commissioners would have exhausted every means 
to correct any deficiency in the fishway, and in that effort would 
have been fully sustained by the State. 

As to the sin of " taking shad on their spawning beds," imputed 
to the Massachusetts fishermen, it should be observed that, no 
matter where or at what time of the year a fish is killed, its spawn 
is equally destroyed. Thus, a shad's spawn is lost whether the 
fish be killed in December, eleven months before it would have 
spawned, or in June, eleven minutes before it would have spawned. 
Therefore, the Connecticut fisherman who takes a hundred shad at 
the river mouth destroys their spawn ; and the Massachusetts 
fisherman who, two days later, takes another hundred at Holyoke 
from the same school, destroys their spawn. The returns presented 
below show that Connecticut, in 1879, took thirty-two times as 
many shad as did Massachusetts, and destroyed, therefore, thirty- 
two times as much spawn, which, otherwise, would have beeri 
deposited in the river. 

The following statement is taken from the report of Connecticut 
for 1879 : — 

Piers and Seines. 

Piers and seines are classed together, because a pier is simply a place 
made for the purpose of hauling a seine. Of these there are fifteen, and 
they took fifty thousand shad. The greatest number taken at any one 
place was eleven thousand at Selden's fish-place, a short distance below 
the Deep River station on the Connecticut Valley Railroad. These sta- 
tistics comprise only that portion of the river from Deep River down, and 



34 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the number of shad taken above can only be estimated. Those whose 
opinions are considered valuable make this estimate fifty thousand, which 
is accurate enough for practical purposes. 

The whole number of shad taken, then, in 1879, in the Connecticut 
River and sound adjacent, is as follows : — 

Pounds . , 250,026 

Gill-nets . 86,955 

Seines 100,000 

436,918* 

Let it be supposed that the fisherman received fourteen dollars per 
hundred for shad, and the money value of the catch is $61,177.34 ; or if 
it be assumed that each shad weighed three pounds, and the retail price 
was eight cents per pound, the value would be $104,875.44, which shows 
what interest the citizens of Connecticut have in the shad fisheries of this 
one river. 

The report for this State for the same season will show the diflfer- 
ence in the catch of the two States. 

Table No. IY. — Connecticut Riyer Seines. 



TOWN. 


i 

]^AME. ! Shad. 


rike. 


Agawam, 

South Hadley, 
Chicopee, 
West Springfield, 
Springfield, . 




A. Converse, 

A. J. Hills, 

C. C. Smith, 

J & H. W. Chapin, 

George A. White, 

J. 0. Learv, 

R. H. Parker, . 






1,352 
596 
6,296 
1,224 
1,372 
69 
2,500 

13,409 


3 

3 



The total money value, at fourteen dollars per hundred, would 



be 



For Massachusetts . 
Connecticut 



$1,876 00 
61,177 34 



These figures are mainly correct, and against them no charge or 
counter-charge can avail. 

They show conclusively that, while the breeding grounds are in 
this State, the catch of fish is almost wholly in Connecticut. t 



* It should be understood that these figures relate only to shad of three pounds 
and over. Small shad are not counted. 

t It should be remembered that while there are sixty miles of the river in Con- 
necticut, there are onlj- ticelre miles in Massachusetts from the State line to the 
Holvoke dam. 



1886.J 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



35 



Is the killing of a shad, then, a crime at South Hadley and 
not a crime at Saybrook ? If let alone they would all reach 
their spawning grounds ; and when Connecticut allows a 
reasonable number to ascend the river, there will be no diffi- 
culty about appropriations for hatching or stringent laws for 
protection in this State. 

With all the known facts, attested by the reports of the 
Connecticut Commissioners, there can be no doubt as to 
*« who killed the goose that laid the golden eggs." 

Over the imaginary results of the Acts of 1881 their 
report becomes pathetic, and the mourning of the Commis- 
sioners over the supposed death of a few baby shad at South 
Hadley "pitiful to see," unmindful of the fact that these 
young fish are slaughtered by the wholesale every year in 
the pounds and weirs at the mouth of the river, must be 
amusing to the Connecticut fishermen. 

For reasons which are not very apparent, the catch of shad 
on the river in this State, from 1869 to 1885, is given in their 
report. 

As figures derive their value from association, we have set 
beside the figures in this table, so far as we have been able 
to obtain the record, the catch on the lower part of the river, 
including the pounds and weirs at the mouth, from 1879 to 
the present time. 





Catch In 
Connecticut. 


1 South Hadley. 


All places from State 

line to Holyoke 

Dam. 


1879, 


486,981 


1 

6,296 


13,409 


1880, . 




269,918 


4,698 


7,727 


1881, . 




351,678 


18,196 


38,382 


1882, . 




272,903 


1 4,229 


6,990 


1883, . 




177,308 


! 3,099 


3,591 


1884, . 




150,045 


i 1,539 


1,593 


1885, . 




190,300 


i 1,718 


1,718 


1886, 


117,950 


577 


577 


Total, . 


• 


1,967,083 


1 41,352 


73,987 



It will be seen that since 1879 there has been a decrease 
of nearly seventy-five per cent, in Connecticut, and about 
ninety- five per cent, in this State. Let any one glance down 



36 FISH AND GAME. [Dec, 

these columns and see where they must end. They point 
unerrhigly to the destruction of the shad fisheries of the 
Connecticut at no distant day. Not all the young shad 
hatched on the Farmington River, or on the Housatonic at 
Birmingham, and put into the lower part of the river, will 
save them. Nothing but stringent regulations honestly 
enforced, with hearty co-operation with this State, can avert 
the catastrophe. Of this we are sorry to say there seems ta 
be little hope. 

The figures we have given are from the Connecticut re- 
ports. The Commissioners of that State are familiar with 
all the facts ; but instead of presenting to their Legislature 
a broad, statesmanlike view of the whole case, they have 
chosen to divert attention from the main question by a side 
issue, the objectionable features of which, they had reason 
to know, would be removed the moment that Connecticut 
showed a disposition to deal fairly with this State. 

By their unfortunate report they lost a golden oppor- 
tunity ; and it may be said with considerable certainty that 
the fisheries of a river which, in 1879, yielded, through the 
aid of artificial hatching, nearly seventy-five thousand dollars 
worth of shad, might, with the exercise of a little common 
sense, be made to produce many times that amount. 

There are indications that the shad of the Connecticut will 
soon become a thing of the past, for there is no reason to 
suppose that the fishermen on the lower part of the river will 
become less rapacious, or abandon their supposed right to 
run down the last shad, as they did the salmon* with which 
the Commissioners of the four States once stocked the 
river. 

The case may be summed up in a few words : — 

First. The Enfield dam is not a serious obstruction to 
the passage of shad at high water, provided that all fishing 
is prohibited for a reasonable distance below it. 

Second, Massachusetts has always been ready to heartily 
co-operate with the State of Connecticut whenever any rea- 
sonable arrangements could be made to insure benefits to 
both States. 

* In Appendix, see extract from Report of 1878. 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 37 

Third, It is no more a crime to kill a shad at South 
Hadley than at Saybrook. 

Fourth. If it is true that a few immature shad have been 
destroyed by the use of small-mesh seines in the river in this 
State, it is but as a drop to the ocean compared to the 
wholesale destruction of these fish in the weirs and pounds 
at the mouth of the river, where miles upon miles of small 
mesh nets are used, and it is absurd to charge the destruc- 
tion of the shad fisheries upon the fishermen of this State.* 

Fifth. It would seem to be useless for Massachusetts to 
spend a single dollar hatching shad at South Hadley, so long 
as the present system of fishing is allowed on the lower part 
of the river. This must be apparent to any one who will 
take the trouble to compare the figures which have been 
presented of the catch of fish in the two States. 

Since writing the above, the following statements have 
been received from C. C. Smith, who is an owner in the 
fishing grounds at South Hadley, and has for many years 
managed the fishing at that place. He has been several 
times elected a member of the Massachusetts Legislature. 

It should be remembered that this is the only place on the 
Connecticut River where ripe shad for spawning purposes 
have been successfully taken. 

Springfield, Mass., Dec. 3, 1886. 
To the Commissioners on Fish and Game. 

The following is a statement of the number of 3^ears and dates 
of hatching shad by Commissioners at South Hadley : — 

In 1867. Seth Greene began experiments, without much success. 

1868. Seth Greene carried on hatching, with good success. 

1869. No hatching. 

1870. Connecticut Commissioners had charge of hatching, which 

was carried on by Messrs. Rankin and Tolby of Connecti- 
cut. 

1871. Connecticut Commissioners had charge; work carried on 

by C. C. Smith. 

1872. Ditto. 

1873. Ditto. 

1874. Ditto. 

I hold receipts from Dr. Hudson for payments in 1871, 
1872 and 1873. 

* In Appendix, see extract from report for 1878. 



38 FISH AND GAME. [Dee. 

1874. Dr. Hudson paid me $470; Professor Baird, $470; Mr. 

Brackett, $29.43. I hold receipts from each one for 1874. 

1875. I take it for granted that Professor Baird, U. S A., paid for 

the years 1875, 1876 and 1877, as he paid me for the 
hatching and all expenses for the same. 

In 1881, 1882 and 1883 I hatched, at my own expense, many" 
millions of young shad and turned them into the river. As to the 
statement made b}^ the Connecticut Commissioners, of the use of 
small-mesh seines, I desire to say that to my knowledge there ha& 
not been a two-inch mesh net used in this river for shad fishing 
from the State line to Holj'Oke dam since I was a boy. In 1881 
there were some small shad taken in the seine in consequence of 
the great number of large ones, that packed the net so that the 
small ones could not get out. I made it a business to follow down 
the net, and with the help of the fishermen put them all back into 
the river alive. In 1881 three and one-quarter mesh was used for 
that year. In 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885 and 1886 a five-'mch mesh 
was used. 

If the Connecticut Commissioners will come to Springfield any 
time during the shad season and see the large number of small 
shad which are shipped here from their State, they may learn some- 
thing about their own fishermen. It is not true that " baby shad'^ 
have been killed at South Hadley. Yours truly, 

C. C. Smith. 

Returns of Weirs, Seines and Gill-nets. 

Returns have been received from 124 fisheries of the fol- 
lowing kinds : 59 pounds or weirs, 16 sea seines, 31 gill- 
nets, 1 Connecticut River seine, 1 Merrimac River seine, 8 
Taunton River seines, and 8 other fresh-water seines. On 
comparison with the season of 1885, it appears that 60 less 
returns were received this year. Ten men who returned 
last year have sent word that they are no longer fishing, and 
two have died ; but these are more than oflfset by sixteen 
from whom returns were not received last year. 

Compared with the returns for 1885 there is a decided 
falling oE in the total numbers of fish reported. 

In 1885 there were of all kinds reported . . 14,923,006 
In 1886 " " " " " . .• 9,121,410 



Or a decrease of . . . . 5,801,596 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 3^ 

This large difference would show a lamentable decline in 
the fisheries if the figures were derived from returns of all 
fisheries for the two years, but as it is evident that returns 
have not been received from all persons who, by law, should 
send them to the Commissioners, the apparent decrease may 
be regarded more as a decrease of honor on the part of the 
fishermen who do not make returns, than to a diminution in 
the total catch of fish. So far as the figures given in the 
tables are comparable with last year's returns, they show an 
increase in the catch of menhaden, striped bass, scup, Spanish 
mackerel, tautog, eels, and the several kinds in the column 
of ** other edible fishes '' ; while there has been a falling off 
in shad, alewives, sea-herring, squeteague, mackerel, blue- 
fish and flatfish. It is evident that the shad fisheries of the 
Taunton River have continued to decrease since their down- 
ward jump in 1883, while our shad fisheries of the Connecti- 
cut River have practically run out. 

An accurate statement of the annual catch of fish in this 
State is important, and to none is it more important than to 
the fishermen. The reports have been called for by parties 
interested in the settlement of the diflSculties between the 
States and the Dominion government. 

A thorough investigation will be made as to the causes 
which have led to the failure in making returns, and deputies 
appointed to see that the law is complied with. 

Report of Leased Ponds. 

Up to the present time less than one-half of the returns 
from leased ponds have been received. 

Of these returns many show an increase of catch over pre- 
ceding years. Others are entirely worthless and give little 
or no reliable information in regard to the condition of the 
ponds over which the parties have control. 

The United States and almost every State and Territory 
in the Union has its Commissioners on Fisheries, and the 
cultivation and propagation of fish is so thoroughly under- 
stood as to leave no doubt of its value. 

The able Commissioners of New York, in their report for 
1886, in summing up their labors from 1868 to the present 
time, give the following clear statement of results : — 



40 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

B}" examining the tables given of production and expenditure, it 
will be found that the cost of hatching 100,000,000 fish, including 
expenditures for real estate, buildings and permanent appliances, 
as well as labor, has been, in round numbers, $250,000. This is 
one-quarter of a cent for each fish produced. Estimating that of 
the fish planted, one-fourth only (which is a very small proportion) 
live to maturit}', we have 25,000,000 of fish, costing one cent each. 
The lowest estimate that should be put on the value of these fish 
for market is an average of fifteen cents. Thus the public has a 
return for the money appropriated for artificial fish culture of fifteen 
hundred per cent, or for the expenditure of $250,000 a return of 
$3,750,000 in production. 

If there is any other industrj^ fostered b}^ the State government 
that pays like this, let it be demonstrated. 

Insectivorous Birds. 

The Legislature of the present year, by chapter 276, 
invested this Commission with the duty of better preserva- 
tion of birds. 

The great destruction of singing and insectivorous birds, 
for merchandise and millinery purposes, threatens ultimate 
disaster to the farmer and fruit grower. 

The agitation of the question before the Legislature last 
winter, and its wide publication by the press, has already 
done great good, as your Commission finds in its investiga- 
tion of the matter. The few months during which the law 
has been in force is not sufficient to demonstrate fully its use- 
fulness, but by a year or two of enforcement its wisdom will 
be demonstrated. 

The permits to shoot song and insect-eating birds, granted 
so lavishly and unwisely under the old law, are by the new 
statute made void. 

The following shows the only permits now in force and 
the persons to whom they are granted ; all of them being 
men actually engaged in the study of ornithology, and who 
will not, in our judgment, abuse the privilege: — 

J. Ellis Cabot, Brookline, for 1886. 

William Brewster, Cambridge, 1 year from Dec. 10, 1886. 
Arthur P. Chadboume, " " " " " 

Henry A. Partly, Newton, " " " " 



I 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 41 

In discharging the duties assigned us we have received, 
during the } ear, valuable assistance from the Massachusetts 
Fish and Game Protective Association, whose labors are 
largely devoted to the protection of Insectivorous Birds, a 
statement of which will be found in the Appendix. 

E. A. BRACKETT. 

F. W. PUTNAM. 
E. H. LATHROP. 



42 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. '86. 



EXPENDITURES OF COMMISSION. 



Salary, $1,650 00 

Travelling and other expenses, 270 27 

General Expenditukes. 

Labor at Lawrence fishway, $70 00 

Seine and twine, 31 73 

Expressage, 28 70 

Rent of land, 60 00 

Printing, 65 71 

Advertising, 94 01 

Attorney's services, 18 00 

Subscription to Penobscot salmon-breeding establishment, . 600 00 

" Schoodic salmon-breeding station, . . 300 00 

B. P. Chadwick, services, 85 00 

expenses, 21 51 

E. F. Hunt, services, 280 00 

expenses, 40 17 

W. H. Means, services, 30 00 

expenses, 2 19 

Lumber, 89 23 

Work on pond and dam, . . 169 18 

Mowing brush, 1 75 

Biead and meal, . . 24 50 

Kails, . 6 30 

Iron-work, 22 55 

Cement, 1 00 

Labor at State hatching-house, 196 00 

Felt for roofing, 6 00 

$1,042 80 
Joint Hatchery at Livermore Falls. 

E. B. Hodge, superintendent, $300 00 

Net rings and weir screens, 17 74 

Rendrock and cement, 1 62 

Insurance, 6 00 

Brook trout, 11 25 

Fish meat, 27 22 

Papering, 7 00 

(yarting lumber, 50 

Assistant's services, 67 CO 

Rent, 25 00 

Planting salmon fry, 9 75 

^- $472 08 

$i,514 88 



APPENDIX. 



U FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



[A.] 

LIST of' fish commissioners and officers, 

paevised and corrected to Sept. 1, 1886, by " Forest and Stream."] 



The United States. 

Prof. Spencer F. Baird, . . ., . Washington, D. C. 

Alabama. 

Col. D. R. Hundley, . . . . ~. Madison. 

Hon. Charles S. G. Doster, .... Prattville. 

Arizona. 

J. J. Gosper, . . . . . . Prescott. 

Richard Rule, . . . . . . Tombstone. 

J. H. Taggart, Business Manager, . . Yuma. 

Arkansas. 

James H. Hornibrook, . . . . Little Rock. 

H. H. Rottaken, Little Rock. 

[These were the officers last year ; we have not been able to get re- 
plies from them.] 

California. 

R. H. Buckingham, President, . . . Sacramento. 

Hon. A. B. Dibble, Secretary and Treasurer, Grass Valley. 

Thos. J. Sherwood, Marysville. 

Canada. 

Hon. John Tilton, Deputy Minister of Fisheries, Ottawa, Ont. 

Province of New Brunswick. 

W. H. Venning, Inspector of Fisheries, . St. John. 

Province of Nova Scotia. 

W. H. Rogers, Inspector, .... Amherst. 

A. C. Bertram. Assistant Inspector, . . North Sydney. 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 45 

Province of Prince Edward Island. 
J. H. Duvar, Inspector, .... Alberton. 

Province of Quebec. 
W. Wakeham, Inspector Lower St. Lawrence 

and Gulf Division, Gaspe Basin. 

Province op British Columbia. 

Thos. Mowat, Acting Inspector, . . . New Westminster. 

Province of Manitoba and Northwest Territories. 



Alex. McQueen, Inspector, . 

S. Wilmot, Supt. of Fish Culture, . 


. Winnipeg, Man. 
. Newcastle, Out. 


Colorado. 
John Pierce, ..... 


. Denver. 


Connecticut. 
Dr. Wm. M. Hudson, . . . ' . 


. Hartford. 


[Term expires Aug. 26, 1889.] 
Robert G. Pike, 


. Middletown. 


[Terra expires March 8, 1889.] 
James A. Bill, ..... 


. Lyme. 



\ 



[Term expires Aug. 26, 1887.] 

Delaware. 

Enoch Moore, . . . . . , Wilmington. 
[Term expires April 23, 1887.] 

Georgia. 
Hon. J. T. Henderson, Commissioner of Agri- 
culture, Atlanta, 

Dr. H. H. Gary, Supt. of Fisheries, . . LaGrange. 

[Under the laws of the State these constitute the Board of Fish Com- 
missioners.] 

Illinois. 

N. K. Fairbank, President, .... Chicago. 

S P. Bartlett, Secretary, .... Quincy. 

Maj. Geo. Breuning Centralia. 

Indiana. 
Enos B. Reed, ...... Indianapolis. 

[Term expires in 1887.] 



46 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Iowa. 



E. D. Carlton, Spirit Lake. 

S. Fee, 



• • 



Kansas. 

Wamego, Pottawatomie Co. 



Kentucky. 



Wm. Griffith, President, 

P. H, Darby, 

John B. Walker, . 

Hon. C. J. Walton, 

Hon. John A. Steele, 

W. C. Price, 

Dr. W. Van Antwerp, 

Hon. J. M. Chambers, 

A. H. Goble, 

J. H. Mallory, . 



. Louisville. 

. Princeton. 

. Madisonville. 

. Munfordville. 

. Midway. 

. Danville. 

. Mt. Sterling. 
Independence, Kenton Co. 

, Catlettsburg. 

. Bowling Green. 



Maine. 



E. M. Stilwell, Commissioner of Fish and 

Game, ....... Bangor. 

Henrj^ O. Stanley, Commissioner of Fish and 

Game, Dixfield. 

B. W. Counce, Commissioner of Sea and Shore 



Fisheries, 



G. W. Delawder, . 
Dr. E. W. Humphries, 



E. A. Brackett, 

F. W. Putnam, 
E. H. Lathrop, 



Maryland. 



Massachusetts. 



Michigan. 

Dr. J. C. Parker, . 

John H. Bissell, . 

Herschel Whitaker, 

W. D. Marks, Superintendent, 

A. J. Kellogg, Secretary, 



Thorn aston. 



Oakland, 
Salisbury. 



Winchester. 
Cambridge. 
Springfield. 



Grand Rapids. 

Detroit. 

Detroit. 

Paris. 

Detroit. 



1 



I 



1886.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



47 



MiNN-ESOTA. 

1st District — Daniel Cameron, 

2d District— Wm. M. Sweney, M. D., . 

3d District — Robt.Ormsby Sweeny, President, 

S. S. Watkins, Superintendent, 



La Crescent. 
Red Wing. 
Paul. 
Red Wins. 



Missouri. 
J. G. W. Steedman, M.D., . . 2,803 Pine Street, St. Louis. 
Gen. J. L Smith, .... 



H. M. Garliech, . 

W. L. May, 

R. R. Livingston, 

B. E. B. Kennedy, 

W. M. Cary, 



Nebraska. 



Nevada. 



New Hampshire. 



George W. Riddle, 

E. B. Hodge, 

John H. Kimball, . 

E. B. Hodge, Superintendent. 



Nev^t Jersey. 
Richard S. Jenkins, . . . . 
William Wright, ..... 
F. M. Ward, . . . . 

New York. 
Hon. R. Barnwell Roosevelt, President, 
Gen. Richard U. Sherman, Secretary, 
Eugene G. Blackford, . 
WiUiam H. Bowman, 
Seth Green, Superintendent, . 
Fred Mather, Superintendent, 
Monroe A. Green, Superintendent, 
F. A, Walters, Superintendent, 



Jefferson City. 
St. Joseph. 

Fremont. 

Plattsmouth. 

Omaha. 



Carson City. 



Manchester. 

Plymouth. 

Marlborouofh. 



Camden. 
Newark. 
Newton. 



H. H. Thompson, Secretary, . 



17 Nassau St., New York. 
New Hartford, Oneida Co. 
Fulton Market, N. Y. 
. Rochester. 
. Rochester. 
. Cold Spring Harbor. 
Mumford, Monroe Co. 
Bloomingdale, Essex Co. 
P. O. Box 25, New York Citv. 



North Carolina. 

[A note from Col. M. McGehee, Ealeigh, the former Commissioner, under 
date of August 9, says : " There is no Fish Commissioner in the service 
of this State."J 



48 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec, 



Ohio. 
Col. L. A. Harris, President, . . . Cincinnati. 

George Daniels, ...... Sandusky. 

James Dority, Toledo. 

Henry Douglass, Superintendent, . . Sandusky. 

[No inforniation furnished ; the names are those of last year.] 

Pennsylvania. 
John Gay, President, . . . . . Greensburg. 
H. H. Derr, Secretary, .... Wilkesbarre. 

Arthur Maginnis, .... Swift Water, Monroe Co. 

A. M. Spangler, Corresponding Secretary, 512 Commerce St., Phil. 



Aug. Duncan, Treasurer, 
Chas. Porter, 



Chambersburg. 
Corrv. 



Rhode Island. 



John H. Barden, 
Henry T. Root, 
Wm. P. Morton, 



Rockland. 

Providence. 

Providence. 



South Carolina. 
Hon. A. P. Butler, Commissioner of Agriculture, Columbia. 



W. W. McDowell, 
H. H. Sneed, 
Edward D. Hicks, 



Tennessee. 



Memphis. 

Chattanooga. 

Nashville. 



Hiram A. Cutting, 
Herbert Brainerd, 



Vermont. 



Lunenburgh. 
St. Albans.- 



Virginia. 
Col. Marshall McDonald, . . . . 

Washington Territory. 



Albert T. Stream, 



Berrj^ville. 
North Cove, Pacific Co. 



West Virginia. 
C. S. White, President, 
W. A. Manning, Secretar\^, . 
F. J. Baxter, Treasurer, 

[Terms expire June 1, 1889.] 



. Romney. 
. Talcott. 
Braxton Court House. 



1886.] 



PUBLIC DOCUiMENT — No. 25, 



49 



Wisconsin. 
The Governor, ex officio. 

Philo Dunning, President, .... Madison. 

C. L. Valentine, Secretary and Treasurer, . Janesville. 

J. V. Jones, ...... Oshkosh. 

A. V. H. Carpenter, Milwaukee. 

Mark Douglass, ...... Melrose. 

Calvert Spensley, Mineral Point. 

James Nevin, Superintendent, . . . Madison. 



Wyoming Territory. 
Otto Gramm, ...... Laramie. 

[Dr. W. N. Herat, Cheyenne, is Commissioner for Laramie County, and 
B. F. Northington, Kawlins, is Commissioner for Carbon County.] 



50 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



[B.] 
LIST OF PONDS LEASED 

By the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries^ under Authority given 
by Chap. 384, Sect. 9. of the Acts of 1869.* 



[Those marked by a * hare made the required returns.] 
1870. 

Feb. 1. Waushakum Pond, in Framingbam, to Sturtevant and 
others, 20 3'ears. 
Mendon Pond, in Mendon, to Leonard T. Wilson and 

another, 20 years. 
Baptist Lake, in Newton, to J. F. C. H3 de and others, 
20 years. 



April 


1. 


Sept. 


12. 


1871 

April 


17. 


May 
Nov. 


15. 
1. 



Long Pond, in Falmouth, to Joshua S. Bowerraan 

and three others, 20 years. 
Pratt's Pond, in Upton, to D. W. Batcheller, 20 years. 
Punkapoag Pond, in Randolph and Canton, to Henry 

L. Pierce, 20 ^^ears. 

1872. 

Jan. 1. * Sandy Pond, Forest Lake, or Flint's Pond, in Lin- 
coln, to James L. Chapin and others, 20 years. 
187a. 
May 1. * Meeting-house Pond, in ^yestminster, to inhabitants 
of Westminster, 15 years. 
1. Great Pond, in Wej'mouth, to James L. Bates and 
others, 15 years. 
July 1. * Little Sandy Pond, in Pembroke, to A. C. Brigham 
and others, 16 3'ears. 

* "We would remind lessees of ponds that they are required, by their leases, to use 
all reasonable efforts to stock their ponds, and keep accurate records of the same, 
and make returns of their doings to the Commissioners on the 1st of October, each 
year, of the number and species of fish which they have put in or removed from 
their ponds. Any failure to comply with these conditions is a breach of contract in- 
validating their lease. It is impoi'tant that the State should know just what is being 
done; and, where there appears to be mismanagement or apparent fliilure, the Com- 
missioners will visit the ponds, and ascertain, if possible, the cause. 



1873. 




Sept. 


1. 


Oct. 


1. 




1. 


Dec. 


1. 


1874. 




March 


1. 




2. 


April 


1. 




20. 



1886.] rUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 51 

Pontoosnc Lake, in Pittsfield and Lanesborough, to 

E. H. Kellogg and others, 15 years. 
Farm Pond, in Sherborn, to inhabitants of Sherborn, 

15 3-ears. 
Spot Pond, in Stoneham, to inhabitants of Stoneham, 

15 3^ears. 
Lake Wauban, in Needham, to Hollis Hunnewell, 20 

years. 

Walden and White ponds, in Concord, to inhabitants 
of Concord, 15 years. 

Upper Naumkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhab- 
itants of Ashburnham, 20 3^ears. 

Elder's Pond, in Lakeville, to inhabitants of Lake- 
ville, 15 3'ears. 

North and South Podunk ponds, in Brookfield, to in- 
habitants of Brookfield, 15 years. 
May 1. * Maquan Pond, in Hanson, to the inhabitants of Han- 
son, 15 years. 
20. Unchechewalom and Massapog ponds, to the inhab- 
itants of Lunenburg, 20 3'ears. 
July 1. Hardy's Pond, in Waltham, to H. E. Priest and 
others, 15 years. 
1. * Hockomocko Pond, in Westborough, to L. N. Fair- 
banks and others, 15 years. 

Mitchell's Pond, in Boxford, to R. M. Cross and 
others, 15 years. 

Hazard's Pond, in Russell, to N. D. Parks and others, 
20 years. 

East Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants 
of Sterling, 20 years. 

Middleton Pond, in Middleton, to inhabitants of Mid- 
dleton, 15 years. 

White and Goose ponds, in Chatham, to George W. 
Davis, 15 years. 

Hood's Pond, in Ipswich and Topsfield, to inhab- 
itants of Topsfield, 15 years. 

Chauncey Pond, in Westborough, to inhabitants of 
Westborough, 15 years. 

West's Pond, in Bolton, to J. D. Hurlburt and others, 
15 years. 

Gates Pond, in Berlin, to E. H. Hartshorn and others, 
15 years. 





11. 




11. 


Oct. 


1. 




20. 


1875 




Jan. 


1. 


March 


1. 


April 


1. 




3. 




15. 



52 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

1875. 

April 24. Pleasant Pond, in Wenham, to inhabitants of Wen- 
ham, 15 3'ears. 
May 1. * Morse's Pond, in Needham, to Edmund M. Wood, 
15 years. 
1. * Chilmark Pond, in Chilmark, to J. Nickerson and 
others, agents, 20 years. 
July 1. * Winter Pond and Wedge Pond, in Winchester, to 
inhabitants of Winchester, 15 years. 
1. * Haggett's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of An- 
dover, 20 years. 
Aug. 1. * Oyster Pond, in Edgartown, to J. H. Smith and 
others, 20 years. 
7. West Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants 

of Sterling, 20 years. 
9. * Mystic (Upper) Pond, in Winchester, Medford and 
Arlington, to inhabitants of Winchester and Med- 
ford, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Little Chauncy and Solomon ponds, in Northborough, 
to inhabitants of Northborough, 15 years. 

1876. 

Feb. 1. * Great Sandy Bottom Pond, in Pembroke, to Israel 

Thrasher and others, 15 years. 
Marcb 1. Dennis Pond, in Yarmouth, to inhabitants of Yar- 
mouth, 15 years. 
March 1. * Crystal Lake, in Wakefield, to Lyman H. Tasker and 
others, 15 3'«ars. 
20. Lower Naumkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhab- 
itants of Ashburnham, 18 years. 
28. Dennison Lake, in Winchendon, to inhabitants of 

Winchendon, 15 years. 
28. Phillipston Pond, in Phillipston, to inhabitants of 
Phillipston, 20 years. 

1876. 

May 8. South-west Pond, in Athol, to Adin H. Smith and 

others, 15 years. 
June 1. * Norwich Pond, in Huntington, to inhabitants of 
Huntington, 20 years. 
10. Dug Pond, in Natick, to W. P. Bigelow and others, 
15 years. 
Oct. 1. Farm and Learned's Pond, in Framingham, to inhab- 
itants of Framingham, 15 years. 
1. Whitney's Pond, in Wrentham, to inhabitants of 

Wrentham, 15 years. 
1. Little Pond, in Barnstable, to George H. Davis, 15 
years. 



Oct. 


1. 


Nov. 


1. 


1878. 




Jan. 


1. 


March 


16. 


April 


1. 


May 


1. 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 63 

1877. 

March 1. * Nine-Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to inhabitants of 
Wilbraham, 15 years. 
15. Pentucket and Rock Ponds, in Georgetown, to in- 
habitants of Georgetown, 15 jears. 
Aug. 10. * Onota Lake, in Pittsfield, to William H. Murray and 
others, 15 years. 
1. Fort, Great Spectacle, and Little Spectacle ponds, 
in Lancaster, to inhabitants of Lancaster, 20 years. 
Tispaquin Pond, in Middleborough, to Abishai Mil- 
ler, 15 years. 

* Sniptuit, Long, Snow, and Mary's ponds, in Roch- 
ester, to inhabitants of Rochester, 15 years. 
Asnaconcomic Pond, in Hubbardston, to Amory Jew- 

ett, Jr., 15 years. 
Dorrity Pond, in Millbury, to inhabitants of Mill- 
bury, 10 years. 
1. * Bear Hill Pond and Hall Pond, in Harvard, to in- 
habitants of Harvard, 15 years. 
5. * Spectacle, Peters, and Triangle ponds, in Sandwich, 
to George L. Fessenden, 10 3'ears. 
Oct. 1. * Ell Pond, in Melrose, to J. A. Barrett and others, 15 
years. 
1. Accord Pond, in Hingham, South Scituate, and 
Rockland, to inhabitants of those towns, 10 years. 
1. Wright's and Ashley's ponds, in Holyoke, to Henry 

C. Ewing and others, 10 years. 
1. * Magog Pond, in Acton and Middleton, to inhabitants 
of Acton, 15 years. 

1879. 

Feb. 1. * Lake Mahkijnac and Lake Overic, in Stockbridge, to 
inhabitants of Stockbridge, 10 years. 

July 1. Silver Lake, in Wilmington, to inhabitants of Wil- 
mington, 10 years. 
1. * Fresh Pond, in Falmouth, to Thomas H. Lawrence, 
20 years. 

Oct. 1. * Pomp's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Ando- 
ver, 15 years. 

Nov. 1. * Lake Quinapowitt, in Wakefield, to inhabitants of 
Wakefield, 14 years. 

1880. 

March 1. * Lake Winthrop, in Holliston, to inhabitants of Hoi- 
liston, 15 years. 
15. Massapoag Pond, in Sharon, to inhabitants of Sharon > 
10 years. 



54 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

1880. 

Ma}^ 1. * Tisbury Great Poad, in Tisbury, to Allen Look and 
others, 10 years. 

June 1. * Indian Pond, in Kingston, to inhabitants of Kings- 
ton, 10 3^ears. 
1. * Jordan Pond, in Shrewsbury, to inhabitants of 
Shrewsbury, 15 years. 

July 1. * Swan and Martin's ponds, in North Reading, to in- 
habitants of North Reading, 15 years. 

Sept. 1. Herring Pond, in Eastham, to William H. Nickerson, 
10 3'ears. 

Dec. 24. Chadwick*s Pond, in Bradford and Boxford, to town 
of Bradford, 10 years. 

1881. 

Jan. 1. * Great and Job's Neck ponds, in Edgartown, to Amoz 
Smith and others, 15 years. 

March 1. * The Mill Ponds (three), in Brewster, to Valentine B. 
Newcomb and another, 15 years. 

April 1. * Long Pond, in Blandford, to Samuel A. Bartholo- 
mew and another, 15 years. 

May 2. * Nonesuch Pond, in Weston and Natick, to W. A. 
Bullard and others, 15 years. 

Blair's Pond, in Blandford, to Curtis M. Blair and 

another, 15 years. 
1. * Ward Pond, alias Wightman Pond, in Ashburnham, 

to Herbert F. Rock wood and another, 15 years. 
Horn Pond, in Woburn, to inhabitants of Woburn, 

15 years. 
Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to inhabitants 

of West Brookfield, 15 years. 

Halfway Pond, in Plymouth, taken by Commissioners 
for 5 years, in accordance with provisions of chap. 
62, Acts of 1876. 
April 6. * Fresh Pond, in Tisbury, to Allen Look and others, 
15 years. 
23. * Keyes Pond, in Westford, to M. H. A. Evans, 15 
years. 
May 7. Singletary Pond, in Sutton and Millbury, to towns 
of Sutton and Millbur}^, 15 years. 
7. The Great Pond, in Ashfield, to town of Ashfield, 15 
years. 
July 1. Lake Buell, in Monterey and New Marlborough, to 
town of New Marlborough, 10 years. 



March 




April 




May 




June 




188a. 
March 





1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 55 



1884. 



June 1. * Bald Pate, Four-mile, and Stiles ponds, in Boxford, 

to inhabitants of Boxford, 10 years. 
July 15 * Asneybunskeit Pond, in Paxton, to inhabitants of 

Paxton, 10 years. 
15. Center Pond, in Dennis, to inhabitants of Becket, 10 

years. 
15. Buckmaster Pond, in Dedham, to Francis Soule and 

others, 10 years. 
15. * Fresh Pond, in Dennis, to inhabitants of Dennis, 10 

years. 

17. * Farm Pond, in Cottage City, to John C. Hamblin 

and others, 15 years. 

18. Mashpee, Great, and Wakeley ponds, in Mahhpee, 

to inhabitants of Mashpee, 10 years. 
Aug. 30. * Sand Pond, in Ayer, to inhabitants of Ayer, 15 years. 
Sept. 5. Great Pond, in North Andover, to inhabitants of 

North Andover, 15 years. 



56 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



[C] 
CONNECTICUT RIVER. 



[From Massachusetts Report, 1878.] 
The extraordinarily bad season of 1877 in the Connecti- 
cut River brought the diminution of shad to such painful 
notice, that our Legislature passed resolves calling the 
attention of Connecticut to the fact. By invitation of the 
Committee on Fisheries of the Connecticut Assembly, the 
Massachusetts Commissioners on Inland Fisheries appeared 
on the 26th of February, 1878, and made the following 
statement : — 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Committee on Fisheries. 

We come before 3'ou, on your invitation, not as advocates or as 
witnesses, but as State officers, to make such statements and ex- 
planations as may be called for by the recent resolves of the Legis- 
lature of Massachusetts touching the exhaustion of the shad 
fisheries in the Conuecticut River ; and we propose very briefly to 
consider each paragraph in this document. The preamble begins : — ^ 

Whereas, The Connecticut River formerly abounded in shad and sal- 
mon, which had much diminished, however, in recent times, by reason 
of excessive fishing and impassable dams. 

The truth of this statement is so generally acknowledged that it 
need not delay us. At the close of the last century salmon and 
shad were still very abundant in the Connecticut, and the former 
were often sold at 50 cents each. The salmon penetrated to the 
head-waters, and spawned in Israel's River and the Upper and 
Lower Ammonoosucks. The shad penetrated only to Bellows 
Falls, which they could not surmount. They passed Turner's Falls, 
however, in great numbers ; and as many as 5,000 in a day have 
been taken with dip-nets from a single rock at this point. In 1798 
a high dam erected just below the mouth of Miller's River shut the 
salmon from their spawning-grounds, and practically exterminated 
them within a dozen years. The shad, breeding in all the lower 
waters, continued in plenty until 1849, when the erection of an 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 57 

impassable dam at Hadley Falls seriously curtailed their numbers. 
This will be treated more fully under another head. The preamble 
continues : — 

Whereas, The State of Massachusetts, as well in a spirit of comity for 
neighboring States as for the benefit of her own citizens, has appointed 
Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, and has expended large sums of 
money in building fishways, in hatching shad, and in seeding the river 
with great numbers of young salmon, whereby shad were at one time 
restored to their ancient abundance, and whereby there is now a good 
hope of restoring salmon to the river. 

The origin of our Commissioners on Inland Fisheries did not 
spring from a desire to increase our own wealth, but entirely from 
a wish to render justice to our sister States, Vermont and New 
Hampshire; the latter of which passed in 1864 a resolve which 
recited that, " whereas the rivers and lakes of this State were wont 
formerly to furnish an inexhaustible supply of salmon, shad, and 
other migratory fish, which have now entirelj' disappeared from 
our waters ; and whereas there is nothing to prevent the return of 
such fish but the want of suitable fishways over the dams across 
the Connecticut, Merrimack, and Saco, and other rivers, and in 
such numbers as to contribute very largely to the supply of whole- 
some and agreeable food for the inhabitants of this State : there- 
fore, resolved, that the attention of the State of Massachusetts, 
Connecticut and Maine be invited to this subject, and that they be 
earnestly requested to take earh^ measures to cause such fishways 
to be constructed ... as due alike to the relations of comity 
between those States and our own, to the obligations of national 
law, and to the interest of those States themselves." 

In March, 1865, a joint committee of the Massachusetts Legis- 
lature held a hearing for the parties in interest ; and, on their 
recommendation, two Commissioners were appointed the following 
summer, to investigate and report on the subject. At the following 
session, the Legislature established the Commissioners for five years, 
and made an appropriation of $7,000; in 1867 the appropriation 
was $10,000 ; and annual appropriations have been since continued, 
never of less than $2,500, and usually of $5,000. During the twelve 
years of their service the Commissioners have steadily borne in 
mind the original object of their appointment, and have striven to 
free the Merrimack and Connecticut from obstruction. Although 
the legislative committee and two successive attorneys-general 
opined that the Holyoke Water Power Company was exempt 
from putting a fishway in their dam, the Commissioners held a dif- 
ferent view, and sued the company in the name of the State. The 
case was tried by the Supreme Court, and appealed to that of the 



58 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

United States, where the decree was affirmed ; and the company 
was compelled to build a fish way on the most approved model, and 
at a cost of about $30,000. As early as 1867 Seth Green was 
employed by the Commissioners to attempt the artificial hatching 
of shad at Hadle}' Falls. He was entirel}^ successful ; and the 
operation has been since continued by Massachusetts or Connecti- 
cut, or by the United States. Of the effects of this artificial pro- 
pagation we do not propose to speak dogmatically, but to give 
some facts and reasons that may perhaps indicate those efl^ects. 
The closing of the Holyoke or Hadley Falls dam in 1849 was, 
for reasons w^hich will be considered further on, a severe injury to 
the shad fisheries ; indeed, the injurj^ to fisheries heloio the dam 
was a point which had escaped lawyers, and was one of the main 
grounds of the decision which compelled the company to build a 
fishway. The statistics of Parsonage Pier in Connecticut fisher3^ 
show this very distinctly. The average .catch there for the ten 
years from 1827 to 1836 was 10,376 ; for the next ten 3^ears, 9,332, 
showing a slight decline, attributable perhaps to increase of popu- 
lation and fishing. For the five years after the closing of the 
Holj'oke dam, 1849-53, the average rose suddenl}^ to 19,490. For 
the next ten years, 1854-63, it as suddenlj- fell to 8,364 ; and for 
the following six j^ears, 1864-69, it further decreased to 4,482, less 
than one-half its first yield. The closing of Holyoke dam shut 
back all the shad that had frequented the upper spawning-beds ; 
and they retreated in confusion down the river, and were taken in 
plent}'. Alewives have conducted themselves in the same way in 
other streams. It takes three years for a shad to attain the mer- 
chantable size, and about five years for its maximum growth. 
When the dam was closed, there were in the river the full-grown 
fish (some of which had bred in the upper ground), and there were 
four successive crops of younger fish, the last of which would not 
get their full growth for four years. The unusual abundance 
would last so long as the column was annually recruited by the 
3'ounger generations, which would be for five seasons. After that 
the crop of the lower stream would sink to that of the spawning- 
beds, which still were accessible. 

Returns from another pier fishery for a less number of years 
(1851-68) give substantially the same results. In 1851 the catch 
was 15,942 ; the average of the next nine 3'ears was 6,765 ; and, of 
the last eight years, only 5,448. On the whole, then, there was a 
decrease, and a continuous decrease, from the closing of the Hol3^- 
oke dam — and perhaps before that date — to the year 1868. That 
season was unusually poor for shad-fishing all along the coast of 
the Northern and Middle States ; but, in apparent contradiction, 



1886.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



59 



the Connecticut River teemed at all points with little yearling shad. 
Next season (1869) larger fish, of two years old, were in great 
plenty. On Sunday, May 21, 1870, vessels in Long Island Sound 
observed vast shoals of shad. The next day they struck in, at and 
about the raouth of the river, and filled the nets. The total yield 
of the pounds that day w^as reported over 25,000. At Haddam 
Island, in the river, 700 were tak n at one sweep of the seine, 
which was more than one-third the yield of a similar seine for the 
whole of the previous season. The Hudson on the west, and the 
Meriimack on the east, showed no unusual catch ; indeed, the phe- 
nomenon was a local one, confined to the Connecticut. The whole 
efl'ect may not be due to Green's propagation in 1867, because in 
1868 Connecticnt forbade any mesh smaller than five inches, 
whereas a two and one-half inch mesh had before been used ; and, 
furthermore, a "• close time " of thirt3"-six hours a week was ordered. 
The result w^as that the yearlings and two-year-olds escaped through 
the meshes, and swelled the catch of large fish in ihe following 
years. Nevertheless a part of the increase maj^ reasonabl}^ be laid 
to the artificial propagation, whose tendency seems to be to coun- 
teract the natural decrease in our fisheries, even if it does not cause 
an increase. The following statistics of the best fishery within the 
Massachusetts line may illustrate the point. 

Hadley Falls Shad Fishery Statistics — 18Q8-187 7. 



Years, 


1868. 


1869. 


1870. 


Gross catch for each year, . 


7,341 


8,807 


11,618 


Date of taking first shad, . 


May 6. 


May 13. 


May 6. 


Number of days in fishing season, . 


40 


33 


40 


Average number of fish a day, . 


183 


267 


290 



1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


10,631 


7,691 


7,294 


15,057 


9,135 


10,741 


2,674 


May 1. 


May 11. 


May 14. 


May 13. 


May 18. 


May 22. 


May 14. 


44 


45 


35 


37 


38 


33 


42 


241 


170 


208 


407 


240 


325 


63 



60 FISH AND GAME. [Dec, 



Total catch for ten years, 1868-77, . 
Yearly average for the ten years, . 
Yearly average for first five years, . 
Yearly average for second five years, 
Daily average for ten years, . 
Daily average for first five years, . 
Daily average for second five years, 



90,992 

9,099 

9,220 

8,980 

239 

230 

248 



Previoos to this period, and posterior to the closing of the Holy- 
oke dam, the catch had been much larger. In 1865 it was esti- 
mated at 35,000, and in 1853 at 45,000. 

Hence we draw the conclusion that a cause has been at work to 
keep up the fishery at this point, because, with the exception of the 
last season, it has maintained a pretty uniform average for ten 
years since 1868, before which time it had much decreased; and 
such cause we find in artificial propagation conducted on this very 
fishing-ground, whose fish would return, as is well known, to the 
spot on w^hich they were bred. In 1874, 800,000 young salmon 
were put in the Connecticut River, of which 271,000 were contributed 
by Massachusetts. If such success crowns this as that of the Mer- 
rimack, next spring (1878) will see a large number of salmon, 
weighing from ten to fifteen pounds, endeavoring to force the 
mouth of the river, and mount to their spawning-grounds once 
more, after an interval of nearl}^ a century. They will meet no 
impediments north of the Massachusetts line. The dams at Holy- 
oke and at Turner's Falls are furnished with the same fishway that 
last season carried every salmon over the great Lawrence dam. It 
is for Connecticut to consider whether her laws and her modes of 
fishing are such as to allow fair passage to tills valuable fish. There 
is no reason why the river should not furnish annually 100,000 
pounds of salmon, without lessening the other fisheries. 

The preamble continues : — 

Whereas, The State of Connecticut has, in like manner and for similar 
purposes, expended money, and appointed commissioners who have 
diligently performed their duties, and have made wise plans, in agree- 
ment with their fellow-commissioners of Massachusetts, for increasing 
and maintaining the river fishes. 

The appointment of Fishery Commissioners in Connecticut was 
nearly contemporaneous wath that in Massachusetts. Of the Con- 
necticut Commissioners, two have been in service about nine years, 
and the third seven 3'ears ; a good indication of their acceptable 
conduct. Of the Massachusetts Commissioners, one has served 
since the first appointment in 1865, one nine 3"ears, and the third 
five years. Eleven years ago, in 1867, the Commissioners of the 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 61 

New England States arranged informal meetings for consultation 
from time to time. In that entire period there has been no impor- 
tant difference of opinion among them as to the methods best to 
be pursued, or the laws to be enacted. The Commissioners from 
Connecticut and Massachusetts were often, from their position, 
the most nearly connected. It was by their agreement that Con- 
necticut passed the conditional Act of 1867 (chap. 106, May 
session), by which a "close time" for pounds and nets was 
ordered, from Saturday night to Monday morning of each week ; 
and the mesh of weirs was put at five inches. This act being 
conditional on the passage of a similar one b}^ Massachusetts, 
that State passed the necessary law at the next session of its 
Legislature ; and it is safe to say, that had it remained on the 
statute-books, and been honestl}^ enforced from that day to this, 
the river would have abounded in shad, and the fishermen would 
have been much better off than now they are. It has already been 
stated that the shad-hatching at Hol^'oke, and the introduction of 
salmon fry in the upper Connecticut, have been undertaken by 
both States, acting under agreement. 
The preamble finishes thus : — 

Whereas, Certain persons in the State of Connecticut have fished and 
still continue to fish in improper ways and at improper times, in opposi- 
tion to the advice of the commissioners of said State, and in violation of 
agreements with them made, so that only a few shad escape, and arrive 
at their spawning-beds, of which the greater part are in the State of 
Massachusetts ; and so that the fisheries in Massachusetts are no longer 
profitable, and so that the number of spawning shad which escape is not 
enough to keep up the supply in the river. 

It is not easy to agree what is an " improper way and improper 
time " of taking fish ; although we may say in general that any 
way or time is improper that does not leave enough to renew the 
crop. The difficulty of decision was well exhibited at the hearing 
at Hartford in 1867, at which the Massachusetts Commissioners 
were present by invitation. There was a great mass of testimony 
from fishermen. The pound-owners averred that sweep-seining was 
very destructive to shad, but that pounds actually increased them, 
by capturing many sharks and other predatory animals. The gill- 
netters said the pounds destroyed all the young fish, but that 
gill-nets could only be used a small part of the time, and did much 
good by catching spawn-eating eels. Finally, the sweep-seiners 
said their nets only made a sweep or two, and then left the channel 
free, while the gill-nets constantly vexed the stream, and killed 
more fish than they caught. Not even on such a question as the 



62 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

direction of run of the shad could these men, some of whom 
had fished for sevent}' years, be brought to agree; for, whereas 
mail}' where sure the shad came from the direction of Montauk 
Point, and consequently were taken only on the east sides of the 
pound, others were equally sure that they came through Hell Gate, 
or, at any rate, from the westward, and were taken on the west 
sides. 

With the desire of getting reliable information, the Commis- 
sioners of Connecticut and Massachusetts visited the pounds set 
in the Sound, west of the river's mouth, on May 20, 1868, and 
May 25, .1869. On the first occasion, 26 pounds were found be- 
tween Saj'brook Light and Mononnes3uc Point, a distance of about 
ten miles. Some of these extended ab:>uta mile into the Sound, 
and were furnished with two bowls, one at the end, and the other 
midway. The pound selected for a test w^as, in each case, set with 
a 2^-inch mesh ; but the results were quite difi'erent. The West- 
brook pound of 1869 contained some 6,000 or 7,000 fishes in all, 
among which were a considerable number of large shad, but few 
small shad, with a mass of menhaden and alewives, and a few sea- 
herring, tautog, weak fish, rays, &c. The Saybro)k pound of 
1868 was estimated to contain some 20 barrels of fishes. Of these, 
about 70 were marketable shad; some 1,500 were 3'oung shad, fit 
onh^ to be packed as herring, or sold for manure ; an \ the rest 
were miscellaneous fishes, as before, but without menhaden. In 
neither case were there any sharks. The two drawings, on dif- 
ferent years and in different places, but at the same season, 
showed that the pounds sometimes took large quantities of young 
shad, and sometimes few or none. Had they always taken young 
shad in the proportion observed in 1868, it was estimated that 
these pounds would, in one season, have destroj'ed 3,822,000 
immature shad. But the second experiment served to show that 
the destruction, though probablj^ considerable, was much below 
these figures. Furthermore, the careful experiments conducted 
with a Massachusetts pound in 1871 proved that if properly placed, 
set with a proper mesh, and closed during a certain time each 
week, a pound may be an unobjectionable mode of fishing. Indeed, 
Mr. Milner, a man of great experience, approves it, under certain 
circumstances, but insists on a " close time" of 2^ days each week. 
It is scarcely necessary for us to bring proofs that certain persons 
in this State fish in a way not approved by its Commissioners, who 
have alwa3^s been in favor of limitations on pounds, whose owners, 
on the contrary, desire to fish the whole season, and with such mesh 
as they like. We wish to touch as lightly as possible on the topic 
of violations of agreement between the Commissioners of this State 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 63 

and certain fishermen ; and we will therefore simpl}' draw attention 
to the following reports : 1867, pp. 4, 5, and 25 ; 1870, p. 6 ; 1871; 
p. 30 ; 1874, passm. In 1871, on p. 30, they state, in set terms, 
that certain pound men were dishonest, did not observe close time, 
and violated their voluntary agreements. These are the deliberate 
statements of State officers in the discharge of their trust. 

Without entering into the question of what kind of fishing is 
injuring the shad supply, it seems certain that the sudden increase 
in 1870 was temporary, although for several seasons thereafter the 
catch showed its beneficial influence. Still for the last three sea- 
sons, and especially for the last two, complaints of marked decrease 
have come from most points on the river. But the past season 
(1877) has been so disastrous as to attract universal attention. 
According to an excellent authority, Mr. O. H. Kirtland, the 
pounds, seines and gill-nets near the river's mouth took only from 
one-half to one-fourth their average catch ; while the nine Massa- 
chusetts seines yielded from one-third to one-fifth their average, 
and their gross catch was less than the average of the Hadle}* Falls 
seine, and less than that of the Taunton River. These facts go 
far to prove that not enough shad escape to keep up the race, 
despite the artificial propagation. That their chief spawning-beds 
are in fresh water, and within Massachusetts, seems demonstrated : 
1st, by the testimony of observers; 2d, by the fact that when, in 
1849, the upper spawning-beds were cut off, a great reduction in 
numbers took place ; 3d, by the want of proper testimony to show 
that shad breed in salt water. On this point Professor Baird and 
Mr. Milner, who are high authorities, write us, under date Feb. 11, 
1878, that they " do not think there is any foundation whatevet as 
to the impression in regard to the spawning of shad in salt water. 
All our investigations on the Southern coast have failed to reveal 
spawning fish in other than fresh or perhaps very slightly brackish 
water." 

The Resolves then follow : — 

Resolved, By the Senate and House of Representatives in General 
Court assembled, — 

1. That the attention of the State of Connecticut be invited to this 
subject, and that she be earnestly requested to take such action in the 
premises as may be due to the relations of comity between sister States, 
and to the interests of both. 

2. That his Excellency the Governor be requested to transmit a copy 
of these Resolves to his Excellency the Governor of the State of Con- 
necticut, with the request that the same may be communicated to the 
General Assembly of that State, now in session 



64 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Committee, our dut}- ends 
here. It would obvious!}- be improper for us to attempt to dictate 
the legislation of a sovereign State. 

The Commissioners bad been told tbat a majority of the 
committee were, in one way or another, interested in pounds 
at the river's mouth ; and their conduct went far to corrobo- 
rate the statement. The chairman might readily have been 
taken for an advocate who appeared in behalf of the pound- 
men ; and there was, in addition, a hired attorney, who seemed 
to mistake the officers of a sister State for witnesses who were 
to be diligently cross-examined. It was obvious, from the 
outset, that their errand was a vain one, that no judicial pro- 
ceedings could be expected, and that nothing more could be 
done than to lay a foundation for work at a more propitious 
moment. 

Especial marks of incredulity were shown, when, in the 
statement of the Massachusetts Commissioners, the return of 
the salmon to the river was predicted for the following 
spring. But in the month of May the incredulity of the 
Connecticut fishermen was broken down, only to be replaced 
by rapacity. The adult salmon, product of the plant of 
1874, did indeed enter the river's mouth, heading for its 
upper waters. Instantly they were set upon : and, so far as 
can be learned, about 500 fine fish, weighing from eight to 
twenty pounds each, were in the course of the season taken, 
and sold in the markets. Thus did four years of expecta- 
tion end in disappointment ; and thus was great expenditure 
of money, labor and skill thrown away. In marked con- 
trast to this conduct was the strict enforcement of law in 
Massachusetts. A few straggling salmon succeeded in getting 
to the Holyoke dam, where one of them was speared. But 
even this single oflfence was not allowed to pass ; and a war- 
rant was immediately issued for the arrest of the offender. 
Indeed, in the matter of State comity, so far as fisheries are 
concerned, our Commonwealth may properly claim to have 
acted in good faith from the outset. When, in 1864, the 
Legislature of New Hampshire called on Massachusetts to 
take measures for the restoration of migratory fishes to the 
Merrimack and Connecticut, our Legislature took immediate 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENTING. 25. 65 

and earnest action ; and the large sums of money since spent 
by the Commonwealth for this object are a proof of honest 
endeavor. We cannot doubt that the people of Connecticut, 
once roused to a sense of the situation, will see to it that 
wise figherylaws are passed and enforced. 

THEODORE LYMAN, 
E. A. BRACKETT, 
ASA FRENCH, 

Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, 1878, 



66 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



Boston, Dec. 16, 1886. 
Massachusetts Commissioners on Fish and Game. 

Gentlemen: — With pleasure I communicate to you the doings 
of our association during this 3'ear in the protection of fish, game 
and insectivorous birds. As you are aware, our societ}^ is organ- 
ized and maintained entirel}' for the public good. 

Its labors are almost wholh' confined to the diflfusion of knowledge 
on the subjects in which we are interested, and to the enforcement 
of the laws for the protection of the birds, etc. 

During the year we have printed and distributed gratuitously 
man}- thousands of copies of our game laws in pamphlet form, and 
have also printed and distributed the same in poster form, and we 
believe that great good has thus been accomplished. 

In addition to this, we have done a vast deal of other work, 
among which might be named the arrest and prosecution of a large 
mimber of parties who have violated the laws for the preservation 
of our fish, game and insectivorous birds. A large percentage of 
these arrests were dealers in short lobsters, and we are making 
every possible effort to break up the illegal traffic. 

The expenses of our work are met and paid out of our own 
treasury, but the calls upon us this year have been ver}^ heavy, and 
in order to meet them w^e have been obliged to ask for subscriptions 
from our members and others. Already we have collected almost a 
thousand dollars, and expect to obtain ample funds for our needs. 

In making prosecutions a large portion of the work done was by 
deputies appointed b}^ j^our board, who are active members of our 
association. In this connection it seems to us very desirable that 
deputies should be appointed in all the counties, in fact, in all the 
towns, in the State, so that we can secure a still better protection of 
our game and birds, and to this end I feel confident that this asso- 
ciation would be willing to contribute its share. 

Respectfull}' yours, 

EDWARD A. SAMUELS, 

P7^es. Mass. Fish and Game Protective Association. 



188G.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 67 



[D.] 



BELOSTOMIDJE AND SOME OTHER FISH-DESTROYING 

BUGS. 

BY GEOEGE DIMMOCK. 



Insects are generall}^ consiiered to be beneficial to fislies by 
furnishing them one of the most unfailing sources of food. There 
are, however, a few insects which are injurious to fishes, thus 
makinoj an exception to the rule. DeGeer^ published a statement, 
in 1774, that the larvae of dragon-flies, or as the}' are sometimes 
called, Devil's-darning-needles (the LibelluUdce of naturalists), 
would seize and kill fishes, a statement confirmed bj' Dale^ in 1832. 
Von JVIuetzschefahl,^ in 1778-79, mentioned several aquatic insects 
which attacked the perch, among them two species of water-beetles 
(Dytiscidce) and two species of water-bugs (Notonecta glauca, 
2iXid Nepa linearis — now called Ranatra linearis). The destruc 
tion of young fishes b}^ water-beetles has since been noted by 
EUes^ in 1830, by Dale^ in 1832, and by Riley^ in 1885. In regard 
to the water-bugs, observations published within the past few 
years have not only confirmed the above-mentioned earlier state- 
ments, but other bugs have been discovered to attack fishes. 
Leid}',^ as early as 1847, writes that species of Belostoma and Per- 
thosioma {ZaitJia) pre}' upon fishes. Glover,^ in 1875, states that 
Ranatra quadridenticulata and Belostoma americanum feed on 
small fishes, and that Nepa apiculata probably, and Notonecta in- 
sidaris possibly, do the same. Milner,^ in 1876, writes that Belos- 
toma grande captures and eats fishes. Miss Ormerod,'° in 1878, 
describes how Ranatra linearis attacks fishes ; the same year Peck^^ 
called attention to the destruction of the eggs of carp by the same 
insect. Turner, ^^ ^^ the next year, mentions the killing of young 
sticklebacks in an aquarium by Belostoma. Leonard^* notices the 
showing at the Edinburgh Fisheries Exhibition in 1882 of a prep- 
aration by Hugh D. McGovern, of Brooklyn, N. Y., of a year- 
old trout " surmounted by the fish-eating bug, Belostoma grandis," 

1 Superior figures in the text refer to the citations of literature at the end of this 
article. 



68 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

winch was in the act of killing the fish by piercing its head ; and 
Todd,^^ the same j^ear, describes how a Btlostoma^ about three- 
quarters of an inch long, was seen to vanquish a fish three or four 
times its own length. Uhler,^^ in 1884, states that Ranatra 
destro^'s the eggs of fishes, and sometimes attacks the young 
fishes themselves and sucks their blood. Writing of Belostoma 
grande^ the giant species of this genus, that is found in tropical 
America, he states that "It is a formidable monster in the pools 
of Demerara, where it lurks on the bottom of the muddy pools 
which match its color, ever ready to grasp the unwary fish in the 
cruel embrace of its sharp hooked fore-legs, there to remain fixed 
until life becomes extinct with the outflow of its blood." This 
author adds, " Scarcely less rapacious are the species inhabiting 
the United States. One of these, B. grisea, is the facile master of 
the ponds and estuaries of the tidal creeks and rivers of the At- 
lantic States. Developing in the quiet pools, secreting itself 
beneath stones or rubbish, it watches the approach of a Pomotis, 
mud-minnow, frog or other small-sized tenant of the water, when 
it darts with sudden rapidity upon its unprepared victim, grasps 
the creature with its strong, clasping fore-legs, plunges its deadly 
beak deep into the flesh, and proceeds with the utmost coolness to 
leisurely suck its blood. A copious supply of saliva is poured into 
the wound, and no doubt aids in producing the paralysis which so 
speedily follows its puncture in small creatures." 

Of easily accessible articles in which the habits and fish-eating 
propensities of aquatic hemiptera are noticed, probably the most 
interesting, on account of its popular, simple style and because 
it deals with American insects, is the paper by Glover^ in the 
Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Agriculture for the year 1875. 
This paper is entitled " Heteroptera, or Plant-Bugs," but deals 
with many bugs that either suck the juices from plants or animals, 
or that are entirely rapacious, as are most water-bugs, depending 
for their nutriment entirely on the blood of other animals. 

The rapid extension of fish culture has called attention to the 
attacks made upon fishes by their enemies. It is quite likely that 
the requirements of fish culture itself, such, for example, as associ- 
ating together in the same pond of large numbers of fishes of 
about the same size, has furnished conditions that have permitted 
the increase of the actual number of the hemiptera that prey upon 
them. The abundance of food for water-bugs in a pond stocked 
with small fishes only, and the absence of larger fishes to devour 
the bugs while the latter are still quite young, may both contribute 
to the welfare and increase of the bugs. 

That the loss of fish due to these insects is considerable seems 



1886.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



69 



quite probable, because, notwithstanding their secluded habits, 
they are not rarely to be seen about ponds, sometimes even in the 
act of taking fishes. The following quotation from a letter from 
Mr. E. A. Brackett, of Winchester, Mass., Chairman of the Com- 
missioners on Inland Fisheries for Massachusetts, under date of 
Dec. IQ, 1886, will illustrate this fcict. He writes, " In October 
last, while drawing off the carp-pond, the water became very roily, 
and I noticed several young carp moving on the surface, sidewise, 
evidently propelled by some external force. With a dip-net I took 
these young fish out, and found that in ever}' case the}^ were firmly 
held by a water-bug. The fish were dead, and the bugs apparently 
had been feeding on them. I had no means of determining how 
many of these bugs were in the pond." 

The largest, and without doubt the most dangerous to fishes, of 
these water-bugs are those which belong to a family called by 
naturalists Belostomidce. It is especiall}' of these Belosfomidce 
that this paper treats. In the northeast- 
ern United States the common forms of 
these bugs belong to the genera ZaiiJia, 
Belostoma and Benacus. The accom- 
panying figure of one of the species of 
Bdostoma, which genus, in the tropics, 
contains some veritable giants in the in- 
sect line, will give a good general idea 
of the form and appearance of these in- 
sects. The species figured, B. grande, is 
found in temperate and tropical parts of 
North America, The form of insects be- 
longing to the genus Belostoma is elon- 
gated oval, and their considerably flat- 
tened form and large size serves to 
distinguish them from all the other be- 
fore-mentioned water-bugs except those 
belonging to the genus Nepa^ and from 

them they are easily distinguished by the ^^^^^^^^^^ ,.«.c?.. - After Riiey. 
fact that the body of Nepa terminates 

in a long tube formed by the apposition of two grooved appen- 
dages ; through this tube the insect obtains air for breathing, while 
the species of Belostoma have no such tube. The form in Zaitha 
is like that of Belostoma^ but the species are smaller. In Benacus, 
another closely allied genus, of which the sole species, B. Jialde- 
manum, is found in the United States, the femur of each fore-leg 
lacks the groove on its forward side, — a groove which is present in 
the species of Belostoma, and which serves for the partial reception 




70 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of the tibia when the fore-leg is folded up. The genera Zaitha and 
Benacus formerU' were conoidered to be a patt of the genus 
Belostoma. 

Insects of the family Belostomidce are abundant in nearl}^ all 
parts of the tropical and temperate zones of both hemispheres, 
except in Europe, where the}' are extremel}' rare ; but, as a general 
rule, these insects are larger the warmer the climate in which they 
live. Individual specimens of Belostoma grande are sometimes 
found in tropical America which measure four inches in length, and 
B. griseum, which is found in the northern United States, attains a 
length of three and a half inches. The young of this species when 
only two days from the egg measured, according to Packard, a 
third of an inch in length. 

The color of the species of Bdostomidce is brown, of a greater 
or less depth, or of a yellowish or a greenish shade. Partially 
covered with mud, they are quite difficult to discover. The 
sexes are not easy to distinguish from one another, except that 
females can at times be distinguished b}' the eggs which they 
carry. 

These large insects are not only provided with powerful fore-legs 
which they use to seize their pre}", and strong, somewhat oar- 
shaped hind-legs for swimming ; but, when full-grown, they have 
strong wings and are capable of long-sustained flight. By their 
flights, which, as in most aquatic hemiptera, take place at night, 
these insects pass from one pond to another. This insures them a 
wide distribution, and makes their extermination a difficult matter. 
Living, as they often do. in pools which dry out at certain seasons 
of the year, this provision for flight is a necessity of their existence. 
That these flights are often long and high is proved by the fact that 
the bugs have been found in the midst of large cities, far from any 
pond or pool, upon the roofs of three and four story blocks. It 
is probable that the}' are found in these situations from having been 
attracted to the reflecting surfaces of sky-lights, for it is well-known 
that water-beetles, with their imperfect sight, mistake large expanses 
of glass, such as are presented by green-houses, for sheets of water. 
Especially attractive, however, to these large water-bugs are electric 
lights, and notices have appeared in the daily press of the swarm- 
ing of these, as well as of other insects, about the electric lights of 
cities. In flight, as Mr. Brackett states in the letter from which I 
have already quoted, the species of BeloHomidce which he observed 
can arise directly from the surface of the water. 

These insects diS'er, according to the species, as to their mode of 
egg-laying. Some, like the common Zaitha jlnmiiu a of our northern 
waters, lay their eggs on their own backs. In my collection I have a 



I 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 71 

specimen of this species which has her back almost entirely covered 
by a nicely- arranged la^'er of elongated-oval, dark-brown eggs, which 
number over a hundred and seventy-five. These eggs are set nicely 
upon one end, and placed in transverse rows, bj^ means of a long 
protrusile tube, or ovipositor, which the insect can extend far over 
her own back. This mode of oviposilion insures the safety of the 
eggs until the young are hatched. The eggs are fastened to the 
back of the mother b}^ a ver}' thin layer of a waterproof gum 
secreted by the insect. The entire layer of eggs is apt to split 
from the insects when they are dried, and consequent!}' is rarely 
seen in collections of insects. The 3'oung bug hatches from its egg 
by means of cutting out a round lid from the top of the egg, and 
at about the time when the young brood begins to hatch the mother 
sheds the entire layer of eggs from her back, something as she would 
moult her skin during growth. It is probable that all the species of 
Zaitlia carry their eggs about with them, while, on the other hand, 
some, if not all, the specie^ of Belostoma deposit their eggs in 
masses, under boards and logs, near the margins of the pools which 
they inhabit. 

The 3'oung, upon hatching from the eggs, go immediately on their 
predaceous course, often feeding at first on young snails. As is 
true of most hemiptera — the bugs properly' speaking — the young 
diflTer little from the adults except in the absence of wings in the 
former. In Belostoma the young, however, have two claws on the 
tarsi of the fore-legs, while as adults they have onl^' one tarsal claw 
in the same place^ It is not certainlj^ known, but is likely that 
these insects reach their full growth in a year. 

In seizing upon fishes or other small animals these insects grasp 
their prey with their fore-feet, holding it firmly in their claws, then 
piercing it with their beak or proboscis ; for they only suck blood, 
not being able, as is the case with water-beetles, to eat the whole 
animal. The proboscis consists of stout horn}^ setae or bristles 
which fit closel}^ together to form a fine sucking-tube, while the ex- 
haustion is performed by means of a muscular, extensible pharynx, 
or throat. As is probably the case with all carnivorous hemip- 
tera, only living prey is acceptable to these insects. The predaceous 
water-bugs are said to destroj^ the eggs of fishes, although further 
confirmation of this statement is desirable. 

When the water-bugs attack other animals it is noticeable that 
the prey dies much quicker than it would normally do from simply 
the loss of blood consequent upon the sucking of the bug, so it is 
generally supposed that these insects inject a poisonous secretion 
through their proboscis into the wound they make. Most of these 
insects inflict quite severe stings, in self-defence, if they are handled 



72 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

too freel}^, using the proboscis for this purpose. Leidy^ describes 
the salivar}' glands of Belostoma^ which are well-developed, and it 
is undoubtedly^ the secretion of these glands that poisons the prey 
when it is pierced b}^ the proboscis. 

As will be seen from the preceding part of this paper, the de- 
struction of the bugs that attack fishes is not an easy matter. The 
water-beetles can be trapped by the use of decaying animal matter, 
of which they are ver}^ fond. I have seen a dead rat in a small 
pond surrounded b}^ a great number of these beetles (Dytiscidce) , 
and thej" prefer such food to living food. On the other hand, the 
water-bugs will take only living food, so that their entrapping by 
an}' bait would be difficult. 

The use of poison for aquatic hemiptera seems also impracti- 
cable. As hemiptera eat only liquid food which they can suck up 
through the fine tube of their proboscis, poison that would have an}^ 
effect upon them must be a liquid, a very finel^^-divided substance 
held in suspension in a liquid, a corrosive substance that will directl}^ 
attack the surface of the bug, or some substance that gives oflf 
poisonous vapors. The above remark applies to all hemiptera, 
but the destruction of aquatic hemiptera is still more difficult. In 
their case no liquid poison can be applied, because the bugs would 
not eat it, and because its mixture with the water would endanger 
the fish that it was sought to protect. For like reasons no corrosive 
substance or poisonous vapor is applicable. Water-bugs are so 
much hardier than fish that nothing dissolved in the water would 
injure them that would not prove dangerous for the fish. 

Searching for the eggs of the water-bugs might prove useful on 
a small scale, but would, of course, be useless for the numerous 
species of Zaitha^ which lay their eggs on their own backs. If the 
collection of the eggs of those species which lay their eggs in masses 
was attempted, it might be possible to cause the insects to la}^ their 
eggs under boards placed in favorable localities in shallow water, 
and the eggs could be taken from beneath the boards every few 
days and destro^'ed. This mode of destroying the eggs is offered 
as a suggestion, not having had, to my knowledge, any trial. 

Collecting the adult bugs with nets would somewhat lessen their 
numbers, but would only prove of value in small ponds, and even 
these ponds might become restocked with bugs in a single night. 
Capturing of migratory insects has little value in lessening their 
depredations, except where the capturing can be done under very 
favorable circumstances and over large areas of country. 

Keeping fish-ponds clean will certainly be of use in restraining 
the depredations of water-bugs, as they prefer to live in mud and 
rubbish, rather than in ctear water. 



1886. J PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 73 

The introduction of some insectivorons fish that will not eat the 
j^oung fishes would be the most feasible way of ridding a pond of 
these insect pests, but m}^ knowledge of the habits of fishes is not 
suflficient for me to state whether any such fish is available for use 
in our fresh-water ponds. A careful study of what is known abou4] 
the food of our fishes might reveal some species that would keep 
water-bugs exterminated from any pond into which it was intro- 
duced. Dacks are known b}^ insect-collectors to nearl}' extermi- 
nate the insects from some of the ponds which were the best for 
the collection of water-beetles before the ducks had access to them. 
Uhler mentions that, in the Harris collection bf insects, there is a 
specimen of a water-bug {Zaitha jlmnined) bearing the label, 
'' Found in great numbers in the stomach of a duck." But ducks 
might eat some of the young fishes, thus proving their uselessness 
for the purpose intended. Among the enemies of the Belos- 
tomidce maj' be mentioned little red mites, which are often seen 
attached to the joints of the bugs ; but these parasites probably 
cause their hosts but little trouble, and could not be used in any 
way as a means of their destructicm. 

The mode of destroying the water-bugs that seems to me to be 
the most feasible is by the employment of the electric light, and 
even this method, which would only pay" on a large scale, might 
fail to destroy a sufificient number of the bugs to be of practical 
value. Since the introduction of the electric light as a means of 
lighting streets, several notices have been published to the effect 
that, among other insects which are attracted to the light and 
sometimes swarm about in numbers, are the aquatic hemiptera. 
Striking against the glass v/hich surrounds the light they fall to the 
ground. Collectors of insects have taken advantage of this habit 
of the bugs, and by waiting beneath the electric lights have 
enriched their collections by capturing the fallen insects. The 
more brilliant the light the more insects are attracted to it, and on 
this account the electric light has proved much more favorable for 
collectors than gas-lights were. If the number of' bugs attracted 
to the electric light were found to be sufficient to make that a valu- 
able medium for destroying them, it would be easy to contrive a 
trap that would retain the insects after they had fallen beneath the 
light. Traps constructed on a similar principle have been used by 
insect-collectors for a long time. 

It is quite possible that an illuminated trap beneath the surface 
of the water would attract many more of the Belostomidce than 
does a light above the surface, for these insects do not often leave 
the water, apparently, except when they quit it for the purpose of 
migration. 



74 FISH AND GAME.. [Dec. 

In conclusion, it may be said that an}^ practical modes of com- 
bating such insect-pests as Btlostoma are as 3'et undiscovered. 

LITERATURE. 
1 de Geer, C. M6m. pour servir a I'hist. des ins., 1771, v. 1. 
= D [ale, J. C] Brief notices of the habits and transformations of the dragon- 
fly ; . . . (Mag. nat. hist., 1832, s. 1, v. 5, p. 517-520, fig. 98.) 

3 von MuETzscHEFAHL. Nachricht von einigen wasser-insecten an der bartsch, 
nach welchen sich die fischer bey ihren winterfischereyen richten. (Oekon. nachr. 
d. Gesells. in Schlesien, 1778, v. 6, p. 393-394; 1779, v. 7, p. 2-5.) 

4 Elles, J. The water beetle. (Mag. nat. hist., 1830, s. 1, v. 3, p. 148-149.) 

6 Dale, J. C. Small fishes are destroyed by other insects, besides the larvae of 
the dragon-flies. (Mag. nat. hist., 1832, s. 1, v. 5, p. 668.) 

6 Riley, C. V. Water-beetles destroying carp. (Bull. U. S. fish comm., 1885. 
V. 5, p. 311.) 

^ Leidy, J. Hist, and anatomy of the hemipterous genus Belostoma. (Journ. 
Acad. nat. sci., Phil., 1847, v. 1, p. 57-67, pi 10.) 

8 Glover, T. Report of the entomologist. Heteroptera, or plant-bugs. (Rept. 
U. S. Comm. agric, 1875, p. 114-136, 63 fig.) 

9 Mil>^ee, J. W. Invertebrates which prey upon fishes, reptiles and amphibia. 
(Field and forest, July, 1876, v. 2, p. 4-6.) 

10 0R3IER0D, Miss E. A. Ranatra linearis. (Entomologist, 1878, v. 11, p. 119- 
120.) 

1 [Peck.] Ranatra linearis attacking carp eggs. (Entomologist, 1878, v. 11, p. 
95.) 

^2 Turner, H. W. The Belostoma piscivorus. (Amer. nat., 1879, v. 13, p. 585 ) 

13 Turner, H. W. Beleostoma piscivorous. (Amer. nat., 1879, v. 13, p. 710-711.) 

14 Leonard, J. A. Report on the Edinburgh fisheries exhibition. (Bull. U. S. 
Fish comm., 1882, v. 2, p. 80-82.) 

15 Todd, J. E. A small Belostoma captures a fish. (Amer. nat., 1883, v. 17, p. 
548-549.) 

18 Uhler, p. R. Hemiptera. (Standard nat. hist , 1884, v. 2, p. 204-293, fig. 286- 
340.) 

Cambridge, Mass., 20 Dec, 1886. 



188G.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 75 



[E.] 



LAWS AND EESOLYES, 1886.^ 



[Chap. 163.] 
An Act to regulate the taking of Fish in North River in the county of Plymouth. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. The board of selectmen of either of the towns men- 
tioned in section four of chapter forty-four of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and eight3^-one, may, at the request of any pur- 
chaser of a riglit to fish in said river, designate in writing the place 
where said right shall be exercised on that part of the river lying 
within the limits of such town; and whoever, after notice of such 
designation, uses anj- seine or net for taking fish in the waters of 
said river, within the distance of one-third of a mile below the 
place so designated, shall be punished as provided in section six 
of said chapter. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. \_Approved 
April 27, 1886. 



[Chap. 192.] 
An Act for the protection of the Fisheries in Buzzard's Bay. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. No person shall draw, set, stretch or use any drag net, 
set net or gill net, purse or sweep seine of any kind for taking fish 
anywhere in the waters of Buzzard's Bay within the jurisdiction of 
this Commonwealth nor in any harbor, cove or bight of said bay 
except as hereinafter provided. 

Sect. 2. Any net or seine used in violation of any provision of 
this act, together with any boat, craft or fishing apparatus employed 
in such illegal use, and all fish found therewith, shall be forfeited ; 
and it shall be lawful for any inhabitant or inhabitants of any town 
bordering on said bay to seize and detain, not exceeding fort3^-eight 
hours, any net or seine found in use contiary to the provisions of 
this act, and an}^ boat, craft, fishing apparatus and fish found t .er^- 
with, to the end that the same may be seized and libelled if net d e 
by due process of law. 



76 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Sect. 3. All nets and seines in actual use set or stretched in the 
waters aforesaid in violation of this act are declared to be common 
nuisances. 

Sect. 4. Nothing contained in this act shall be construed to 
interfere with the cprporate rights of any fishing company located 
oa said ba}^ nor in any way to affect the fish weirs mentioned in 
section seventy of chapter ninety-one of the Public Statutes, nor 
the use of nets or seines in lawful fisheries for shad or alewives in 
influent streams of said hsij, nor to the use of set nets or gill nets 
in the waters of the town of Fairhaven within a line drawn from 
Commorant rock southwesterly to the buoy on West island rips 
and from thence westerly in a straight course through the buoy on 
West island ledge to the town line of Fairhaven. 

Sect. 5. Whoever violates any provision of this act or aids or 
assists in violating the same shall pay a fine not exceeding two 
hundred dollars for each offence. 

Sect. 6. District courts and trial justices shall have concurrent 
jurisdiction with the superior court of all offences and proceedings 
under the provisions of this act. 

Sect. 7. All fines received under this act shall be paid one -half 
to the complainant and the other half to the Commonwealth. All 
moneys from any forfeitures incurred under this act shall inure and 
be paid one-fourth to the informer and one-fourth to the person 
filing the libel and the other half to the Commonwealth. \^Ap- 
proved May 6^ 1886. 



[Chap. 202.] 



An Act to prohibit the Seining of Bluefish in the waters of Vineyard Sound opposite the 
towns of Barnstable and Mashpee. 

Be it enacted, etc , as follows : 

Section 1. Whoever in an}' inlet, bay or arm of the sea within 
three miles of the shore of Barnstable or Mashpee, or in the waters 
of Vineyard Sound within three miles of the shore of said towns, 
takes bluefish with a seine or net of any kind, or for the purpose of 
taking bluefish sets, stretches or draws a seine or net, shall be pun- 
ished by a fine of one hundred dollars, and shall forfeit to the Com- 
monwealth any fish so taken. 

Sect. 2. One-half of the penalty collected under this act shall 
be paid to the person or persons making the complaint, and the 
remainder to the county of Barnstable. \_Approved May 13^ 1886. 



1886.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 77 



[Chap. 234.] 
An Act for the protection of Fish in a portion of the county of Dukes County. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Whoever sets or uses, or aids in setting or using 
an}^ seine, mesh net or gill net for the purpose of catching any 
other fish than mackerel, or who shall catch anl retain b}^ such 
means an}^ other fish than mackerel, in the waters of the [towns of 
Edgartown and Cottage Qitj in the county of Dukes Count}' within 
three miles from the shores of said towns shall be punished b}" a 
fine of not exceeding two hundred dollars, one-half of which shall 
be paid to the person making the complaint ; and in addition, in 
the discretion of the court, shall forfeit to the Commonwealth all fish 
taken in said nets. 

Sect. 2. A sheriff, deputy sheriff, constable or police oflficer, 
upon view of an offence described in the preceding section, may 
without a warrant arrest the offender and make complaint against 
him therefor. 

Sect. 3. The provisions of this act shall not be construed to 
interfere with the rights of any person or persons referred to in 
section three of chapter three hundred and eighteen of the acts of 
the year eighteen hundred and eighty-four, nor with the corporate 
rights of any fishing company. \_Approved May 21, 1886. 



[Chap. 246.] 
An Act to prohibit the Shooting of "Wild Fowl in the waters in and around Nantucket. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Whoever shoots at or kills any wild fowl or any of 
the so called shore, marsh or beach birds from boats in the harbor 
and great ponds of Nantucket, and the waters in and around the 
islands of Tuckernuck, Muskeget and the Gravelly islands, shall be 
punished for each offence by a fine of twenty dollars. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. \_AppToved 
May 28, 1886. 

[Chap. 248.] 

An Act relative to proceedings for violations of the terms and conditions of Leases of 

G-reat Ponds. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. District attorneys or the commissioners on inland 
fisheries shall institute proceedings, in the name of the Common- 
wealth, against the lessees of great ponds who have failed or may 
hereafter fail to comply with the terms and conditions of their 
leases, upon the complaint of the mayor or ten citizens of any city, 



78 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the selectmen or ten citizens of an}' town wherein an}' great pond 
has been leased under the laws relating to inland fisheries. 

Sect. 2. The provisions of section seventeen of chapter ninety- 
one of the Public Statutes shall not apply to great ponds that have 
re-vested in the Commonwealth for failure to comply with the 
terms and conditions of the leases of the same. 

Sect. 3. So much of chapter ninety-one c>f the Public Statutes 
as conflicts with section one of this act is hereby repealed. ^Ap- 
proved May 28, 1886. 



[Chap. 276.] 
An Act for the better preservation of Birds and Game. ^ 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Whoever takes or kills a pinnated grouse at any 
time, or a woodcock between the first day of January and the first 
day of August, or a ruflfed grouse, commonly called partridge, 
between the first day of January and the first day of October, or a 
quail between the first day of January and the fifteenth day of 
October, or a wood or summer duck, black duck or teal, or any of 
the so called duck species, between the fifteenth day of April and 
the first day of September, shall be punished by a fine of twenty 
dollars for every bird so taken or killed. 

Sect. 2. Whoever takes or kills a plover, snipe, sandpiper, 
rail, or any of the so called shore, marsh or beach birds, between 
the first day of May and the fifteenth day of July, or a wild or 
passenger pigeon, or a gull, or a tern, between the first day of May 
and the first day of October, shall be punished by a fine of ten 
dollars for every bird so taken or killed. 

Sect. 3. Whoever buys, sells or has in possession any of the 
birds or animals named in this act and protected thereby, during 
the time within which the taking or killing thereof is prohibited, 
whenever or wherever the aforesaid birds may have been taken 
or killed, shall be punished by a fine of twenty dollars for the birds 
protected by section one, ai.d ten dollars for the birds protected by 
sections two and four : provided, lioivever, that any person, firm or 
corporation dealing in game may buy, sell or have in possession 
quail from the fifteenth day of October to the first day of May, and 
pinnated grouse, wild pigeons and any of the so called shore, 
marsh or beach birds, or of the so called duck species, at any sea- 
son, if not taken or killed in this Commonwealth contrary to the 
provisions of this act. 

Sect. 4. Whoever takes or kills any wild or undomesticated 
bird not named in sections one and two, except English sparrows. 



1^80.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. '25. 79 

crow blackbirds, crows, jaj'S, birds of prey, w^ild geese, and such 
fresh water and sea fowl as are not named in sections one and two, 
or wilfull}' destroys, disturbs or takes a nest or eggs of any wild or 
undomesticated birds, except of the birds herein exempt from pro- 
tection, shall be punished by a fine of ten dollars : lorovided^ that 
any person above the age of twentj^-one years having a certificate 
from the game commissioners or from the president of the Boston 
Society of Natural History to the effect that such person is engaged 
in the scientific study of ornithology or collecting in the interest of 
a scientific institution, may take the nest and eggs of, or at any 
season take or kill, any undomesticated bird, except woodcock, 
ruflfed grouse and quail ; but nothing herein contained shall be con- 
strued to authorize any person to enter upon private grounds with- 
out the consent of the owner thereof for the purpose of taking nests 
or eggs or killing birds ; and provided^ further^ that the game 
commissioners and the president of the Boston Society of Natural 
History may at any time revoke any certificate they have respec- 
tively issued. 

Sect. o. Whoever takes or kills a gray squirrel, hare or rabbit, 
between the first day of March and the first day of September, or 
within said time buys, sells, or ofl^ers for sale any of said animals, 
shall be punished by a fine of ten dollars. 

Sect. 6. Whoever takes or kills a game bird or water fowl, hare 
or rabbit by means of a trap, net or snare, or by the use of a ferret ; 
and whoever, for the purpose of taking or killing a game bird, 
water fowl, hare or rabbit, constructs or sets any trap, snare or 
net, or uses a ferret ; and whoever shoots at or kills any wild fowl 
or an}' of the so called shore, marsh or beach birds with or by the 
use of a swivel, or pivot gan or b}^ the use of a torch, jack or arti- 
ficial light, or pursues any wild fowl with or by aid of a sailboat or 
steam launch, shall be punished by a fine of twenty dollars. 

Sect. 7. The commissioners of inland fisheries shall be game 
commissioners also ; and their authority, personally and by deputy, 
shall extend to the protection and preservation of birds and animals 
in like manner as to fish. 

Sect. 8. It shall be the duty of every officer qualified to serve 
criminal processes, to arrest without warrant an}^ person whom 
they shall find taking or killing, or who has in possession birds or 
animals contrary to the provisions' of this act : provided^ hoivever, 
that persons engaged in the business of regularly dealing in the 
buying and selling of game as an article of commerce, shall not be 
arrested without warrant for having in possession or selling game 
at their usual places of business. Any officer who neglects or re. 



80 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. '86. 

fuses to enforce the provisions herein contained shall be punished 
by fine not exceeding twenty dollars. 

Sect. 9. All fines accruing under this act, shall be paid one 
half to the complainant and one half to the cit}' or town in which 
the oftence is committed. 

Sect. 10. Whoever takes, carries, sends or transports an}' of 
the birds or animals protected herein, out of this Commonwealth, 
the said birds or animals having been illegally taken or killed 
within this State, shall be punished by fine of twenty dollars. 

Sect. 11. Chapter ninetj'-two of the Public Statutes, chapter 
thirt3^-six of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and eight3^-three 
and all acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith are hereby re- 
pealed. ^Approved June 10^ 1886, 



TABLES SHOWING 

EETUENS OF WEIRS, SEINES AND GILL-NETS. 



82 



FISH AND GAME. 



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C. A. Caswell, 
Benj. Brazier, . 
P. P. Aken, . 
David S. Baker, 
AlvinZ. Atkins, 
David Lovell, 
Samuel G. Allen, 
J. T. Lawton, . 
Lysauder White, 
Cbas. F. Ilitt, . 
Chas. A. Tripp, 
Philip S. Tripp, 
John Mcdreass, 
Wm. E. Bearse, 





P-. 

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Newburyport, 
Gloucester, . 
Yarmouth, . 
South Yarmouth, 
Chatham, 
Mashpee, 
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South Westport, 

" Dartmouth, 
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